Date: 12.8.2017 / Article Rating: 4 / Votes: 7549
Kgr.essayninja.info #Who is god to you

Recent Posts

Home >> Uncategorized >> Who is god to you

Order Essays Online: No Plagiarism And Top Quality - who is god to you

Nov/Mon/2017 | Uncategorized



Order Essays Online: No Plagiarism And Top Quality -
Who Is God To Me- Personal Narrative: Papers - 123HelpMe com

Nov 06, 2017 Who is god to you, write my research paper for me -

Who Is God To Me- Personal Narrative: Papers - 123HelpMe com

biobiography Dissertation on New Woman Novelists (preliminary stage to Ardis's later book, see Ardis 1990). Assumes an early beginning of the modernist era. Attempts a diachronic arrangement of literary works. God To You! Provides many textual references. Ardis, Ann. Health! 1990. New Women, New Novels: Feminism and Early Modernism . New Brunswick London: Rutgers UP. Batchelor, John. 1986.

The Edwardian Novel. London: Duckworth. Beauman, Nicola. 1983. A Very Great Profession: The Woman's Novel 1914-39 . London: Virago. Beetham, Margaret. Who Is! 1996.

A Magazine of Her Own?: Domesticity and Desire in the Woman's Magazine, 1800-1914 . London New York: Routledge. Study on everyday, the development of (conservative) women's magazines in the time of 1880-1914. Boom in the 1990s: New Journalism . Change of who is images of women to a limited degree and in opposition to the New Woman : discussion of middle-class working women, modification of the image of the housewife, division of the reading public into mothers , girls , fashionable women , women at home , ladies. Culture of advertisement. Beddoe, Deirdre. 1989. Back to Home and Duty: Women Between the Wars, 1918-1939 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the situation of women between the wars. Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of emancipation, professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio.

Images of Women, influence on women writers. Bjorhovde, Gerd. 1987. Rebellious Structures: Women Writers and Essay on Drug the Crisis of the Novel 1880-1900 . Who Is God To You! Oslo: Norwegian UP. One of the few books specifically focusing on interpreting fin-de-siècle highbrow texts by women.

Textual material: four representative authors of the model theory, late 19th century - Olive Schreiner, Margaret Harkness, Sarah Grand and George Egerton. Forerunners of modernism, prepared the grounds for modernist change in terms of content and form: Authors address matters of female concern gained importance in the public consciousness at the turn of the century and shortly before. Tension between positive and negative evaluation of the New Woman as an interesting topic to narrate. Foci of you New Realisms: Scepticism, questioning of conventional values, transgression of conventional Victorian conception of genre. 'Crisis' of the novel: Breaking of conventional structures of time, plot, content and on Drug on Welfare Recipients: Necessary style. Fragmentarization of plot, anachronisms, subjectivity, internal focalization, no explicit narrator. Bjorhovde provides very detailed analyses of texts. Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and who is Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the styles activist, time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the who is god to you, topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in styles activist, realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. Brokoph-Mauch, Gudrun. 1995. Salome and Ophelia: The Portrayal of Women in Art and Literature at the Turn of the Century. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter.

466-474. Burmeister, Tereza. 1994. In Search of the Lost Woman-Time: Cross-Biographical Studies on the Construction of (Post-)Modern Gender Identity. History of European Ideas 19: 837-844. Chinitz, David. 1997. 'Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of Jazz. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach.

New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335. Feldman, Jessica. God To! 1989. Gender on the Divide: The Dandy in Modernist Literature. Walker! Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of who is publication.

Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Finney, Gail. 1989. Vernacular Architecture! Women in Modern Drama: Freud, Feminism, and European Theatre at the Turn of the Century . Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Flint, Kate 1993. The Woman Reader, 1837-1914. Oxford: Oxford UP. Study on female identity and readership.

Key words: motivation to read, responses to books, effects of reading on body and you mind, reading in different contexts (e.g. advice manuals, periodical press, fictional reading, reading practices). Considers various discourses: chapter on medical, physiological and psychoanalytic theory. Provides information on the material read: helpful source for lesser known primary literature (novels and health model documentary texts). Gale, Maggie B. 1996. West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and the theatre. Describes the significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and 1962. Who Is God To! After winning the vote, women were on the advance in Essay, every sector.

Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background. Topics of interest: profession and god to family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. Bacchae Essay! 1993. Who Is God To! Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. Essay Testing Recipients:! London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on who is you, literary representations of the health theory, New Woman. Analysis is who is, not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers.

Hall, Lesley. A. 1991. Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Vernacular Essay! Study on men and sexuality. Depicts different perspectives on how male sexuality is constructed.

Grounds on biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment. Horn, Pamela. 1995. Women in the 1920s. Stroud: Alan Sutton Publishing. Jeffreys, Sheila.

1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the image of the spinster. Who Is You! Pays critical attention to the so-called sexual liberation in modernism from everyday use alice a gender-oriented perspective. Main point: sexual liberation applied for men, could be counter-productive for women - negative effects on women: enormous pressure to do sexually well, blurred boundaries between sexual liberation (for men) and sexual obligation (for women). Ergo: diverse feminist reactions to sexual liberation: Purity Movement: postulated the spiritual nature of love, chastity as liberty (images of women: spinster , frigid women , lesbian ), Free Love: Sexuality increases in value, this became especially true for extra-marital love. Yet the problem of sexual obligation remained.

Revolt against male harassment: prostitution, child abuse. Joannou, Maroula. Who Is God To! 1994. 'Nothing Is Impractible for a Single, Middle-Aged Woman with an Income of her Own': The Spinster in Women's Fiction of the 1920s. In: Sybil Oldfield, ed. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945 . London: Taylor Francis. 175-191. Paper on the 1920s image of the Essay on Drug Necessary or Costly?, spinster in English culture and literature (May Sinclair, Katherine Mansfield, Ivy Compton-Burnett, Sylvia Townsend Warner, F.M. Mayor). Discusses fears of society's feminisations through the who is, demographic 'redundancy' of women and contrasts these with the actual economic and familial situation of the majority of English spinsters. Joannou, Maroula.

1995. 'Ladies, Please Don't Smash These Windows': Women's Writing, Feminist Consciousness and Social Change 1918-38 . Oxford Providence: Berg. Study on women writers between 1918 and 1938. Covers a wide spectrum of female authors, some established and some less established. Bacchae Essay! Less established writers: Vera Brittain, Leonora Eyles, Radclyffe Hall, Sylvia Townsend Warner, E.H. Young. Established writers: Virginia Woolf, Dorothy Richardson, Elizabeth Bowen, Rosamond Lehmann, Rebecca West. Further textual material considered: Anti-fascist writings.

Study contains a detailed chapter on the image of the spinster and gives relevant textual examples. Kent, Susan. 1987. Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on who is god to, the role of sexuality in first wave feminism and its ideological context.

Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview). Women's vote as a symbol of objectives sexual liberation. God To! Further foci: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Laity, Cassandra. 1996. H.D. and the Victorian Fin de Siècle : Gender, Modernism, Decadence . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Ledger, Sally. 1997. The New Woman: Fiction and Vernacular Essay feminism at the fin de siècle. Manchester New York: Manchester UP. Study on you, the New Woman: supplementary to Ardis (1990).

Complex and contradictory definition of New Woman: New Woman as a textual phenomenon in magazines and novels, as a trigger of controversial public debate. Detailed contextualization: women's liberation movement in its relation to socialism, imperialism and the debate over sexuality ( purity movement vs. decadence), theories on lesbian love, New Woman as a phenomenon of the Bacchae Essay, city. Classification of the New Woman novel in literary-historical terms: shows a multitude of literary forms, only who is partially to be classified as modernist. Melman, Billie. Bacchae Essay! 1988. Women and the Popular Imagination in the Twenties: Flappers and Nymphs . London: Macmillan. Study on who is, images of women in the 1920s. Images dominating the public consciousness: flapper and surplus woman. Analysis of a very broad spectrum of popular literature (broad in terms of reception rather than sales figures).

Key words: best-seller, serial fiction, book business and magazines. Milgram Knapp, Shoshana. 1996. Revolutionary Androgynity in the Fiction of 'Victoria Cross'. In: Kaplan, Carola M. Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St. Everyday Use Alice! Martin's Press. 3-19. Miller, Jane Eldridge. 1994. Rebel Women: Feminism, Modernism and the Edwardian Novel . London: Virago.

Study on the feminist movement in god to, the context of the modernist era. Revision of the literary canon: Provides a discussion of on Drug on Welfare Recipients: Necessary or Costly? women's novels between 1900 and 1914, a period often neglected in literary criticism. Describes the who is god to, transitional period of learning styles activist literary modernism: Thematic innovations and formal modification of traditional narration. Attempts of independent female development and criticism of women's role in society replace the who is, traditional courtship plot. Critical reflection of marriage. Discussion of (new) images of women. Or Costly?! Genre: predominantly suffragette novels. Considers the socio-cultural context of the literary texts. Ouditt, Sharon. 1994.

Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in the First World War . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and World War I. Starts out focusing on a description of women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories). Continues to approach the topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and who is novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is granted a major role in this context. Areas of discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in the house in war literature. Critical reflection on everyday, the war and god to you women's roles in postwar fiction. Image of the mother as a preserver of Bacchae Essay life. Feminist pacifism.

The shock experience of war and the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to who is god to identity. Discussion of the influence of Bacchae Essay World War I on god to, society and literature as part of objectives modernism. Pumphrey, Martin. 1987. The Flapper, the Housewife and the Making of Modernity. Cultural Studies 1.2: 179-194.

Pykett, Lyn. 1992. The Improper Feminine. The Woman's Sensation Novel and the New Woman Writing. London: New York: Routledge. Study on femininity and who is women's writing. Genre: Sensational novel and New Woman novel between 1860 and 1900. Points to their subversive and emancipatory aspects.

Canon-revisionary impact: Pykett stresses the importance of the sensational novel and the New Woman novel for everyday use alice literary history. Forerunners of god to you modernist authors such as Woolf and mcdonalds Richardson. Considers formal aspects of subversion: Sensational novel depicts female stereotypes, yet subverts them by introducing female protagonists deviating from traditional gender norms. New Woman novel subverts on the level of narration and plot: non-realistic, impressionist, episodic. Pykett's study is a source for less established primary literature.

Pykett, Lyn. 1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in the Early Twentieth Century . London etc.: Edward Arnold. Study proceeds from literary history focusing on novels. Introduces established modernist writers on the basis of the gender crisis at the time (relatively selective). Deals with New Woman writing, psychological theories, Dora Marsden's The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist and the phenomenon of degeneration as a result of mass society. Defines literary modernism quite restrictively: modernism as a programme of literary aesthetics, experimentation and formation of a canon, period beginning in 1890. Provides critical discussion of arguments against a feminist revision of the modernist canon.

Showalter, Elaine. God To! 1990. Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at health the Fin de Siècle. London: Bloomsbury. Study on gender concepts at the fin de siècle . Breaking of god to traditional roles. Key words: theories on sexuality, naming of homosexuality, multiple personalities (Jekyll/Hyde), reflection on physicality in terms of dissecting bodies (Jack the Ripper), venereal diseases, aestheticization of sexuality, concepts of decadence, images of women (New Woman, surplus woman). Simpson, Anne B. 1996.

Architects of the Erotic: H.G. Wells's 'New Women'. In: Kaplan, Carola M. Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St. Martin's Press. 39-55. Stern, Katherine. 1987.

The War of the Sexes in British Fantasy of the Suffragette Era. Health Belief Model Theory! Critical Matrix 3.1: 78-109. Study dealing with differences of male and female utopian fiction. Who Is You! Genre: drama and novel. Focus is on women's concerns: 'female' defence and 'male' rejection. Mcdonalds Objectives! White, Cynthia L. 1970.

Women's Magazines 1693-1968 . London: Michael Joseph. A seminal account of the development of women's magazines. One of White's foci is the literature published in these magazines. Pages 77-117 are of particular interest. Chinitz, David. Who Is God To! 1997. Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of everyday use alice walker Jazz.

In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach. New York London: Garland Publishing. God To You! 319-335. Gitter, Elizabeth G. 1984. The Power of Women's Hair in the Victorian Imagination. Model Theory! PMLA 99: 936-954. Analyses the significance of women's hair as fetish and instrument for hypnosis in the poetic and visual imagination of the Victorians. Kaplan, Joel H. Sheila Stowell. 1994.

Theatre and Fashion: Oscar Wilde to the Suffragettes . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Who Is God To You! Study on the interrelationship of theatre and fashion: reciprocal influence. Function of showing fashionable women's clothes on stage: attracting and stimulating for audience (except in performances of Ibsen or Shaw). Semantic function of dress: social status of a character and its alteration in the course of the play ( Pygmalion ; from flower girl to lady). Symbolization of stereotypes of femininity: Woman as sex object, New Woman and Suffragette emphasize masculine markers (e.g. boots, umbrella) and reject female markers (e.g. skirts, sashes, puffed sleeves) - this is true for the stage as well as social reality.

Marvin, Carolyn. 1988. When Old Technologies Were New: Thinking about Electric Communication in the Late Nineteenth Century . New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cultural studies approach. Analyses technological innovations (the 'new media') of the late 19th century and their medial and communicative impact in Anglo-American culture. Ch. 3: Focuses on the gender-specific functionalization of the body for promoting new electronic technologies. Müller-Tamm, Pia Katharina Sykora, eds.

1999. Puppen. Körper. Automaten: Phantasmen der Moderne. Kunstsammlung NRW, Düsseldorf: Oktagon.

Collection of essays discussing modernist representations of the puppet, the body and styles activist the automaton. The book includes a picture catalogue with short explanatory texts. The ten essays go beyond the discourse of fine arts: they show different perspectives on the subject reflecting both the boundary position of the artificial human being between art and cultural history and its transformation within contemporary art. Reynolds, Dee A. 1997. Dancing Free: Women's Movement in Early Modern Dance. In: Rado, Lisa, ed. Who Is! Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . Bacchae Essay! New York London: Garland Publishing. 247-279. Sennett, Richard. 1994. Flesh and Stone: The Body and the City in god to you, Western Civilization . New York London: W.W.

Norton. Study on use alice walker, space and bodily experience. Who Is God To You! Key words: sensory perception, movements, analogies of city and body, allocation of meaning to Essay on Drug Recipients: Necessary certain areas (public, private etc.), historical change of cities, interior rooms, increasing dimension of the private in interior rooms. Whiteley, Nigel. 1997. Whitewash, Ripolin, Shop-Girls, and Matière : Modernist Design and Gender.

In: Rado, Lisa, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 199-228. Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Who Is God To! Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the Essay on Welfare Necessary, time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception).

Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. Castle, Terry. 1993. The Apparitional Lesbian: Female Homosexuality and Modern Culture. New York: Columbia UP. Felski, Rita. Who Is You! 1995. The Gender of health model Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli.

Gilman, Sander L. 1985. Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and you Madness. Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Hall, Lesley. A. 1991. Vernacular Architecture! Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on men and sexuality. Depicts different point of who is god to you views on how male sexuality is constructed. Grounds on biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and Bacchae Essay sexual enlightenment.

Jeffreys, Sheila. 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the image of the spinster. Pays critical attention to the so-called sexual liberation in modernism from who is you a gender-oriented perspective. Main point: sexual liberation applied for men, could be counter-productive for women - negative effects on women: enormous pressure to do sexually well, blurred boundaries between sexual liberation (for men) and sexual obligation (for women). Ergo: diverse feminist reactions to sexual liberation: Purity Movement: postulated the spiritual nature of love, chastity as liberty (images of women: spinster , frigid women , lesbian ), Free Love: Sexuality increases in value, this became especially true for extra-marital love. Yet the problem of sexual obligation remained. Revolt against male harassment: prostitution, child abuse.

Kent, Susan. 1987. Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Learning Activist! Study on the role of sexuality in first wave feminism and its ideological context. Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview). Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation. Further topics: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Ledger, Sally. 1997. The New Woman: Fiction and feminism at the fin de siècle.

Manchester New York: Manchester UP. (ch. 5 on who is god to, lesbian identity) Study on the New Woman: supplementary to Ardis (1990). Health Model! Complex and contradictory definition of who is you New Woman: New Woman as a textual phenomenon in magazines and novels, as a trigger of controversial public debate. Detailed contextualization: women's liberation movement in its relation to socialism, imperialism and the debate over everyday use alice, sexuality ( purity movement vs. decadence), theories on lesbian love, New Woman as a phenomenon of the city. Who Is God To You! Classification of the New Woman novel in literary-historical terms: shows a multitude of literary forms, only partially to be classified as modernist. Essay On Drug Recipients: Necessary! Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties: Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. One field of analysis are theories of sexuality and their portrayal in 1920s English literature (D.H.

Lawrence, Joyce), the legal situation concerning homosexuality, psychology's impact on sexual 'liberation' and the attitude of the Bloomsbury Group towards sexuality. Mort, Frank. 1987 [2000]. Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-moral Politics in England since 1830. London: Routledge. Study on sexuality as represented in a medico-moral discourse. You! Discourse-theoretical approach.

Depicts the interaction between morality and medicine in the field of learning sexuality. Key words: Debate on social hygiene: purity vs. decadence. Sexuality in the context of the city. Who Is! Moscucci, Ornella. 1990. The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and Gender in England, 1800-1929. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Comprehensive study on the conception of female sexuality, proceeding from cultural history. Focus: 19th century. Important points: Historicity of gender and gynaecology, dependence on cultural context. Concepts of femininity in medical discourse.

Gender difference explained physically and psychologically. Discussion of bisexuality and hermaphroditism. Further foci: Darwinism, environmentalism, degeneration, anthropology. Rado, Lisa. 2000. The Modern Androgyne Imagination. A Failed Sublime. Charlottesville and London: UP of use alice Virginia.

Showalter, Elaine. 1990. Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at the Fin de Siècle. London: Bloomsbury. Study on gender concepts at the fin de siècle . Breaking of traditional roles. Key words: theories on sexuality, naming of homosexuality, multiple personalities (Jekyll/Hyde), reflection on who is you, physicality in terms of dissecting bodies (Jack the learning activist, Ripper), venereal diseases, aestheticization of who is sexuality, concepts of decadence, images of women (New Woman, surplus woman). Weeks, Jeffrey. 1985.

Sexuality and its Discontents: Meanings, Myths Modern Sexualities . London: Routledge Kegan Paul. Study on the development of the scientific discourse on sexuality. References to psychoanalysis, Darwinism and eugenics. A very useful collection of articles from the perspectives of natural science, social science and the humanities which provides an mcdonalds overview on the degeneration debate in the 19th and who is the early 20th centuries. Mcdonalds Objectives! The institutionalisation of the god to, degeneration debate is reflected in Essay, the light of the discourses of medicine, anthropology, and the theatre. Premises: degeneration as a counterpart to the nineteenth-century belief in progress; degeneration and regeneration as two poles of a rhetoric strategy and logical order - fact and fiction at the same time. Cf. Siegel for specific strategies of representation. God To! Carpenter, Edward. [1889] 1903.

Die Civilisation, ihre Ursachen und ihre Heilung , transl. Karl Federn. Leipzig: Hermann Seemann Nachfolger. [engl. Civilization: Its Cause and Essay Testing on Welfare Recipients: Cure ] Cultural criticism with a socialist orientation. Characterised by a harsh criticism of civilisation in you, which cultural and bio-medical discourses intermingle: contemporary English civilisation as infectious disease either culminating in death following various stages of degeneration or culminating in social stagnation. The socialist form of society as utopian potential. Dijkstra, Bram. 1986. Idols of Perversity: Fantasies of Feminine Evil in the Fin de siècle. New York, London: Oxford UP. Everyday Use Alice Walker! Study on representations of femininity in who is god to you, the late 19th century, proceeding from art history.

References to literature and other cultural discourses of the time. Of particular interest in this context: motif of the self-sufficient Narcissa , a degenerate/deviant woman (due to her auto-eroticism) subverting the conventional image of altruistic femininity. Reference to her criminal disposition (Lombroso), Narcissa as a potential danger to male identity in sexological theory (Moll, Feré, Krafft-Ebing). Doyle, Laura. 1994. Bordering on learning styles activist, the Body: The Radical Matrix of Modern Fiction and Culture . New York Oxford: Oxford UP. Fuchs, Stefan F.-J. 1992.

Dekadenz: Versuch zur ästhetischen Negativität im industriellen Zeitalter anhand von Texten aus dem französischen und englischen Fin de siècle. Heidelberg: Winter. Philosophically oriented dissertation on decadence. Rejects an historical approach to the literary texts of decadence, rather, uses them as a basis for historical and philosophical reflections on pre-modern developments in the 19th century. Crucial points: the radically negative connotation of the term decadence, as opposed to its appropriation as a means to counter an optimistic bourgeois belief in progress. Greenslade, William.

1994. You! Degeneration, Culture and the Novel, 1880-1940. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Hurley, Kelly. 1996. The Gothic Body: Sexuality, materialism, and degeneration at the fin de siècle. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Kline, Salli J. 1992. The Degeneration of everyday Women: Bram Stoker's 'Dracula' as Allegorical Criticism of the 'Fin de Siècle' . You! Rheinbach-Merzbach: CMZ-Verlag. Architecture! Study of Bram Stoker's Dracula analysing the novel in god to, relation to Nordau's cultural criticism and Lombroso's theory on atavism, degeneration, innate criminal disposition and 'moral insanity'. Main thesis: Stoker's novel shows a constant blotting out Bacchae Essay, of the sensus literalis by a sensus allegoricus with the latter serving as an instrument of an ultra-conservative (also in terms of gender), reactionary polemic against ongoing changes of who is you consciousness and social changes of the belief theory, period. Link-Heer, Ursula. 1986. 'Le mal a marché trop vite.' Fortschritts- und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Spiegel des Nervositäts-Syndroms. In: Wolfgang Drost, ed. Fortschrittsglaube und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Europa des 19. Jahrhunderts: Literatur - Kunst - Kulturgeschichte . Heidelberg: Winter. 45-67. Valuable historical overview on the cultural significance and medical diagnosis and treatment of nervous illnesses in the 19th century.

Main theses: a) these kinds of diseases have always been read as cultural pathologies, i.e. as symptoms of cultural crisis; b) there has been no clear-cut temporal succession of notions of progress and of decadence but both have always been closely interwoven. You! The study places degeneracy (nervous exhaustion) in the cultural context of the time, as one of the illnesses of the peripheral nervous system. Investigates modern nervousness as a syndrome and manner of self-description of an industrial culture striving after expansion and Bacchae Essay progress. Who Is! Considers psychiatric writings of the 19th century (Erb, Morel, Beard). Mehnert, Henning. 1986. Zur Bedeutung der Begriffe 'symbolisme', 'décadentisme' und 'dégénerescence' im 19. Jahrhundert. In: Wolfgang Drost, ed. Fortschrittsglaube und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Europa des 19.

Jahrhunderts: Literatur - Kunst - Kulturgeschichte . Heidelberg: Winter. 75-84. Study traces concepts of decadence back to Montaigne and Rousseau and analyses the later tendency to individualise and psychologize these notions (starting with Morel). Focus on Morel's prototypical study: the medico-psychiatric component of degeneration, which is also analysed in Magnan, Lombroso, Gobineau, Nordau and, as a literary premise, in Baudelaire and Huysmans. Nordau, Max. 1993. Degeneration . Lincoln, New York: University of Nebraska Press. Health! [Original: Entartung , 2 vols. Berlin: Carl Duncker, 1892/93].

Study in who is you, two volumes by Max Nordau, a doctor and cultural theorist, first published in German, from 1895 onward also available in an English translation. A scandalous success at the time, one of the best known works in the debate on degeneration. It is on Drug Necessary, a poignant, and at times openly polemic attack against certain tendencies in the arts: Decadence, aestheticism, symbolism (among others) are classified as degenerate (in a physiological and mental sense). Nordau's argumentation is based on his medical knowledge and on the criminological theories of Lombroso. Criticism of civilisation is expressed in the form of apocalyptic scenarios ('the dusk of nations') and, for the first time, presented as a concern of doctors and, especially, psychiatrists. Phenomena of degeneracy (intellectual, moral or physical) become the object of who is god to psycho-pathology.

For Nordau, mysticism and egomania count as typical symptoms of the degenerate artist, for which he offers methods of Testing Necessary diagnosis and even suggestions for therapy. Nordau's study is an attack in scientific disguise against intellectuals and who is is directed against personalities like Wagner, Nietzsche, Ibsen, Swinburne, Huysmans or Wilde. Pick, Daniel. 1989. Faces of Degeneration: A European Disorder, c. 1848-c. 1918 . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. A sociological study, well-documented and thoroughly researched. Architecture Essay! Provides important information on the concept of degeneration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Pick predominantly analyses scientific and pseudo-scientific documents of the time, but also considers literary examples.

Study covers texts from you all over Europe but lacks any explicit reflection on the interrelation between degeneration and Bacchae Essay gender. Pykett, Lyn. 1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in the Twentieth Century . London, etc.: Edward Arnold. God To You! Feminist study on the interdependence between constructions of femininity and degeneration: The New Woman as cause and symptom of cultural degeneration and as 'cure for social evils'; like the homosexual, the New Woman is an Essay Testing on Welfare Recipients: or Costly? example of the transgression of god to you gender boundaries (illustrated also in Bacchae Essay, exterior appearance: body and style); effects: pathological allocations of sexual excess, degeneration, denial of who is femininity. Urban mass culture and society as a product of feminisation. Feminism as a symptom of degeneration. Emerging concepts of regeneration within the feminist debate. Rose, Jonathan.

1986. The Edwardian Temperament 1895-1919. Athens/Ohio, London: Ohio UP. Study on the change of values in the Edwardian period, proceeding from cultural and literary history (however, literary texts are generally only discussed on a surface level, and the category of gender is reflected in a rather uncritical manner, if at objectives all). Who Is God To You! Aspects of interest: religious (and moral) crisis, the secularisation of Bacchae Essay spirituality and the emergence of surrogate religions, the 'quest for god to you otherness', the idealisation of interpersonal relations and in objectives, particular homoeroticism, the cult of god to vitality as a reaction to late Victorian decadence, the motif of the learning activist, illegitimate child and the unmarried mother, the efficiency movement and eugenics, the Edwardian culture of leisure and fun. Schulte, Christoph. 1997. Psychopathologie des Fin de siècle : Max Nordau: Der Kulturkritiker, Arzt und Zionist. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer.

Revised postdoctoral thesis based on the unpublished works of god to Nordau (mainly letters, researched for the first time). A comprehensive study, structured biographically. Theoretical approach: rejects deconstruction, favours Foucauldian discourse analysis. Content: Analysis of the interconnected strands within intellectual history 1870 to 1920. Shows the mcdonalds, lasting effects of scientific positivism on social theories, psychology and medicine as well as the who is you, transfer of psycho-pathological findings into the field of civilisation and art criticism through terms like decadence and degeneration. Shaw, George Bernard. Objectives! 1932 [1908]. The Sanity of Art: An Exposure of the Current Nonsense about Artists Being Degenerate.

In: Major Critical Essays . London: Constable. 281-332. Polemic response to Nordau's Degeneration from the perspective of the artist. Shaw refutes Nordau's arguments by showing up their inherent paradoxical and unscientific nature and thus attacks Nordau at his weakest point, i.e. his attempt to legitimise his theories with the help of medical science. Siegel, Sandra. 1985. Literature and Degeneration: The Representation of 'Decadence'. In: Edward J. Chamberlain Sander L., Gilman, eds. Degeneration: The Dark Side of Progress.

New York: Columbia UP. 199-219. Trotter, David. 1993. The English Novel in History . London, New York: Routledge. (ch.7) Short outline of the history of degeneration theory focusing on the origins of degeneration in the natural sciences and who is god to medicine, its Darwinist basis, the classification of degenerative symptoms, the emergence of a discourse of degeneration in the cultural and literary theory of the model, late 19th century. Important points in the literary context of degeneration: popularity of a 'plot of decline, of physical and you moral exhaustion' in naturalistic fiction (also in so-called slum fiction). Degeneration as a topic in the new woman novel and Essay on Drug Recipients: Necessary likewise in popular fiction. Bland, Lucy.

1995. Banishing the Beast. English Feminism Sexual Morality. Who Is! 1885-1914. London et. al: Penguin Books. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of Bacchae Essay feminism and sexual morality around the who is you, turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at Bacchae Essay least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material.

Part One: historical and scientific background of the who is god to you, topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in Essay on Drug, realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of god to sexual identity. DiQuinzio, Patrice Iris Marion Young, eds. 1997. Feminist Ethics and Social Policy . Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP.

A slightly heterogeneous collection of essays focusing on examples of practised (feminist) morality. Requires knowledge of the theoretical discussion. Provides articles on the following topics: politics, medicine, health system, military, immigrants, AIDS, pornography and abortion. Main focus: the situation in the United States. Dreitzel, H.P. 1972. Die gesellschaftlichen Leiden und das Leiden an der Gesellschaft: Vorstudien zu einer Pathologie des Rollenverhaltens. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke. A study on health theory, subjectively perceived marginality and its psycho-pathological and socio-pathological causes from the perspective of social psychology. Suggested approach: role theory.

Of particular interest: Dreitzel's notion of 'Anomie' (= total lack or confusion of norms), which he derives from the god to, history of Bacchae Essay sociology and supplements with his own concepts of interaction and role identity. Gilligan, Carol. 1982. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development . Cambridge, Mass. Who Is You! London: Harvard UP. Probably the most influential feminist study on the topic of morality. Takes Lawrence Kohlberg's model of moral development as a starting point. Exposes Kohlberg's argumentation as male-centred. Modifies his theory with the help of theory object relations theory to account for gender differences. Gilligan's work is based on empirical studies. Her main thesis: due to disposition and experiences of socialisation, men/boys tend to an ethic of justice whereas girls/women typically internalise an ethic of who is god to you care . Testing Recipients:! Gilman, Sander L. 1985.

Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness. Ithaca London: Cornell UP. God To! Hall, Lesley. A. 1991. Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on men and sexuality. Depicts different point of views on how male sexuality is constructed. Grounds on biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment. Harrison, Beverley Wildung.

1985. Making the Vernacular architecture, Connections: Essays in Feminist Social Ethics, ed. Carol S. Robb. Boston: Beacon Press. A collection of essays (written between 1972 and 1985) on the feminist discourse of you ethics and architecture Essay Christianity. Approach: theologically oriented social history. Harrison's ethics is characterised as feminist socialist Christian in Robb's preface. Harrison sets a universalist Christian ethics against the ideas of Carol Gilligan. Advocates an equality feminism pleading for 'objectivity' of the feminist perspective. Hekman, Susan J. 1995. Moral Voices, Moral Selves: Carol Gilligan and Feminist Moral Theory . Cambridge, Oxford: Polity Press.

In-depth discussion of the work of who is you Carol Gilligan offering various readings of health belief her work. The study also provides a critical analysis of the meaning of morality in a poststructuralist context (Foucault, Lyotard et al.). Documents a significant conceptual shift in the morality debate, which has lost theoretical impact through the influence of other academic disciplines. Hekman favours a gender-oriented reconceptualization of moral theory that would take its pluralistic approach from discourse analysis. Jakobsen, Janet R. 1998. Who Is! Working Alliances and the Politics of Difference: Diversity and Feminist Ethics . Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. Study on feminist practices of alliance politics . Rejects notions of female unity as an belief model theory axiomatic base. Discards the feminist difference hypothesis.

Argument proceeds from postmodern theoretical debates: ethics as a field of complex negotiations; agency as a basis for alliance politics. Jeffreys, Sheila. 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and Sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. A very useful study which questions critically the general presumption of sexual liberation in the modernist period, a development which continues to be regarded as one of the most characteristic and influential within the who is god to, modernist context. Jeffreys shows that the emergence of sexology by no means meant that women experienced sexual liberation. Quite the opposite, according to Jeffreys, it helped to force women into male-dominated heterosexual patterns. Mort, Frank. 1987 [2000]. Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-moral Politics in England since 1830. London: Routledge.

Study on sexuality as represented in health theory, a medico-moral discourse. Discourse-theoretical approach. Depicts the who is you, interaction between morality and medicine in the field of sexuality. Key words: Debate on Bacchae Essay, social hygiene: purity vs. decadence. Sexuality in the context of the city. Moscucci, Ornella. 1990. The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and Gender in England, 1800-1929. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Comprehensive study on the conception of female sexuality, proceeding from cultural history.

Focus: ed. century. Important points: Historicity of gender and who is gynaecology, dependence on cultural context. Concepts of femininity in medical discourse. Gender difference explained physically and Essay Testing Recipients: Necessary psychologically. Discussion of bisexuality and hermaphroditism.

Further foci: Darwinism, environmentalism, degeneration, anthropology. Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud, ed. Who Is! 1995. Weibliche Moral: Die Kontroverse um eine geschlechtsspezifische Ethik . München: dtv. Essay collection which discusses critically and Bacchae Essay systematically Carol Gilligan's notion of a gender-specific morality (female ethics of care vs. male ethics of who is god to you justice ). Covers work by Butler, Gilligan, Harding, Habermas. Some of the on Welfare Recipients: Necessary, articles were previously published. Singer, Mona. 1996. Weibliches Subjekt und Gastfreundschaft: Ende und Anfang einer Moral.

In: Ruthard Stäblein, ed. Moral: Erkundungen über einen strapazierten Begriff. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. 118-139. Stäblein, Ruthard, ed. 1996. Moral: Erkundungen über einen strapazierten Begriff. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. Relatively heterogeneous collection of essays, partly in form of interviews.

Includes articles by who is Baudrillard and Blanchot. Points of interest: morality's myths of learning styles origin, gender difference and morality (Nitzschke, Singer), Foucault's notion of morality. Weeks, Jeffrey. Who Is! 1985. Bacchae Essay! Sexuality and who is you its Discontents: Meanings, Myths Modern Sexualities . Architecture Essay! London: Routledge Kegan Paul. Study on the development of the scientific discourse on sexuality. References to psychoanalysis, Darwinism and eugenics.

Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and who is god to Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the Testing Recipients: Necessary or Costly?, turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at who is least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time.

The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Bacchae Essay! Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on who is god to you, the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985. Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487. Article on the suffrage movement in the context of World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes.

Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by women. Dyhouse, Carol. 1989. Feminism and the Family in England 1880-1939 . London: Blackwell. Study on family and marriage from a woman-centred perspective.

Textual material: basically (auto)biography, but also some novels. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history.. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication.

Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Garner, Les. 1984. Stepping Stones to Women's Liberty: Feminist Ideas in the Women's Suffrage Movement 1900-1918. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP. Kent, Susan. Essay On Welfare Necessary Or Costly?! 1987. Sex and Suffrage in who is god to you, Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on the role of sexuality in first wave feminism and everyday its ideological context.

Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview). Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation. Further topics: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Lyon, Janet. 1992. Militant Discourse, Strange Bedfellows: Suffragettes and Vorticists before the War. differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 4.2: 100-133. Article on the suffrage movement and developments in you, art before World War I. Discusses analogies and interactions between militant suffragettes and radical artists of the avant-garde (e.g. vorticists, futurists). Key words: militancy, iconoclasms, feminist delimitation and self-marginalisation, polarizing tendencies and linguistic unambiguity in feminist pamphlets and manifestos. Lyon, Janet. 1994/95. Women Demonstrating Modernism.

Discourse 17.2: 6-25. Stowell, Sheila. 1992. Bacchae Essay! A stage of god to their own: Feminist playwrights of the suffrage era . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Stowell, Sheila. 1996.

Suffrage critics and political action: a feminist agenda. In: Michael R. Booth Joel H. Kaplan, eds. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 166-184. Bjorhovde, Gerd. 1987. Rebellious Structures: Women Writers and the Crisis of the Novel 1880-1900 . Oslo: Norwegian UP. One of the few books specifically focusing on interpreting texts of high literary One of the Bacchae Essay, few books specifically focusing on interpreting fin-de-siècle highbrow texts by women. Textual material: four representative authors of the late 19th century - Olive Schreiner, Margaret Harkness, Sarah Grand and George Egerton.

Forerunners of modernism, prepared the grounds for modernist change in terms of content and form: Authors address matters of female concern that emerged in the public consciousness at the turn of the century and who is god to shortly before. Tension between positive and negative evaluation of the New Woman as an interesting topic to narrate. Foci of New Realisms: Scepticism, questioning of conventional values, transgression of conventional Victorian conception of genre. Health Belief! 'Crisis' of the novel: Breaking of you conventional structures of time, plot, content and style. Fragmentarization of plot, anachronisms, subjectivity, internal focalization, no explicit narrator. Bjorhovde provides very detailed analyses of texts.

Burke, Carolyn. 1984. Architecture Essay! Getting spliced: Modernism and Sexual Difference. American Quarterly 39.1: 98-121. Burmeister, Tereza. 1994. In Search of the Lost Woman-Time: Cross-Biographical Studies on the Construction of (Post-)Modern Gender Identity. History of European Ideas 19: 837-844. DeKoven, Marianne.

1991. Rich and Strange: Gender, History, Modernism . God To! Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Belief Model Theory! Study on Gender, History and Modernism (DeKoven's periodization: 1890-1930). Based on Derrida's concept of two co-existing paradoxes ( sous-rature ). Main point: male and female authors are afraid of revolutionary literary changes for different reasons: on the male side it is fear of losing one's power position, on god to you, the female side it is Vernacular, fear of being punished. Textual material: analysis of who is god to you canonized texts. Criticism: DeKoven's study is partially difficult to comprehend.

Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Everyday Use Alice! Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of who is you publication. Architecture Essay! Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Friedman, Ellen G. Miriam Fuchs, eds.

1989. Breaking the who is, Sequence: Women's Experimental Fiction . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Gale, Maggie B. 1996. West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . Testing Recipients: Necessary Or Costly?! London New York: Routledge. You! Study on women and the theatre. Describes the significant participation of female authors in walker, the theatrical world between 1918 and 1962. After winning the you, vote, women were on the advance in every sector.

Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background. Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. On Welfare Recipients: Necessary Or Costly?! London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is god to, not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents.

Deals with established and less established writers. Gardner, Viv Susan Rutherford, eds. 1992. The New Woman And Her Sisters: Feminism And Theatre 1850-1914 . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar, eds. 1986. The Female Imagination and everyday walker the Modernist Aesthetic . New York etc.: Gordon Breach. God To You! Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. 1988. No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century.

Vol. I: The War of the everyday, Words . New Haven: Yale UP. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. 1988. No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in who is god to you, the Twentieth Century. Vol. II: Sexchanges . New Haven: Yale UP. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. 1988.

No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. Vol. III: Letters from the Front . New Haven: Yale UP. Griffin, Gabriele, Ed. 1994.

Difference in View: Women and Modernism . London: Taylor and Francis. Ingram, Angela Daphne Patai, eds. 1993. Essay On Welfare! Rediscovering Forgotten Radicals: British Women Writers, 1889-1939 . Who Is God To! Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press. Essay collection on radical feminist socialist women writers between 1889 and Recipients: Necessary 1939. Textual material: novels in general (special focus on popular literature by forgotten female authors), a multitude of biographical information, New Woman novel , Romance, Utopian fiction. Distinction between middle-class and working-class authors and readers.

Topics of social criticism: birth control, marriage, alcoholism, venereal disease. Formal aspects: Modification of plot with feminist impact. Joannou, Maroula. 1995. You! 'Ladies, Please Don't Smash These Windows': Women's Writing, Feminist Consciousness and Social Change 1918-38 . Oxford Providence: Berg. Study on women writers between 1918 and 1938. Covers a wide spectrum of female authors, some established and some less established. Learning Styles Activist! Less established writers: Vera Brittain, Leonora Eyles, Radclyffe Hall, Sylvia Townsend Warner, E.H. Young. Established writers: Virginia Woolf, Dorothy Richardson, Elizabeth Bowen, Rosamond Lehmann, Rebecca West. Further textual material considered: Anti-fascist writings.

Study contains a detailed chapter on the image of the spinster and gives relevant textual examples. Light, Alison. 1991. Forever England: Femininity, literature and conservatism between the who is, wars . London New York: Routledge. Laity, Cassandra. 1996. Recipients: Or Costly?! H.D. and the Victorian Fin de Siècle : Gender, Modernism, Decadence . Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Liska, Vivian. 1995. From Topos to who is god to you Trope: Feminist Revision of Modernism. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. Learning Styles! The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 66-76. Miller, Jane Eldridge. 1994. Rebel Women: Feminism, Modernism and the Edwardian Novel . London: Virago. Study on the feminist movement in the context of the modernist era.

Revision of the literary canon: Provides a discussion of women's novels between 1900 and who is you 1914, a period often neglected in literary criticism. Describes the transitional period of literary modernism: Thematic innovations and formal modification of everyday walker traditional narration. Attempts of independent female development and criticism of women's role in society replace the traditional courtship plot. Critical reflection of marriage. Discussion of (new) images of women. Genre: predominantly suffragette novels. Considers the socio-cultural context of the literary texts. Montefiore, Janet. 1996. Men and Women Writers of the who is you, 1930s: The dangerous flood of history . London New York: Routledge. On Drug On Welfare Necessary! Useful study on lesser known authors and texts.

Textual material: works by left-wing women writers, antifascist texts, novels, autobiography and poetry. Pykett, Lyn. 1992. The Improper Feminine. The Woman's Sensation Novel and god to you the New Woman Writing. London: New York: Routledge. Study on femininity and women's writing. Genre: Sensational novel and New Woman novel between 1860 and 1900. Points to their subversive and emancipatory aspects. Canon-revisionary impact: Pykett stresses the learning styles activist, importance of the sensational novel and the New Woman novel for literary history. Forerunners of modernist authors such as Woolf and Richardson.

Considers formal aspects of subversion: Sensational novel depicts female stereotypes, yet subverts them by introducing female protagonists deviating from traditional gender norms. God To! New Woman novel subverts on the level of narration and plot: non-realistic, impressionist, episodic. Pykett's study is a source for less established primary literature. Pykett, Lyn. 1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in the Early Twentieth Century . Vernacular Architecture Essay! London etc.: Edward Arnold. Study proceeds from literary history focusing on novels. Introduces established modernist writers on the basis of the gender crisis at the time (relatively selective). Deals with New Woman writing, psychological theories, Dora Marsden's The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist and the phenomenon of degeneration as a result of mass society. Who Is You! Defines literary modernism quite restrictively: modernism as a programme of literary aesthetics, experimentation and formation of health belief theory a canon, period beginning in 1890. Provides critical discussion of arguments against a feminist revision of the modernist canon.

Quinn, Patrick J., ed. 1996. Recharting the Thirties . Who Is God To You! Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. Essay collection on the effects of World War I on society and particularly on literature. Considers neglected authors: Irene Rathbone, R.H.

Mottram, but also Rosamond Lehmann and Elizabeth Bowen. Rado, Lisa, ed. 1994. Rereading Modernism: New Directions in Feminist Criticism . New York London: Garland. Feminist collection of essays on modernism. Essays address the following topics: Dorothy Richardson as a modernist, Rebecca West as a critic, Left Bank Women and lesbian life, the work of Sylvia Townsend-Warner, women's magazines, Wyndham Lewis's Tarr (as a misogynous text). Of particular importance is Felski's article on the term 'modernism' (see above Felski 1994). Schabert, Ina. 1997. Englische Literaturgeschichte: Eine Darstellung aus der Sicht der Geschlechterforschung . Stuttgart: Kröner. Srebrnik, Patricia.

1994. The re-subjection of 'Lucas Malet': Charles Kingsley's daughter and the response to muscular Christianity. In: Donald E. Hall, ed. Muscular Christianity: Embodying the Victorian Age . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Everyday Use Alice Walker! 194-214. Canon-revisionary article on Lucas Malet (pseudonym of Charles Kingsley's daughter). Questions traditional concepts of god to you masculinity in Malet's Novels. Stowell, Sheila. 1992. A stage of their own: Feminist playwrights of the suffrage era . Ann Arbor: University of Essay on Drug Testing or Costly? Michigan Press. Stowell, Sheila.

1996. Suffrage critics and political action: a feminist agenda. God To! In: Michael R. Booth Joel H. Kaplan, eds. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 166-184. Waters, Chris. 1993.

New Women and Socialist-Feminist Fiction: The Novels of Isabella Ford and Katherine Bruce Glasier. In: Angela Ingram Daphne Patai, eds. Rediscovering Forgotten Radicals: British Women Writers, 1889-1939 . Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press. 25-42. Belief Model! Altick's seminal account of the development of the reading culture in England from the 15th to the early 20th century. Especially his chapter on Periodicals and Newspapers 1851-1900 (chapter 15) is important for an understanding of the who is god to you, background of publication practices in the modernist period.

Benstock, Shari. 1986. Women of the Left Bank: Paris, 1900-1940 . London: Virago. Bacchae Essay! An important study on women writers of the Left Bank in general. Of special interest is chapter 10: At the Sign of the Printing Press: The Role of Small Presses and Little Magazines. Unfortunately Benstock remains on a biographical and anecdotal level, introducing editors, publishers and contributors. God To! She says very little about the actual contributions. Beetham, Margaret. 1996.

A Magazine of Her Own?: Domesticity and Desire in Testing Recipients: or Costly?, the Woman's Magazine, 1800-1914 . Who Is God To You! London New York: Routledge. It is use alice, Parts III and IV (New Woman, New Journalism, the 1880s and 1890s, The reinvention of the domestic English woman: into the twentieth century) that are of particular interest. Beetham concentrates on magazines that offer alternative and reactionary discourses on women to the innovative trends of the time. She also comments on the literature that appeared in these magazines and its function. She thus offers an important view of this area of public culture that many of the modernist women reacted against.

Dennison, Sally. 1984. [Alternative] Literary Publishing: Five Modern Histories . Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. Dennison demonstrates how all sorts of non-commercial publishing - from self-publishing to small presses, university press publishing, little magazine publishing, publishing through a bookstore, and publishing through patrons - helped to further modernist literature and to make it accessible to a wider audience. In most cases such alternative publishing was the god to, only means for young authors to get their works published at all. Dennison uses Eliot, Joyce, Woolf, Nin, and everyday walker Nabokov as examples. What she fails to notice is god to you, that alternative publishing can have commerical interests, too (see Rainey 1989, 1997, 1998). Dettmar, Kevin J.H. Theory! Stephen Watt, eds.

1996. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. An important essay collection by young American scholars presenting a new perspective on and evaluation of modernist literature. They distance themselves from the traditional view of modernism as an awe-inspiring solitary fortress against a growing mass culture by showing that it was clearly rooted within commodity culture, too. Today it is difficult to god to you imagine that some senior scholars refused to contribute to styles activist this collection because they considered it inappropriate to discuss financial interests and commodity culture in connection with modernist literature. Of particular interest are the introduction and the essays by Diepeveen, Materer, and Murphy (see the respective entries). Who Is God To! Eliot, Simon. 1994. Bacchae Essay! Some Patterns and Trends in god to, British Publishing, 1800-1919 . London: The Bibliographical Society. A statistical survey of book and magazine publications in the period of 1800-1919. The data is covered in six sections: Section A The Annual Pattern of Publication; Section B The Monthly Pattern of learning activist Publication 1800-1919; Section C Subject Publishing; Section D Price Structure; Section E Periodical Publication; Section F The Background.

Unfortunately Eliot focuses mainly on the 19th century. He has nothing to say on the magazine and newspaper market in the 20th century, for example, so that his survey is only of very limited value for god to you the modernist period. Feather, John. 1988. A History of British Publishing . London: Croom Helm.

Feather offers important background information about the development of the publishing trade in Britain. Although he only focuses on commercial publishing the Bacchae Essay, study offers some useful background information about the book market in general. Of particular interest is Part IV: The Trade in the Twentieth Century in which Feather uses Stanley Unwin, Victor Gollancz and god to Allen Lane as examplary publishers. Garrity, Jane. 1999. 'Selling Culture to the Civilized': Bloomsbury, British Vogue , and the Marketing of National Identity. Modernism/modernity 6.2: 29-58. Garrity shows that the connection between commodity culture and learning styles 'high culture' was much closer than has been previously thought by demonstrating how readily the various members of the who is you, Bloomsbury group published in Vogue . Hanscombe, Gillian and Virginia L. Smyers. 1987. Writing for their Lives: The Modernist Women 1910-1940 . London: The Women's Press. Hanscombe and Smyers's seminal study on modernist women writers, editors and publishers.

Of special interest for modernist publication practices in general are Chapter 12 'The public is a stupid beast. ' Book publishing I and Chapter 13 'There is a climax in sensibility' Book publishing II in which they particularly stress the Vernacular, close connection between little magazines and the book market. They argue that in most cases of experimental writing only publication in little magazines made a later book publication possible. God To You! Jensen, Robert. 1994. Marketing Modernism in styles, Fin-de-Siècle Century Europe . Princeton: Princeton UP. Jensen does not deal with modernist literature but with art. It is nevertheless an interesting study to who is compare developments in the art world (especially the marketing of avant-garde artists) and the book market. Kaufmann, Michael.

1998. A Modernism of One's Own: Virginia Woolf's TLS Reviews and Eliotic Modernism. In: Beth Carol Rosenberg Jeanne Dubino, eds. Virginia Woolf and architecture Essay the Essay . New York: St Martin's Press. 137-155. Kaufmann shows how the place of god to you publication can be indicative of an author's conception of literature and her or his readership by comparing Virginia Woolf's and T.S. Eliot's essays. He argues that Woolf's reviews in the TLS address a much more 'common reader' than Eliot's essays in ephemeral and elitist little magazines such as The Egoist and The Little Review . Keating, Peter. 1989. The Haunted Study: A Social History of the English Novel 1875-1914 . London: Secker Warburg. A seminal social historical account of the development of the mcdonalds, contemporary bookmarket.

Keating shows what influence the conditions and changes in the bookmarket had on writers. Who Is You! Leavis, Q.D. 1932. Fiction and the Reading Public . London: Chatto Windus. Leavis's still interesting study of learning British reading habits in the 1920s. It is who is you, not only an important document because of the empirical data she offers but also as a New Critical position taking within the intellectual and Bacchae Essay literary field of the early 1930s.

Lee, Hermione. 1998. 'Crimes of Criticism': Virginia Woolf and Literary Journalism. Who Is You! In: Jeremy Treglown Bridget Bennett, eds. Grub Street and the Ivory Tower: Literary Journalism and Literary Scholarship from learning styles Fielding to the Internet . Oxford: Clarendon Press. 112-134. Lee not only gives an you overview of Virginia Woolf's journalistic work but also shows how she used journals and literary and little magazines in order to advertise her own and her friends' work as well as the Hogarth Press. McDonald, Peter D. 1997.

British Literary Culture and Publishing Practice 1880-1914 . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Unfortunately a misleading title. McDonald does not analyse the publication system in the age of transition but rather in late Victorianism. He hardly pays any attention to the authors of the 1890s. Activist! His case studies focus rather on Joseph Conrad, Arnold Bennett, and Arthur Conan Doyle without making clear why he chose these authors. Ohmann, Richard. 1996.

Selling Culture: Magazines, Markets, and Class at god to the Turn of the Century . New York: Verso. Rainey, Lawrence. 1998. Institutions of Modernism: Literary Editors and Public Culture . New Haven: Yale UP. A seminal contribution to the argument that the everyday, alleged gap between modernism and public (or even mass) culture was not as great as the modernists claimed themselves. As example cases Rainey uses the publication history of Pound, H.D., Joyce's Ulysses and Eliot's The Waste Land. One rather irritating 'flaw' of this otherwise important study is Rainey's discussion of H.D. Who Is God To! Here he leaves his seemingly disinterested position and styles activist tries to who is you show that H.D.'s recanonisation by feminist critics was a mistake since H.D.'s work does not deserve it at all (a judgement of the value of an author he does not give with respect to any of the male authors!). Wexler, Joyce Piell. 1997.

Who Paid for Modernism? Art, Money, and the Fiction of Conrad, Joyce, And Lawrence . Fayetteville: The University of Arkansas Press. Using the careers of Conrad, Joyce and Bacchae Essay Lawrence as examples Wexler demonstrates that the modernist artists' image as oppositions to you financially oriented bourgeois artists is a myth and that authors made use of this myth to further their success. She also shows that in modernism the writer's position became particularly complicated because s/he was wedged between the Romantic ideal of the genius who shows no interest in his or her market value and everyday an interest in god to you, acknowledgement (because no recognition at all is still regarded as a sign of everyday use alice failure) and being able to who is you live on one's writing. White, Cynthia L. 1970. Women's Magazines 1693-1968 . London: Michael Joseph. A seminal account of the development of women's magazines. Mcdonalds! One of White's foci is the literature published in these magazines. Pages 77-117 are of who is particular interest. Willison, Ian, Warwick Gould and Warren Chernaik, eds. 1996.

Modernist Writers and the Marketplace . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. An essay collection that deals with the conditions of publication for modernist writers, focusing on the publication histories of individual (canonised) authors (James, Yeats, Conrad, Lawrence, Woolf, Eliot, Pound, Lewis). Only Edward Bishops essay on walker, little magazines (see above) offers a more general overview on avant-garde publication practices. 291 (1915-1916, American magazine) The (New) Adelphi (1923-1955) Art and Letters (1917-1920) Blue Review (1913) Broom (1921-1924, American magazine) The Calendar of Modern Letters (1925-1927) The Chapbook (1919-1925) The Criterion (1922-1939) The Dial (1880-1929, American magazine; especially the era of Scofield Thayer's and Marianne Moore's editorship 1920-1929) The Egoist (1914-1919) The Enemy (1927-1929) (New) English Review (1908-1937) The (New) Freewoman (1911-1914) The Golden Hind (1922-1924) Life and Letters (1923-1924) Life and Letters later Life and Letters Today (1928-1950) The Little Review (1914-1929, American magazine) The London Aphrodite (1928-1929) The London Mercury (1919-1939) The Masses (1911-1917, American magazine) New Age (1894-1938; especially the who is, years of A.R. Testing Recipients: Necessary Or Costly?! Orage's editorship, 1908-1922) The New Coterie (1925-1927) The New Masses (1926-. American magazine) Others (1915-1919, American Magazine)

Open Window (1910-1911) (New) Oxford Outlook (1919-1932) Oxford Broom (1923) The Palatine Review (1916-1917) Poetry (1912-present, American magazine; especially the phase of Harriet Monroe's editorship, 1912-1935) Poetry and Drama (1913-1914) The Poetry Review (1912-present) The Scottish Chapbook (1922-1923) Secession (1922-1924; exile-American magazine published in various European cities) Time and Tide (1920-1979) [in its first phase 1920-1928 it was a little magazine] Transatlantic Review (1924-1925) transition (1927-1938, published in France and Holland) The Tyro (1921-1922) Wheels: An Anthology of Verse (1916-1921) One of the first overviews of British and American modernist little magazines and one of the bases for who is god to you Hoffman, Allen and Ulrich's (1946) bibliography. Allen especially stresses the mcdonalds, importance of little magazines as almost the only medium of publication for you experimental young authors. Anderson, Margaret. [1930] 1971. My Thirty Years' War . Westport: Greenwood Press. Margaret Anderson's famous autobiography in which she not only learning styles activist describes her unconventional life but also the development of The Little Review under her editorship. Who Is God To You! This is, of course, a very subjective account, but it nevertheless contains important information for everyday walker any study on little magazines. Anonymous.

1941. Little Mags, What Now?. The New Republic 104.13: 424. A state-of-the-art article on little magazines. Who Is You! The author discusses the Vernacular Essay, development of a little-magazine culture in America from the 1920s to the late 1930s and argues for a revival of little magazines in a 1920s fashion in order offer new authors a forum for you publication. Baker, Denys Val, ed. 1943. Little Reviews Anthology . London: Allen Unwin. An anthology of what Baker himself calls the use alice, best writing which has appeared in the little reviews and literary magazines of Britain since the outbreak of war (v).

His introduction offers some theoretical reflections on little magazines. Interesting is his choice of little magazines from which he takes the stories and poems: The Bell , Horizon , Indian Writing , New Writing , Oasis , Opus , Our Time , Now , Poetry (London), Poetry Quarterly , Poetry Review , The Bell , New Vision , Wind and the Rain , Oasis , Opus , Scythe (formerly Townsman ), and Seven . Barash, Carol. 1987. God To You! Dora Marsden's Feminism, the Freewoman , and the Gender Politics of Early Modernism. Model Theory! Princeton University Library Chronicle 49.1: 31-56. One of the first essays on the development of The (New) Freewoman / Egoist from a feminist to a literary little magazine. Barash presents this development as the who is you, story of Pound's take-over.

This assessment has changed, though (see especially Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Bennett, David. Mcdonalds! 1989. Periodical Fragments and Organic Culture: Modernism, the Avant-Garde, and the Little Magazine. Contemporary Literature 30: 480-502.

The author sees in little magazines an example for a distinction between avant-garde and modernism as proposed by Peter Bürger (1974). Publications in the ephemeral medium of little magazines are still part of an avant-garde culture, but they become modernist texts by being published in book form. This distinction has been convincingly questioned by Bishop (1996) and Rainey (1998). You! Benstock, Shari Bernard Benstock. 1991. The Role of Little Magazines in Bacchae Essay, the Emergence of Modernism. Who Is God To You! Library Chronicle of the University of learning styles Texas 20: 68-87.

An important overview of the copies of (American) little magazines at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at the University of Texas, Austin. Unfortunately the authors remain on a merely biographical level. The editors of the little magazines and their aesthetic ideas are introduced. Benstock and Benstock say very little about the exact content of these magazines. van den Berg, Hubert Ralf Grüttemeier, eds. 1998. Manifeste: Intentionalität (Avant Garde Critical Studies 11). Amsterdam Atlanta: Rodopi. A rather heterogeneous essay collection on literary manifestos (mainly European modernist ones). Theoretically the who is god to, authors base their contributions on the intentionality debate (Eco, Searle, Fish, Knapp Michaels, Hirsch).

The authors' claim that a manifesto is necessarily intentional and that its authors' intentions can be gauged from use alice walker it is quite problematic. Of particular interest are the contributions by Wolfgang Asholt (on intentional strategies in futurist, dadaist and surrealist manifestos) and by Martin A. Who Is! Kayman (on Pound and imagism). Model! Bishop, Edward. 1996. God To! Re:Covering Modernism - Format and Function in the Little Magazines. In: Willison, Gould and Chernaik, eds. 287-319.

An important overview of little magazines from the 1890s to the 1920s. Bishop pays special attention to the connection between visual and typographical design and health theory the literary contents of these magazines. He sees the different magazine as a representation of the increasing institutionalisation of modernism (in this he argues against Bennett's (1989) postulation that little magazines represent the avant-garde and not modernism). Bishop covers The Yellow Book , The Savoy , The Dial , The Little Review , Poetry , The Egoist , Blast , and Criterion . Bloomfield, B.C. 1976. An Author Index to Selected British Little Magazines 1930-1939 . London: Manssell. An additional (but by far not as comprehensive) reference to Sader, ed. (1976). Bradbury, Malcolm. 1958. The English Review . London Magazine 5: 46-57. One of the first accounts of The English Review with a special focus on the period of Ford Madox Ford's editorship.

Bradbury stresses that this was one of the few Edwardian magazines where new and experimental could publish alongside more traditional ones. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1961. The Calendar of Modern Letters : A Review in Retrospect. London Magazine n.s. 1.7: 37-47. Bradbury's attempt to revaluate The Calendar of Modern Letters as an important literary-critical review alongside The Criterion and The Adelphi . He points out that the god to, Calendar served as model for F.R. Leavis's Scrutiny (a series of critical articles in the Calendar , called Scrutinies actually gave Leavis's magazine its name). Unfortunately the Calendar 's importance is still not recognised today.

Bradbury, Malcolm. 1971. The Social Context of mcdonalds objectives Modern English Literature . Oxford: Blackwell. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976. London 1890-1920. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds.

Modernism 1890-1930 . Who Is God To You! Harmondsworth: Penguin. 172-190. This chapter is of interest because Bradbury introduces some of the important contemporary British little magazines such as Rhythm / The Blue Review , The Poetry Review , a Poetry and Drama , The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist , and Blast . Bradbury, Malcolm. 1995. Learning Activist! The Criterion. A Literary Review in god to you, Retrospect. The London Magazine 5.2: 41-54. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1999. Modernism and learning activist the Magazines.

In: Heinz Antor and you Kevin L. Cope, eds. Transcultural Encounters - Studies in English Literatures . Heidelberg: Winter. 187-313. A survey of walker little magazines which mainly remains on a positivist level, listing names of god to you magazines, editors, and Bacchae Essay contributors. Bradbury demonstrates the interconnection of the development of modernism and of little magazine. He manages to give an who is god to you idea of the diversity of magazines, but because he covers so many he does not have much space for detailed discussions of specific examples. Bradbury, Malcolm James McFarlane.

1976. Movements, Magazines and Manifestos: The Succession from Naturalism. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. 192-205. The authors show how much the various European modernist movements (especially Imagism, Vorticism, Futurism, Surrealism, Expressionism, and Dadaism) depended on little magazines as an outlet. Casford, E. Architecture! Leonore.

1929. The Magazines of the 1890's: A Chapter in the History of English Periodicals; Being a Critical Study of The Albemarle, The Yellow Book, and The Savoy, with a Brief Description of Other Literary Magazines of the 1890's (Language and Literature Series 1). Eugene: University of Oregon Press. An important overview of little magazines of the 1890s which shows how early the concept of little magazines received literary critical attention. Apart from The Albemarle , The Yellow Book and The Savoy Casford also discusses The Anti-Philistine , The Butterfly , The Dome , Hobby Horse , The Pageant and The Quarto . Clarke, Bruce. 1985. Who Is God To! Dora Marsden's Egoism and Modernist Letters: West, Weaver, Joyce, Pound, Lawrence, Williams, Eliot. Works and Days 2.2: 27-47. Bacchae Essay! An early version of parts of his seminal study on Dora Marsden (1996). Clarke, Bruce. 1992.

Dora Marsden and Ezra Pound: The New Freewoman and 'The Serious Artist'. Contemporary Literature 33.1: 91-112. An early version of parts of his seminal study on Dora Marsden (1996). Clarke, Bruce. 1996.

Dora Marsden and Early Modernism: Gender, Individualism, Science . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. An important revaluation of Dora Marsden's role in the cultural field at the beginning of the 20th century. Clarke argues that Marsden's intellectual development from suffragism to egoism mirrors in a nutshell the direction literature took at the time (a turn from who is you personal politics to an individualistic literary practice, 1). He provides a detailed account of Marsden's philosophical, political and literary influences. Other than Barash (1987) Clarke sees Marsden's change of name of health belief model theory her little magazine from god to you The (New) Freewoman to The Egoist as a voluntary one.

He thus reduces the influence Pound allegedly had on her (see also Barash 1989; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Clooney, J.P. 1938. Among the Magazines. The Phoenix 1.2: 134-150. A very critical review of a number of literary magazines of the time with quite different literary and political positions ( The Townsman , Purpose , Life and Letters Today , Poetry , The Examiner ). Interesting as a document of belief theory how little magazines were received and discussed in the contemporary literary field. Diepeveen, Leonard. 1996. 'I Can Have More Than Enough Power to god to you Satisfy Me': T.S. Eliot's Construction of His Audience. In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds.

Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. 37-60. An interesting discussion of how Eliot created his own elitist audience through his essays. Diepeveen shows the importance the ephemeral form of publication of little magazines had in this. Eliot argued that only in these smaller but literary more 'elitist' media of health theory publication could he find what he termed the qualified reader Eliot explicitly differentiated himself from editors of larger - and thus to his mind more commercial - magazines such as The London Mercury (see also Kaufmann 1998 on the difference between Eliot's and Virginia Woolf's conceptions of their readership). Dupee, F.W. 1938. British Periodicals. Partisan Review 5: 45-48. A very critical review of British little magazines. Dupee criticises their apolitical stance (which is who is god to you, not surprising considering the political position of the Partisan Review ) and at the same time stresses their ideological heterogeneity.

He also finds fault with the - to his mind - poor literary quality. He discusses The Criterion , Scrutiny , Purpose , Arena , Colosseum , Left Review , Life and Letters Today , and styles New Verse . Eliot, Thomas S. Who Is You! 1926. The Idea of a Literary Review. The New Criterion 4: 1-6. Mcdonalds! Eliot's own outline of an ideal little or literary magazine. It not only offers a contemporary perspective on you, little magazines but also reveals important information about his own conception of literature. Architecture! Emmart, A.D. 1923. The Limitations of American Magazines.

Modern Quarterly 1.3: 17-26. A very conservative critique of American little magazines and god to the literature published in them. He particularly finds fault with an alleged lack of moral and too much experimentation in the field of psychological realism. Emmart is especially critical of The Dial and The Little Review . Ferrall, Charles. 1992a. Suffragists, Egoists, and Vernacular the Politics of Early Modernism. English Studies in Canada 18.4: 433-446. Ferrall tries to show that Pound's 'take-over' of the New Freewoman and the change of name into The Egoist was not just an who is appropriation of a feminist magazine through 'phallocratic' and misogynist men but that this change reflects Marsden's development, too. He examines her turn from suffragism to a Nietzschean and Stirnerian egoism and points out some analogies between her political and philosophical writings and that of the styles activist, imagists, especially Pound (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Ferrall, Charles.

1992b. The New Age and you the Emergence of Vernacular architecture Essay Reactionary Modernism Before the Great War. Modern Fiction Studies 38: 653-667. Ferrall counters the notion that the New Age was one of the central magazines in propagating modernism in general. In contrast to Martin (1967) he argues that A.R. Orage, the editor at the time only supported politically reactionary authors such as Ezra Pound and Wyndham Lewis and you thus contributed to Essay on Drug Testing or Costly? the development of a 'reactionary modernism' only. Fletcher, John Gould. 1934. You! The Little Reviews: Yesterday and To-Day. Architecture Essay! Space 1.8: 84-86.

An contemporary account of American little magazines (1914-1929). Fletcher observes a tendency towards a proletarisation and a decentralization of American literature and culture through these new little magazines (85). He does, however, acknowledge that some of the god to you, new authors would have had no other possibility of publication. Garner, Les. Walker! 1990. A Brave and Beautiful Spirit: Dora Marsden 1882-1960 . Aldershot: Avebury. Who Is God To You! The first book-length biography of Marsden. An attempt at a revaluation of walker Marsden's role in the suffragette movement and in modernism. At times a little too subjective and anecdotal.

Of special interest are chapters 4 The Freewoman , 1911-1912; 5 The New Freewoman , June-December 1913; 6 The Egoist , January 1914-December 1919. Görtschacher, Wolfgang. 1993. Little Magazine Profiles: The Little Magazines in Great Britain 1939-1993. Salzburg: Salzburg University. Although Görtschacher focuses on little magazines of the second half of the 20th century his comments on the nature of little magazines in general are quite useful. What he offers is a descriptive discussion of various magazines and who is their editors (sometimes with interviews). It is a little odd, though, that he restricts the term 'little magazine' to poetry magazines only; his typology of little magazines is thus not very convincing. Graham, Walter. 1930. English Literary Periodicals . New York: Thomas Nelson.

A very early survey of British periodical culture from the 18th century to mcdonalds the 1920s. He only briefly touches on little magazines, though. Of particular interest in this respect are Chapter 9 The Later Reviews and the Fortnightly , Chapter 11 The weekly journal of belles-lettres , and Chapter 12 (in which he discusses among other magazines The (New) Adelphi , The Athenaeum , The Criterion , The English Review , Life and Letters The London Mercury , and the TLS ). Grant, Joy. 1967. Harold Monro and the Poetry Bookshop . London: Routledge Kegan Paul.

A biography of one of the lesser known editors of little magazines ( The Poetry Review , Poetry and Drama , The Chapbook ) and a discussion of his own poetry. Hamilton, Ian. 1976. The Little Magazines: A Study of Six Editors . London: Weidenfels and Nicolson. A much quoted study in which Hamilton focuses on an anecdotal and biographical account of The Little Review , Poetry , The Criterion , New Verse , The Partisan Review , and Horizon . Hamilton's ironical comments on contributions that he regards as inferior can be quite irritating. One severe disadvantage is who is god to, that he neither gives any bibliographical information about the quotations he uses nor offers a bibliography. Hanscombe, Gillian and Virginia L. Smyers. 1987. Walker! Writing for their Lives: The Modernist Women 1910-1940 . London: The Women's Press. Hanscombe and Smyers's seminal study on modernist women writers, editors and publishers. Of particular interest for little magazines are Chapter 10 'The stand of the individual against immensities. ' - Periodical publishing I and Chapter 11: 'Life for you Art's sake. ' - Periodical publishing II in which they discuss the role of women in little-magazine publishing.

Magazines they cover include The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist (here they hold the early feminist opinion that Pound forced Marsden into a change of name and conception of her magazine, cf. Barash), The Little Review , The Dial , Poetry , Contact , The Transatlantic Review , The Quarter , Close-up , and transitions . Hayman, Ronald. 1975. The Calendar of Modern Letters. New Review 1: 14-19. Heyl, Lawrence. 1940. Little Magazines. Activist! The Princeton University Library Chronicle 2.1: 21-6. An early attempt at a definition and description of who is god to you (American) little magazines. Interesting as a historical document.

Hoffman, Frederick J. 1943. The Little Magazines: Portrait of an Age. The Saturday Review of Literature 26.52: 3-5. One of the first overviews of British and American modernist little magazines and one of the bases for Hoffman, Allen and Ulrich's (1946) bibliography. Allen especially stresses the importance of little magazines as almost the only medium of publication for experimental young authors. Hoffman, Frederick J., Charles Allen and Carolyn F. Ulrich.

1946. The Little Magazine: A History and a Bibliography . Princeton: Princeton UP. Still the authoritative annotated bibliography of British and American little magazines. The introductory chapters are also of interest. Hoffman, Allen, and Ulrich even attempt a typology of little magazines, but mostly they remain on a positivist and anecdotal level listing dates of publication, names of editors and contributors, etc. Homberger, Eric. 1976. Chicago and New York: Two Versions of use alice walker American Modernism. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. 151-161.

Only of marginal interest for who is god to little magazines, but at least Homberger mentions the great influence of little magazines on the New York literary scene (e.g. The Liberator , Smart Set , Others , Glebe , Seven Arts , New Republic , The Freeman , Nation , Masses , The Little Review , The Dail ). Howarth, Herbert. T.S. Use Alice! Eliot's Criterion : The Editor and His Contributors. God To You! Comparative Literature 2: 97-110. Johnson, Abby Arthur. 1973/74. Mcdonalds! The Politics of who is god to a Literary Magazine: A Study of The Poetry Review , 1912-1972. Journal of Modern Literature 3: 951-964. Joost, Nicholas.

1967. Years of Transition: The Dial 1912-1920 . Barre, Mass.: Barre Publishers. A detailed study of the on Drug Recipients: Necessary or Costly?, development of The Dial from a rather conventional (literary) magazine to a platform for experimental literature under Scofield Thayer and Sibley Watson. Joost, however, argues that the literature that appeared in the Dial has been overestimated and that more radical magazines such as The Little Review did much more to further modernist writings. You! Joost, Nicholas Alvin Sullivan.

1970. D.H. Lawrence and 'The Dial'. Carbondale, Ill.: Southern Illinois UP. A detailed account of model theory Lawrence's involvement with The Dial in the course of his career. A bit too anecdotal at god to times, but still readable. Kadlec, David. 1993. Pound, Blast , and Syndicalism. Styles Activist! English Literary History 60.4: 1015-1031. Kadlec argues that the design of BLAST was informed by the development of syndicalist miner's actions in god to, Wales under Tom Mann before WW I. Mcdonalds! According to him not only the magazine's name is indebted to the worker's movement but also its visual aggressiveness and aesthetic militancy.

He also attributes Pound's radical aesthetics in this period to his interest in syndicalism (introduced to who is god to you him mainly via A.R. Orage's The New Age ). Kenner, Hugh. 1971. The Pound Era . Berkeley: University of California Press. Use Alice! Kenner's book is you, interesting as an account of Pound's involvement with The New Freewoman / The Egoist - especially if you compare it with more recent studies of this little magazine. On Drug Necessary Or Costly?! It is amazing how Kenner manages to leave out you, Dora Marsden's entirely! Knight, Melinda. 1996.

Little Magazines and the Emergence of Modernism in the Fin de Siècle . American Periodicals 6: 29-45. Knight convincingly demonstrates that little-magazine culture in America did not begin in 1912 with the appearance of Poetry , The Poetry Journal , The Smart Set and The Masses , but much earlier with fin-de-siècle magazines such as The Chap-Book , M'lle New York , The Fly Leaf , The Lark , The Philistine and others. She argues for a revaluation of these magazines' influence in the development of modernism. Lewis, Wyndham. Use Alice! 1927. Editorial notes: Art and 'Radical' Doctrines. The Enemy 2: xxiii-xxviii. Lewis's own 'position taking' in the literary field. His editorial mainly consists of a biting critique of transitions and Gertrude Stein's - to his mind - negative influence on it. Implicitly, of course, this is indicative of his own conception of literature and little magazines.

Lidderdale, Jane Mary Nicholson. 1970. Dear Miss Weaver: Harriet Shaw Weaver, 1876-1961 . London: Faber Faber. A still seminal biography of Harriet Shaw Weaver with a special focus on her role as Joyce's patron. But Lidderdale and Nicholson also touch upon her role as editor of The Egoist and publisher of The Egoist Press. Little Magazine. 1997.

Britannica CD: Version 97 . Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. A valuable first source of information on little magazines providing a definition, a list of the you, most prominent British and American little magazines, and a classification into different periods. MacKendrick, Louis K. 1972. New Freewoman : A Short Story of Literary Journalism. English Literature in Transition 15.3: 180-187. MacKendrick, Louis K.. 1975. T.S.

Eliot and the Egoist : The Critical Preparation. Dalhousie Review 55: 140-154. MacShane, Frank. 1961. The English Review . Objectives! South Atlantic Quarterly 60: 311-320. Marek, Jayne E. 1995. Women Editing Modernism: Little Magazines and Literary History . Lexington: The UP of Kentucky.

A very important feminist contribution to god to you the history of little magazines. Marek tries to show that in belief, the function of publishers and editors more women were involved in the development of modernism than traditional accounts convey. The question, however, remains why there were not more women contributors (especially in a British context). With the exception of god to Bryher, Marek focuses on American women editors and architecture Essay publishers (Harriet Monroe, Alice Corbin Henderson, Margaret Anderson, Jane Heap, Bryher, Marianne Moore) and who is has an additional chapter on Ezra Pound's role in little magazine culture. Model Theory! Marek concentrates on the editors' own writings in their magazines and their personal contacts. She says hardly anything about the set-up of particular issues or the norms and values conveyed in god to you, other contributions. Marks, Peter.

1997. Illusion and Reality: the Spectre of Socialist Realism in Thirties Literature Williams, Keith Steven Matthews, eds. Rewriting the everyday use alice walker, Thirties: Modernism and After . London New York: Longman. God To! 23-36. In his essay on British literature of the on Welfare, 1930s Marks also discusses the role of little magazines.

He distinguishes between left-wing magazines that explicitly engage in the relationship between literature and politics (such as The Left Review , New Signatures , The Adelphi , and Cambridge Left ) and god to you those magazines that are their unpolitical or conservative ( New Verse , The Criterion , Scrutiny ). Interesting for use alice walker an analysis of the development of little magazine culture. Who Is God To! Martin, Peter A. 1977. The Short Story in mcdonalds objectives, England: 1930s Fiction Magazines. Studies in Short Fiction 14: 233-240. An account of the role of little magazines ( New Writing , New Stories , Lovat Dickson's Magazine , Penguin Parade ) in the development of prose writing - especially the god to, short story - in the 1930s. Martin, Wallace. 1967. Necessary Or Costly?! The New Age Under Orage: Chapters in English Cultural History . Manchester: Manchester UP. One of the first studies on the role of the New Age in the modernist period. Martin is a little too enthusiastic in portraying The New Age as a platform for innovative and god to you experimental authors alongside BLAST and The Egoist (see for example Ferrall 1992b for a more critical evaluation of the magazine). Masteller, Richard N. 1997.

Using Brancusi: Three Writers, Three Magazines, Three Versions of Modernism. American Art 11.1: 47-66. Materer, Timothy. 1996. Make It Sell! Ezra Pound Advertises Modernism. In: Kevin J.H.

Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. 17-36. Materer shows how Pound took over advertising schemes from commodity culture in order to make Imagism and Vernacular architecture Vorticism popular. He thus discloses the allegedly unbridgeable gap between the who is, avant-garde and consumer culture as a mere modernist self-stylisation. He demonstrates how Pound used little magazines such as The Egoist , The Little Review and BLAST for his purpose and how these magazines themselves adopted methods from commodity culture advertising. Morrisson, Mark S. 1996. The Myth of the Whole: Ford's English Review , The Mercure de France and Early British Modernism. ELH 63: 513-533. Morrisson argues that Ford turned to France, i.e. the learning, Mercure de France in his outline of god to you The English Review because he saw no English equivalent that could bridge the gap between 'high' literary standards and a broad audience.

He wanted neither a typical coterie magazine nor one of the typical mass papers such as the Daily Mail . Morrisson, Mark S. 1997. Marketing British Modernism: The Egoist and Counter-Public Spheres. Twentieth Century Literature 43.4: 439-469. Essay On Drug Testing Necessary! An analysis of the development from The Freewoman as a suffragist magazine to The Egoist as a magazine of the literary avant-garde. God To! Morrisson shows that this change not only had an influence on the readership of the magazine but on advertisers as well. He argues that The Egoist folded up because in contrast to The Freewoman it failed to address a homogeneous audience (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 2001; Thacker 1993). Vernacular Architecture Essay! Morrisson, Mark S. 2001.

The Public Faces of Modernism: Little Magazines, Audiences, and Reception 1905-1920 . Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press. A seminal study of little magazines. Morrisson not only gives the typical account of little magazines' central role in the development of modernism but also analyses their relationship to what he calls the 'public sphere'. He thereby manages to demonstrate convincingly that the alleged gap between mass culture and the avant-garde is not as great as has been posited. He focuses on four British ( The English Review , Poetry and Drama , The Egoist , Blast ) and two American ( The Little Review , The Masses ) magazines (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997; Thacker 1993). Munson, Gorham. 1937. How to Run a Little Magazine. The Saturday Review of Literature 15.22: 3-4, 14, 16-17. A contemporary discussion of little magazine culture.

Munson interestingly already claims to have noticed a decline of and loss of interest in little magazines as compared with the 1920s. Murphy, Michael. 1996. 'One Hundred Per Cent Bohemia': Pop Decadence and the Aestheticization of Commodity in the Rise of the Slicks. Who Is God To! In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. 61-89. Murphy demonstrates that the connection between commodity culture and avant-garde culture was much closer than has been previously thought.

He uses Vanity Fair to show how quickly commodity culture picked up some of the features of the avant-garde. Not only did modernist authors publish in magazines such as Vanity Fair but also the advertisements in these magazines show clear influences of modernist art. Nelson, Cary. 1989. Repression and Recovery: Modern American Poetry and the Politics of Cultural Memory, 1910-1945 . Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. In his study on American poetry of the first half of the health belief model, 20th century Nelson also briefly discusses the role little magazines (including left-wing magazines and magazines of the Harlem Renaissance) played in the publication and, ultimately, canonization of who is you some of the best known authors.

He also provides an impressive variety of illustrations from little magazines. Nelson's canon debate originates in a Marxist rather than a gender-oriented position, but he discusses some lesser-known women authors, too. One great disadvantage is the structure of the book: Nelson deliberately designed it as one long essay without chapter divisions so that the reader is mcdonalds, left with the detective work of deducing from the implicit information given in the course of the study what organisational principle underlies the study. Pollack, Felix. 1976. Elitism and the Littleness of Little Magazines.

Southwestern Review 61: 297-303. Pound, Ezra. 1930. Small Magazines. The English Journal 19.9: 689-704. Pound's own position on the role and functions of little magazines. He discusses almost exclusively the who is, magazines he was involved with (and, of course, he is very critical of learning activist those he has left, such as Poetry ). He covers Poetry , The Egoist , The English Review, The Little Review , The Dial , and briefly The Criterion , transatlantic review , and transition . Rainey, Lawrence. 1989. You! The price of modernism: reconsidering the publication of The Waste Land . Critical Quarterly 31.4: 21-47. Rainey's seminal first contribution to the discussion of modernism's economic interests. He demonstrates that the question of where to publish The Waste Land was guided by financial interests.

Eliot ultimately chose the magazine ( The Dial ) that offered the most and actually made quite a lot of money. The modernists' self-stylization as artists who had no interest in financial success whatsoever thus has to be modified. Rainey, Lawrence. 1997. The real scandal of Ulysses : How literary modernism came to retreat from the public sphere. TLS (January 31): 11-13.

Rainey argues that Sylvia Beach's decision to use alice publish Ulysses was not just a selfless act of support for who is god to an avant-garde author, but was guided by Vernacular architecture Essay financial considerations as well. She consciously chose to publish Ulysses as a deluxe and who is god to you not as a limited edition. The book thus immediately became a collector's item rather than a book for a limited audience. The attention was diverted from the architecture, content to the book as object. Rhondda, Viscountess, Margaret Haig. 1933. This Was My World . London: Macmillan. Lady Rhondda's highly interesting autobiography in who is you, which she also briefly mentions the foundation and development of Time and Tide . Rosenberg, Harold. 1938. Literature Without Money. Use Alice! Direction 1.3: 6-10.

A contemporary discussion of the who is, role of little magazines in the development of modernism in America. Rosenberg stresses that the little magazines often served as a first step in everyday, the publication history of an author and you that commercial magazines and publishing houses latched on when they considered her or him financially promising. He notices a difference in reception with regard to the three genres (decidedly less interest in poetry with the commercial publishers). Sader, Marion, ed. 1976.

Comprehensive Index to English Language Little Magazines 1890-1970 . Millwood, NY: Kraus-Thomson-Organization. A six-volume author index to over one hundred - mainly American and British - little magazines. The entries include information on works by and about everyday use alice walker authors who were published in these magazines (interviews, articles, essays, poems, drama, fiction). Schwartz, Delmore. 1939. The Criterion , 1922-1939. Kenyon Review 1: 437-449.

Selver, Paul. 1959. Orage and you The New Age Circle: Reminiscences and Reflections . London: Allen Unwin. This is more an autobiography than an account of use alice walker The New Age and its editor A.R. Orage although he tries to improve Orage's reputation with his book. Selver describes his own (rather marginal) function in the magazine. His comments on some of the avant-garde authors reflects his own conservative literary values. Singer, Herman B. Who Is God To You! 1940. The Modern Quarterly 1923-1940. Modern Quarterly 11.7: 13-19. A characterisation of Modern Quarterly from a political perspective.

Singer focuses on the editor's (V.F. Calverton) position with respect to marxism and the Soviet Union and its influences on the magazine. He hardly says anything about the learning styles activist, literature in Modern Quarterly . Spender, Dale. 1984. Time and Tide Wait for No Man . God To You! London etc.: Pandora Press.

One of the few accounts of Time and Tide . Unfortunately Spender concentrates on Bacchae Essay, giving biographical information about the most important (political) contributers (Lady Rhondda, Elizabeth Robins, Rebecca West, Cicely Hamilton, Helena M. God To You! Swanwick, Winifred Holtby, Very Brittain, and Crystal Eastman) and on everyday, reprinting some of god to their articles. Styles Activist! Apart from naming some of the most prominent authors that appeared in Time and Tide she says very little about the magazine's literary contents. Sullivan, Alvin, ed. 1984. Who Is You! British Literary Magazines: The Victorian and Edwardian Age, 1837-1913 . Westport, Conn. Architecture! London: Greenwood Press. To date one of the most important reference work on literary and little magazines.

The magazines are arranged in alphabetical order. Each magazine is introduced in an essay (whose length depends on the assumed importance of the magazines), including bibliographical references, information on who is you, publishers, editors, location sources as well as possible indexes and reprint editions, Sullivan, Alvin, ed. 1986. British Literary Magazines: The Modern Age, 1914-1984 . Westport, Conn. London: Greenwood Press.

To date one of the most important reference work on literary and Vernacular architecture Essay little magazines. The magazines are arranged in alphabetical order. Each magazine is introduced in an essay (whose length depends on the assumed importance of the magazines), including bibliographical references, information on publishers, editors, location sources as well as possible indexes and who is god to reprint editions, Symons, Julian. 1967. The Cri. Vernacular Essay! London Magazine n.s. 7: 19-23. A description of The Criterion . Symons presents the magazine as an odd combination of a conservative and overly academic literary criticism and an interest in who is you, literary innovation, revealing T.S.

Eliot's own position. This also becomes apparent in Eliot's conservative social criticism. Symons notes some of the poetry that was published in The Criterion as remarkable, the prose less so and he complains that some genres such as history and belief theory biography were ignored altogether. Tell, Waldo. 1934. Review of Radical Magazines. Partisan Review 1: 60-63. An early account of who is you a new turn to the left in (American) little magazines of the 1930s.

Tell introduces Left Front , The Anvil , Dynamo , and Blast (not Wyndham Lewis's London magazine of 1913). Thacker, Andrew. 1993. Dora Marsden and The Egoist : 'Our War Is With Words'. English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920 36.2: 178-196. Learning Styles! Another attempt to revaluate Marsden's position as editor of The (New)Freewoman / The Egoist and her role in the development of literary modernism (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001) Todd, Ruthven. 1939. The Little Review. Twentieth Century Verse 15/16: 159-162.

An early account of god to you The Little Review focusing mainly on its early years. Todd criticises Margaret Anderson's indiscriminate choice of literature and stresses that her only real 'find' was Ulysses . He sees the architecture Essay, most important improvement of the magazine in Pound's employment as foreign editor. Trilling, Lionel. 1951. Who Is God To You! The Function of the Little Magazine. The Liberal Imagination Essays on architecture Essay, Literature and Society . London: Secker and Warburg.

93-103. Originally published as an individual essay in who is, 1946 in an anthology on and of The Partisan Review this is another quite early literary-critical account of the function of little magazines, especially with respect to the development of modernism. Styles! Trilling criticises that the intellectuals of his time have lost interest in literature but sees a new hope in politically oriented little magazines such as The Partisan Review . Troy, William. 1930. The Story of the Little Magazines. The Bookman 70: 476-481, 657-563. Vondeling, Johanna E. 2000. The Manifest Professional: Manifestos and Modernist Legitimation. College Literature 27.2: 127-145.

Vondeling's notion of the manifesto is a little too vague, including essays and god to you programmatic poetry, but she offers an interesting analysis of the function of little magazines in an author's self-legitimation. She focuses on Marinetti's Futurist Manifesto, Pound's essays in BLAST , and Loy's Feminist Manifesto and everyday her essay International Psycho-Democracy. Wall, Alan. 1976. Little Magazines: Notes towards a methodology. In Francis Barker et al., eds. Literature, Society and the Sociology of Literature (Proccedings of the god to you, Essex Conference of the Sociology of Literature). Colchester: University of Essex. 105-117. Wall provides some genereal sociological reflections from a typical 1970s marxist position on the status of little magazines. His main focus is on The Calendar of Modern Letters , though.

In spite of Wall's today rather outmoded political stance he offers a valuable attempt to go beyond a mere positivist listing of names of authors, editors and contributors. Bacchae Essay! Whiteley, Mary N.S. 1932. Shall We Let It Die? The Saturday Review of Literature 9.2: 19. A letter to the editor that regrets the imminent death of Harriet Monroe's Poetry . You! In a retrospective account Whitley stresses the Bacchae Essay, magazine's importance in who is god to you, the advancement of modernist - especially imagist - poetry. Styles Activist! Young, Alan Michael Schmidt. 1973. A Conversation with Edgell Rickword. God To You! Poetry Nation 1: 73-89. Zabel, Morton Dauwen.

1929. The Way of Periodicals. Poetry 34.6: 330-4. Learning! A comment on the death of The Dial and who is you The Little Review , which Zabel with amazing foresight also regards as the end of Vernacular Essay a literary-historical era: In going, they open the way to our next literary period, and so leave with us some of the sensations of suspense we experienced when they first flashed upon who is the view (1929: 334). Study on the situation of women between the wars. Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of emancipation - professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of Women, influence on women writers. Brantlinger, Patrick.

1996. 'The Bloomsbury Fraction' Versus War and mcdonalds Empire. In: Carola M. Kaplan Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St. Martin's Press. 149-167. Buitenhuis, Peter. 1987. The Great War of god to Words: British, American, and Canadian Propaganda and Fiction, 1914-1933 . Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. Study on war and literature. Key words: established (male) authors, war euphemisms, war propaganda.

Textual material: predominantly pamphlets, but also narrative fiction. Fictional accounts less obvious and stereotypical, more ambivalence (cf. ch. 8). Buitenhuis distinguishes between two phases: 1st phase - patriotic, glorification of war, 2nd phase - less patriotic, critical discussion of war. Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985.

Women's Experience of Bacchae Essay World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487. Article on the suffrage movement in the context of World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by women. Fussell, Paul. 1975. The Great War and Modern Memory . London New York: Oxford. Study on war and god to modernism. Details on styles activist, World War I: major events, the end of the Great War - national ideals vs. reality.

Foci: war landscape - depiction of the trenches and who is god to you actual fighting, enemy territory vs. friendly territory, contrast home front - front, dichotomy of learning styles good and evil. Mythicisation and fictionalization of war: revival of the cultic, the mystical, the sacrificial, the sacramental and the universally significant. Speechlessness in the face of terror and who is god to you its euphemistic verbalisation. The pastoral as a sheltering place of escape. Homoeroticism. Criticism: study is restricted to male authors and provides questionable value judgements.

Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. Essay On Welfare! London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. (ch.

6: Women's War) Goldman, Dorothy, ed. 1993. Women and World War I: The Written Response . Who Is God To! Basingstoke: Macmillan. Essay collection on women writers' reactions to activist World War I. Introduces female authors (not restricted to British ones). Who Is God To! Key words: War from mcdonalds objectives a female perspective, female world of experience. Patriotic vs. pacifist attitudes. Textual material: poetry (contrast to male war poets) and novels. Hewitt, Douglas. 1988.

English Fiction of the Early Modern Period, 1890-1940 . Longman Literature in English Series. London, New York: Longman. Higonnet, Margaret et al., eds. 1987. Behind the Lines: Gender and the Two World Wars . New Haven London: Yale UP. Essay collection on gender and war. Postulates a gender-specific experience of the who is you, World Wars: confirmation of belief traditional gender roles, yet some change of gender consciousness in who is god to, the field of war occupations such as driver, nurse, factory worker new professions (see Higonnet, Gould, Gubar). Questioning of Vernacular architecture masculinity through depiction of you war neurosis and mutilation (see Showalter). Different perspectives and manners of perceiving war: men focus on the dramatic war action, women focus on the long-term effects of the war. (cf. Rebecca West's The Return of the Soldier ). Special role of literature: expresses problems more poignant, yet has little effect on political change. Hynes, Samuel.

1990. A War Imagined: The First World War and English Culture. London: Bodley Head. Detailed study on the influence of World War I on literature and art. Introduces war as a driving force for Bacchae Essay Modernism. Key words: Loss of values. Who Is God To You! Decadence. Search for new forms and contents. War and the difficulty of its representation - conventional means do not suffice for belief theory adequate representation of war.

Disillusionment (caused by war) leads to experimental tendencies in art and literature. Representation of who is you space is further considered. Captures the time before and after the mcdonalds objectives, war in different phases. Criticism: On the whole very informative, also with regards to primary sources, but: unfortunately no bibliography. Who Is! Kern, Stephen.

1983. The Culture of Time and Space, 1880-1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. (ch. 11: The Cubist War) Longenbach, James. 1989. The Women and Men of 1914. Learning Styles Activist! In: Helen M. Cooper, Adrienne Auslander Munich Susan Merill Squier, eds. Arms and the Woman: War, Gender, and Literary Representation . Chapel Hill, London: The University of North Carolina Press. 97-123.

Lucas, John. 1997. Who Is God To You! The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. (ch. 4 on Jazz) Cultural-theoretical study on the 1920s as a time of radical change. Points out Vernacular architecture, several aspects of who is society and discusses them in mcdonalds objectives, terms of their radicality: Effects of Wold War One on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). Considers literary representation of space. Mowat, John Loch.

1955. Britain Between the Wars 1918-1940 . London: Methuen. Nicholls, Peter. 1995. Modernisms: A Literary Guide . London: Macmillan. Study on the time between the who is, two World Wars: the 'Roaring Twenties' and the social consciousness in theory, the 1930s (socialism, marxism, Spanish civil war, pacifism). Further key words: Fashion (the androgynous style of the flapper), architecture and mass media.

Onions, John. 1990. English Fiction and Drama of the Great War, 1918-39. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Study on British war fiction. Similar to Hynes (1990), but not as detailed. Centred on the figure of the hero and who is god to you likewise the anti-hero. Considers comparatively few literary works, most of them established texts. Devaluation of minor works. Essay Testing On Welfare Recipients: Or Costly?! Ouditt, Sharon.

1994. Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in the First World War . London New York: Routledge. Study on you, women and World War I. Starts out focusing on a description of women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories). Continues to approach the topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and use alice non-fictional) is granted a major role in this context.

Areas of discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in the house in war literature. Critical reflection on the war and you women's roles in postwar fiction. Image of the mcdonalds, mother as a preserver of life. Feminist pacifism. The shock experience of who is you war and health the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to who is god to identity. Discussion of the influence of World War I on society and literature as part of modernism. Quinn, Patrick J., ed. 1996. Recharting the Thirties . Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. Essay collection on the effects of World War I on everyday, society and particularly on literature. Who Is You! Considers neglected authors: Irene Rathbone, R.H.

Mottram, but also Rosamond Lehmann and Elizabeth Bowen. Trout, Steven. 1986. R. H. Mottram: The Great War and Europa's Beast . Styles! In: Patrick J. Quinn, ed. Recharting the Thirties. Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. 51-63. Tylee, Claire M. Who Is God To! 1990. The Great War and Women's Consciousness: Images of Militarism and Womanhood in Women's Writings, 1914-64 . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. de Vries, Jaqueline. 1994.

Gendering Patriotism: Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst and World War I. In: Sybil Oldfield, ed. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. 75-88. Wilson, Trevor. 1986. Health Belief Model! The Myriad Faces of War: Britain and the Great War 1914-1918 . God To! Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on World War I: based upon facts and Bacchae Essay events. Key words: happenings at the front, the home front, working situation, job market and women's participation. Winter, J.M.

1985. The Great War and the British People . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. Demographic study on World War I, proceeding from social history. God To You! Key words: war and loss, people's health, standards of Bacchae Essay living, efforts to increase birthrates, female surplus. Criticism: the study hardly considers women's situations and perspectives. Zilboorg, Caroline. 1996. Irene Rathbone: The Great War and Its Aftermath. In: Patrick J. God To You! Quinn, ed. Recharting the Thirties.

Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. 64-81. Berg, Christian, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. 1995. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter.

Bloom, Clive, ed. 1993. Literature and Culture in Modern Britain. Vol. 1: 1900-1929 . London New York: Longman. Essay collection on everyday walker, the socio-cultural context of modernism.

Focuses on literature and art in their relation to society. Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Booth, Michael R. Joel H. You! Kaplan, eds. 1996. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Essay collection on Edwardian theatre.

Focus on the business aspects of theatre: stage, management, critics, audience. Vernacular Essay! Popular theatre: musical comedy, Music Hall, Variety, suffrage plays, East End popular theatre. Popularity of Cross-dressing: male cross-dressing as misogynist, female as positive (imitating the male accepted norm), general implication: blurring of gender boundaries. Butler, Christopher. 1994.

Early Modernism: Literature, Music, and Painting in Europe, 1900-1916 . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Chinitz, David. 1997. Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of Jazz. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach.

New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335. Finney, Gail. Who Is God To You! 1989. Women in Modern Drama: Freud, Feminism, and Testing on Welfare Recipients: European Theatre at god to the Turn of the Century . Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Gale, Maggie B. 1996. West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and the theatre. Describes the significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and 1962.

After winning the vote, women were on the advance in every sector. Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background. Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Objectives! Griffin, Gabriele. You! 1994. Use Alice! Becomings as Being: Leonora Carrington's Writings and Paintings 1937-40. In: Griffin, Gabriele, ed.

Difference in View: Women and Modernism . London: Taylor and Francis. Holledge, Julie. 1981. Innocent Flowers: Women in the Edwardian Theatre . London: Virago. Hynes, Samuel. 1990. A War Imagined: The First World War and English Culture. London: Bodley Head. Detailed study on the influence of World War I on literature and art. Introduces war as a driving force for modernism. Key words: Loss of values.

Decadence. Who Is God To You! Search for new forms and contents. War and the difficulty of its representation - conventional means do not suffice for an adequate representation of war. On Welfare Necessary Or Costly?! Disillusionment (caused by war) leads to experimental tendencies in art and literature. Representation of space is who is god to, further considered. Captures the time before and after the war in different phases.

Criticism: On the whole very informative, also with regards to health belief model theory primary sources, but: unfortunately no bibliography. Isaak, Jo Anna. 1986. The Ruin of Representation in Modernist Art and Texts . Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press. Kahn, Elizabeth Louise. 1997.

Engendering the Scandal: The Cubist House and the Private Spaces of Modernity. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 175-198. Kaplan, Joel H. Sheila Stowell. 1994. Theatre and Fashion: Oscar Wilde to the Suffragettes . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Study on the interrelationship of theatre and fashion: reciprocal influence. Function of showing fashionable women's clothes on stage: attracting and stimulating for who is god to audience (except in model theory, performances of Ibsen or Shaw).

Semantic function of dress: social status of a character and its alteration in the course of the play ( Pygmalion ; from flower girl to lady). Symbolization of stereotypes of femininity: Woman as sex object, New Woman and god to Suffragette emphasize masculine markers (e.g. boots, umbrella) and Essay Necessary or Costly? reject female markers (e.g. skirts, sashes, puffed sleeves) - this is true for who is god to the stage as well as social reality. Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. (ch. 4 on Jazz) Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory.

Points out several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). Lyon, Janet. 1992. Bacchae Essay! Militant Discourse, Strange Bedfellows: Suffragettes and Vorticists before the god to you, War differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 4.2: 100-133. Article on the suffrage movement and developments in Bacchae Essay, art before World War I. Discusses analogies and interactions between militant suffragettes and radical artists of the avant-garde (e.g. vorticists, futurists). Key words: militancy, iconoclasms, feminist delimitation and self-marginalisation, polarizing tendencies and linguistic unambiguity in feminist pamphlets and manifestos. Plassard, Didier. 1995. You! Le Théatre de Kandinsky face à l'interpretation.

In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 507-521. Health Theory! Reynolds, Dee A. 1997. Dancing Free: Women's Movement in Early Modern Dance.

In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 247-279. Stevenson, Randall. 1992. Modernist Fiction: An Introduction . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. God To You! (ch. 4 on art) Weisstein, Ulrich. Bacchae Essay! 1995. How Useful is the Term 'Modernism' for the Interdisciplinary Study of Twentieth-Century Art?. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Who Is! Berlin New York: de Gruyter.

Yaari, Monique. 1995. Ironies of Modern/Postmodern Art: Duchamp, Margritte, Adami. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 537-552.

Zabel, Barbara. 1997. Gendered Still Life: Painting of Still Life in the Machine Age. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Essay On Drug Recipients: Necessary! Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 229-246. Who Is God To! Beddoe, Deirdre. 1989. Back to Home and Duty: Women Between the Wars, 1918-1939 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the situation of women between the wars. Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of emancipation - professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio.

Images of Women, influence on women writers. Bloom, Clive, ed. 1993. Literature and Culture in Modern Britain. Vol. Mcdonalds! 1: 1900-1929 . Who Is! London New York: Longman. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism.

Focuses on literature and art in their relation to society. Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Carey, John. 1992. On Welfare Recipients:! The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the who is, Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939. London: Faber Faber. Study on the phenomenon of the masses from the perspective of intellectuals. Key words: polarization - mass culture vs. literary elite.

Revolt of the Bacchae Essay, masses. God To You! Rewriting the masses: question of on Welfare Recipients: or Costly? value judgements, increase in value. Cultivation of high intellectual standards as a means of excluding the masses from a reading public. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Who Is God To! Travel: flight from civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. DiBattista, Maria Lucy McDiarmid, eds. 1996. High and Low Moderns: Literature and Culture 1889-1939 . Oxford: Oxford UP.

Hewett, Angela. 1994. The Great Company of Real Women': Modernist Women Writers and activist Mass Commercial Culture. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Rereading Modernism: New Directions in Feminist Criticism . New York London: Garland. 351-372.

Huyssen, Andreas. 1986. After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture, Postmodernism . London: Macmillan. God To! LeMahieu, D. L. 1988. A Culture for Democracy: Mass Communication and the Cultivated Mind in Britain between the styles, Wars. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Lucas, John.

1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Who Is! Nottingham: Five Leaves. Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from everyday walker cultural theory. Points out several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on you, the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). Melman, Billie. 1988.

Women and Testing Recipients: Necessary the Popular Imagination in the Twenties: Flappers and Nymphs . London: Macmillan. Study on images of god to women in the 1920s. Images dominating the public consciousness: flapper and Vernacular architecture surplus woman. Analysis of a very broad spectrum of popular literature (broad in terms of reception rather than sales figures). Key words: best-seller, serial fiction, book business and magazines. You! Rado, Lisa, ed. 1997. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. Heterogenous essay collection.

Key words: Flaneuse, Striptease, spirituality (moments of being), advertising in learning, popular magazines, Modernist Design, Modern Dance, primitivist and matriarchal tendencies ( Herland ), Flappers and Jazz. Trodd, Anthea 1998. Women Writing in who is, English: Britain 1900 1945. London: Longman. Wicke, Jennifer. 1988. Vernacular Architecture! Advertising Fictions: Literature, Advertisement, Social Reading . New York, Columbia UP. God To You! Ankum, Katharina von, ed. 1997. Health Model Theory! Women in the Metropolis: Gender and Modernity in Weimar Culture . Berkeley: University of who is god to you California Press. Barta, Peter I. 1990.

The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 310-315. Learning Styles! Study on the modernist city novel . Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of who is god to space as a major constituent of the integrative text structure. Space and identity.

Becker, Claudia. 1990. Zur Interiorisierung der Raumsymbolik in der Literatur der Moderne. Bacchae Essay! In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the who is god to you, International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 281-287. The article deals with modernist tendencies of objectives internalization: depiction of different rooms of the interior (factual and psychological ones). God To! Becker, Sabina. 1993.

Urbanität und Moderne: Studien zur Großstadtwahrnehmung in der deutschen Literatur 1900-1930. St. Ingbert: Röhrig. Berghahn, Daniela. 1988. Raumdarstellung im englischen Roman der Moderne . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Authoritative text on literary representations of space in architecture Essay, the avant-gardist modernist novel.

Key words: Subjectivity, integration of space in stream of consciousness; selectivity of who is god to perception and representation, processes of fragmentarization, montage as technique to depict space; associative spaces; spatial symbolism; interdisciplinary analogies (literature and art: impressionism, cubism); provides an analysis of Henry James The Ambassadors , Joseph Conrad Nostromo , Ford Madox Ford The Good Soldier , D.H. Lawrence Women in Love , James Joyce Ulysses , E.M. Forster A Passage To India , and Virginia Woolf To the Lighthouse . Boynton, Percy Holmes. 1913. London in English Literature. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press. (Ch. 10 Contemporary London) Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976. London 1890-1930. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism.

1890-1930. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Objectives! 172-190. Bronfen, Elisabeth. 1986. Der literarische Raum: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel von Dorothy M. You! Richardsons Romanzyklus Pilgrimage.

Tübingen: Niemeyer. Study on everyday walker, literary space in the work of Dorothy Richardson. Approach: phenomenological (cf. Ströker and Hoffmann) and structuralist (cf. God To! Lotman). Key words: subjectivity of spatial perception in streams of consciousness. Metaphorical space (additional symbolism) vs. space which can be physically entered. Space and identity. Spatial textual structures. Carey, John. 1992.

The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939. London: Faber Faber. (Chap. 3 The Suburbs and the Clerks) Study on the phenomenon of the masses from the perspective of intellectuals. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from learning activist civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. Ecker, Gisela. 1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. In: Susan C. God To! Scott, ed. The Art of Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University.

260-292. Allocations of meaning to the garden based on depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and expansion of Bacchae Essay consciousness for women - a place of who is maternal security for men. Frank, Joseph. Objectives! 1963. Spatial Form in god to, Modern Literature. In: The Widening Gyre: Crisis and Mastery in Modern Literature . New Brunswick: Rutgers UP. 3-63. Article on textual space.

Textual structures are described with help of spatial metaphors (see also Smitten 1981). Friedman, Susan Stanford. 1996. Spacialization, Narrative Theory, and Virginia Woolf's The Voyage Out . In: Kathy Mezei, ed. Ambiguous Discourse: Feminist Narratology and British Women Writers . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 109-136. Article is an example of the notion of text as space. Structure of text and structure of communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Fryer, Judith.

1984. Women and Space. The Flowering of Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies : 187-230. Article on gendered concepts of space in architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to the 1930s based on social geography. Contains writings on everyday walker, architecture and feminist reform efforts. Gindin, James.

1992. British Fiction in god to you, the 1930s: The Dispiriting Decade . Essay On Drug On Welfare Recipients: Necessary Or Costly?! New York: St. Martin's Press. Study introduces only the you, well-known texts of the 1930s. There are several references to the literary representation of space (ex. Rosamond Lehman, Elizabeth Bowen) Hertel, Kirsten. 1997. London zwischen Naturalismus und Moderne: Literarische Perspektiven einer Metropole. Heidelberg: Winter.

Keating, Peter. 1984. The Metropolis in Literature. In: Anthony Sutcliffe, ed. Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. 129-145. Kern, Stephen. Mcdonalds Objectives! 1983. The Culture of who is you Time and Space 1880 1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP.

Study on modernist concepts of time and space. Documents historical changes of spatial concepts in modernity. Key words: Subjectivity, categorisation according to different ways of perception (visual, acoustic, tactual etc.) Microscopic space. Art (cubism, impressionism) and sculpture. Film (rapid change of pictures and scenes). Heterogeneous space. Plurality of learning styles stance, multi-perspectivity.

Changes of attitude. Space as designable matter (magnetic fields, architecture, artificial lighting). Expansion and reduction of geographical space (expeditions, public and private transport, aviation). Urban spaces. Psychoanalysis (mental rooms of the interior, stream of who is god to consciousness). Vernacular Essay! Klarer, Mario. Who Is God To! 1995. Simultaneity and Gender in Modernist Discourses. In: Near Encounters. Festschrift für Richard Martin . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang.

Interdisciplinary study on the phenomenon of simultaneity and its implications concerning space and health belief model gender. Simultaneity as spatially represented in the novel as well as in modernist paintings. Androgynity as a form of simultaneity. Müller, Lothar. 1988. Die Großstadt als Ort der Moderne: Über Georg Simmel. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne.

Reinbek: Rowohlt. 14-36. Pike, Burton. Who Is You! 1981. The Image of the City in Modern Literature. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Pratt, Annis. 1972. Women and Nature in Modern Fiction. Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on Testing Necessary, space and nature in modern fiction.

Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in novels of development), gender-specific differences in the perception of nature. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989. A Female Vision of the City. London in you, the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of use alice walker Tennessee Press. Study on the city from who is you a female perspective. City can be entered by architecture Essay women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels.

Spencer, Sharon. 1971. Space, Time and Structure in the Modern Novel . New York: New York UP. Squier, Susan Merill. 1985. Virginia Woolf and London: The Sexual Politics of the City . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Stanzel, Franz. 1990. Das Niemandsland in der englischen und deutschen Dichtung. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol.

3. München: iudicum. 219-27. Article on who is god to you, the connecting and separating aspects of a boundary. Example: no-man's land between the trenches during the First World War in German and English literature. Voss, Dietmar. 1988. Die Rückkehr der Flanerie: Versuch über ein Schlüsselphänomen der Moderne. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. Belief Model Theory! 37-60.

Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. Who Is! The Making of Modern London, 1815-1914. London: Sidgwick Jackson. Wolff Janet. 1985. The Invisible Flaneuse. Women and the Literature of Modernity. Theory, Culture and Society 2.3: 37-46.

Würzbach, Natascha. in print. Identitätskonstitution durch Raumerleben in der englischen Erzählliteratur des Modernismus. Use Alice! Theory of subjectivity and identity. The significance of space and body for who is the pre-linguistic formation of objectives identity. Codes of spatial representation. Who Is! Gender-specific spatial experience and concepts of subjectivity in walker, some modernist novels. Ackroyd, Peter. [2000] 2001. God To! London.

The Biography . London: Vintage. Alexander, Sally. 1989. Becoming a Woman in health model, London in the 1920s and 1930s. In: David Feldman Gareth Stedman Jones, eds. Metropolis London: Histories and Representations since 1800. London New York: Routledge. 245-271. Who Is God To! Alter, Peter.

1993. Essay On Drug Recipients: Necessary Or Costly?! Im Banne der Metropolen: Berlin und London in den zwanziger Jahren . Göttingen: Vandenhoeck Ruprecht. Alter, Peter. 2000. London in der Neuzeit. Who Is God To! In: Andreas Sohn Hermann Weber, eds.

Haupstädte und Global Cities an der Schwelle zum 21. Jahrhundert . Bochum: Winkler. 57-79. Ankum, Katharina von, ed. 1997.

Women in the Metropolis: Gender and Modernity in Weimar Culture . Berkeley: University of California Press. Barta, Peter I. 1990. The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 310-315. Study on the modernist city novel . Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative text structure. Walker! Space and identity. Becker, Sabina.

1993. Urbanität und Moderne: Studien zur Großstadtwahrnehmung in who is god to you, der deutschen Literatur 1900-1930. St. Ingbert: Röhrig. Boynton, Percy Holmes. Vernacular! 1913. London in English Literature. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press. (Ch.

10 Contemporary London) Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976. London 1890-1930. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism. 1890-1930. Harmondsworth: Penguin. 172-190. Who Is God To! Breuner, Michael. 1991. Hunger for Place: Studien zur Raumdarstellung im London-Roman seit 1940 . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang.

Study on Essay Testing on Welfare Recipients: Necessary or Costly?, the London Novel after 1940. Who Is God To You! Key words: literary appropriation of the city. Space and subjectivity: subjective perceptions and learning formations of god to you space (philosophical basis: see Ströker, psychological basis: see Minkowski). Brooks, J.A. 1982.

Ghosts of London: The East End, City, and North. Norwich: Jarrold. Carey, John. 1992. The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939. London: Faber Faber. (Chap.

3 The Suburbs and the Clerks) Study on the phenomenon of the masses from the walker, perspective of intellectuals. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from who is god to you civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. Drabble, Margaret. 1979. A Writer's Britain: Landscape in Literature. Photographed by Jorge Lewinski. London: Thames Hudson. Epstein-Nor, Deborah. Necessary! 1991. The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer.

Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351 - 375. Frisby, David. 2001. Cityscapes of Modernity: Critical Explorations . Cambridge: Polity Press. Harding, Desmond. 2002. Writing the City: Urban Visions And Literary Modernism . God To! New York: Routledge. Hertel, Kirsten. 1997. London zwischen Naturalismus und Moderne: Literarische Perspektiven einer Metropole. Heidelberg: Winter.

Keating, Peter. 1984. The Metropolis in Literature. Objectives! In: Anthony Sutcliffe, ed. Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. 129-145. Kilian, Eveline. 2002. Exploring London. Walking the City - (Re)Writing the City.

In: Hartmut Berghoff, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. God To! The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . London: Palgrave. 267-283. Klotz, Volker. 1969. Die erzählte Stadt: Ein Sujet als Herausforderung des Romans von Lesage bis Döblin. München: Hanser. Kublitz-Kramer, Maria. 1995. Learning Styles! Frauen auf Straßen: Topographien des Begehrens in Erzähltexten von Gegenwartsautorinnen. München: Fink.

Kursbuch Stadt. Stadtleben und Stadtkultur an der Jahrtausendwende. 1999 . Redaktion Stefan Bollmann. Stuttgart: DVA. Lane, Eric. 1988. A Guide to Literary London. Sawtry, Cambridgeshire: Dedalus. Lefèbvre, Henri. 1972.

Die Revolution der Städte. München: List. Lehan, Richard. 1998. The City in Literature: An Intellectual and Cultural History . Berkeley: University of California Press. Mahler, Andreas, ed. 1999. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Who Is You! Heidelberg: Winter. Manley, Lawrence. 1995.

Literature and Culture in Early Modern London . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Marcus, Steven. 1987. Reading the Illegible. Some Modern Representations of Urban Experience. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Bacchae Essay, Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature.

Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 232-256. Milgram, Stanley. 1970. Das Erleben der Großstadt: Eine psychologische Analyse. Who Is God To! Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie 1: 142-152. Müller, Lothar. 1988. Everyday Use Alice! Die Großstadt als Ort der Moderne: Über Georg Simmel. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne.

Reinbek: Rowohlt. 14-36. Nord, Deborah Epstein. 1991. The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351-375. Nowel, Ingrid. 1998. London: Biographie einer Weltstadt - Architektur und Kunst, Geschichte und Literatur. Köln: Dumont.

Parson, Deborah L. 2000. Who Is! Streetwalking the Metropolis: Women, the City and Modernity. Oxford: Oxford UP. Pfeil, Elisabeth. 1972. Großstadtforschung: Entwicklung und gegenwärtiger Stand.

Hannover: Jänecke. Pike, Burton. 1981. The Image of the City in Modern Literature. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Punter, David. 1979. Blake's Capital Cities. In: P. Weston, ed. London in Literature.

London: Roehampton Institute. 46-72. Scherpe, Klaus R., ed. 1988. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Learning! Reinbek: Rowohlt.

Sennett, Richard, ed. 1978. Classic Essays on the Culture of Cities . You! New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Sennet, Richard. 1995. Flesh and Stone. The Body and the City in Western Civilization . London: Faber Faber. Shaffer, Elinor S., ed. 1996. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Bacchae Essay Wilderness . God To You! Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Sharpe, William 1986. Feminizing the Urban World. Learning! Urban Resources . 3.2: 55-57. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987. Who Is God To! From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the mcdonalds objectives, Modern City. In: William Sharpe und Leonard Wallock, Hgg. God To! Visions of the Modern City. Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore/London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51.

Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987. From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Testing On Welfare! Visions of the you, Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989. A Female Vision of the City: London in the Novels of Essay or Costly? Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective.

City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. Smuda, Manfred, ed. 1992. Die Großstadt als Text . Who Is You! München: Wilhelm Fink. Squier, Susan Merrill, ed. 1984. Women Writers and Testing the City: Essays in Feminist Literary Criticism . Who Is! Knoxville. University of Tennessee Press. Squier, Susan Merill. 1985.

Virginia Woolf and London: The Sexual Politics of the City. Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press. (Ch. 5 The Carnival and Funeral of Mrs Dalloway's London) Sutcliffe, Anthony, ed. Bacchae Essay! 1984. Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. Timms, Edward David Kelley, eds.

1985. Unreal City: Urban Experience in Modern European Literature and Art. Manchester: Manchester UP. Twyning, John. 1998. London Dispossess: Literature and you Social Space in the Early Modern City. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Voss, Dietmar. 1988. Die Rückkehr der Flanerie: Versuch über ein Schlüsselphänomen der Moderne. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. 37-60.

Weigel, Sigrid. 1990. 'Die Städte sind weiblich und nur als Sieger hold': Zur Funktion des Weiblichen in Gründungsmythen und Städtedarstellungen. In: Sigrid Weigel, ed. Topographien der Geschlechter. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. 149-189. Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. The Making of Modern London, 1815-1914.

London: Sidgwick Jackson. Everyday Use Alice Walker! Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. The Making of Modern London, 1914-1939. London: Sidgwick Jackson. Weinreb, Ben Christopher Hibbert. 1983. The London Encyclopaedia. Who Is God To! London: Macmillan.

Wilson, Elizabeth. 1991. Essay! The Sphinx in the City: Urban Life, the Control of god to you Disorder, and health belief Women . London: Virago. Wolff Janet. Who Is God To! 1985. The Invisible Flaneuse. Women and the Literature of Modernity. Theory, Culture and Society 2.3: 37-46. Bausinger, Hermann et al., eds. 1991. Reisekultur: Von der Pilgerfahrt zum modernen Tourismus . München: Beck.

Berghoff, Hartmut, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. 2002. The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . London: Palgrave. Blake, Susan L. 1990. A Woman's Trek: What Difference Does Gender Make? Women's Studies International Forum 13.4: 347-353. Birkett, Dea.

1989. Spinsters Abroad: Victorian Lady Explorers . Oxford: Blackwell. Vernacular Architecture Essay! Black, Jeremy. 1985. The British and the Grand Tour . You! London: Croom Helm. Blunt, Elison Gillian Rose, eds. 1994. Writing Women and Space: Colonial and Postcolonial Geographies . New York: The Guilford Press. Collection of essays on ethnological and learning styles geographical issues. Theoretical background: postcolonial studies, gender studies, discourse theory, and who is constructivism. Premiss: the white, middle-class subject constructs other cultures from a privileged and relatively uncritical stance.

Female living spaces: social mapping paves the way for social and political orientation, territorial dissociation. Fight against imperialism and mcdonalds objectives gender-specific oppression. Articles on: Mary Kingsley's perspective on landscape, geographical spaces such as Australia, Western Africa, Ireland. Bode, Christoph, ed. 1997. West Meets East: Klassiker der britischen Orient-Reiseliteratur . Heidelberg: Winter. Brendon, Piers. 1991. Thomas Cook: 150 Years of you Popular Tourism . London: Secker Warburg. Brenner, Peter J., ed. 1989.

Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Articles on the history of German travel literature. Introduction considers basic issues: perception of the foreign through patterns of the (kn)own. Perception is influenced by emotions: stimulation, rejection, amazement. Quality of travel experience ranges from dissociation to identification.

Change of the German travel report relative to the changes in the philosophical conception of the everyday walker, world (homogeneity or heterogeneity of the world). Brenner, Peter J. 1989. Who Is You! Die Erfahrung der Fremde: Zur Entwicklung einer Wahrnehmungsform in der Geschichte des Reiseberichts. In: Peter J. Brenner, ed. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in Testing on Welfare Necessary, der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

14-49. Who Is! Burkart, Arthur J. Slavoj Medlik. 1974. Tourism: Past, Present, and Future . London: Heinemann. Buzard, James. 1993.

The Beaten Track: European Tourism, Literature, and the Ways to Culture, 1800 - 1918 . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Seminal study on the definition and history of tourism. Critically assesses the traveller vs. tourist dichotomy . Tourism is approached in a differentiated manner weighing the following aspects: tourism as phenomenon of the mcdonalds, masses, processes of god to you stereotyping the foreign, selection and assessment of tourist attractions, alleged authenticity, convenience and enhancement of infrastructure, the hierarchical structure of home culture vs. Vernacular! foreign culture, relaxation and flight from civilisation, democratisation of travelling, antitourism ( off the beaten track ). Textual sources: travel reports, tourist guides, literary texts, documents on economic aspects of who is god to you tourism. Chard, Chloe. 1999. Pleasure and Guilt on the Grand Tour: Travel Writing and Bacchae Essay Imaginative Geography 1600-1890 . Manchester: Manchester UP. Cocker, Mark.

1992. Who Is! Loneliness and Time: British Travel Writing in the Twentieth Century . London: Secker Warburg. Vernacular Architecture Essay! Study exclusively deals with white, middle-class, imperialistic, male authors. Uncritical stylisation of the male traveller as a hero (alleged male characteristics: self-discipline, survival in the face of danger, suppression of emotions, 'the lone wolf', self-sufficiency). Claims travel literature to be factual. Cocker's arguments are not very well organised, nor up to the current state of research.

Nevertheless, a useful source for male travel reports. Culler, Jonathan. 1988. The Semiotics of Tourism. In: Jonathan Culler, ed. God To You! Framing the Sign: Criticism and Its Institutions . Oxford: Blackwell. Belief! 153-167. Article describes tourism as a semiotic system of stereotypization. Who Is You! Emphasises the fact that tourist attractions and souvenirs are semiotically communicated, i.e. they are signifiers serving the satisfaction of certain desires.

Discusses this representative function of tourism from a Barthesian perspective, sees the availability of tourism as a commercial product. Thesis: semiotic processes of belief tourism turn the god to you, world into an accumulation of travel destinations. Dodd, Philip. 1982. The Views of Travellers: Travel writing in the 1930s. Prose Studies 5.1 (Special Issue The Art of Travel: Essays on Travel Writing ): 127-138. Dodd analyses the traveller's/the narrator's attitude towards the travelled places as the most important structural component of the text. In general, the attitudes mirror the culturally given standards; personal interests also come into the play: e.g. nostalgic childhood memories ( home tour ), social interests etc. Dodd discusses texts by Greene, Muir, Orwell, Priestley. Foster, Shirley.

1990. Nineteenth Century Women Tavellers and Their Writings . New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf. The study predominantly deals with female English travellers/travel writers of the 19th century. It is structured according to architecture Essay areas of destination (Italy, North-America, Far East) documenting the travellers' different attitudes towards the respective countries. Introductory chapter is of fundamental relevance for theories and histories of female travelling. The following aspects are given detailed treatment: breaking away from social conventions and confining norms, the double bind of the female traveller and her difficulties as a woman due to male prejudice. Female travellers as exceptional women: acquisition of stereotypically male characteristics, emancipated behaviour (positive evaluation, depicted in an almost panegyric manner).

Mixture of who is you male and female conventions of everyday walker writing: topography, economic aspects, male activity vs. female aesthetics of landscape, female living spaces; objectivity, factual information vs. emotionalised information, expression of subjectivity and self-analysis, practising dominance vs. opening up to the foreign culture and showing a readiness to integrate. Foucault, Michel. 1992. Andere Räume. In: Karlheinz Bark et al., eds. Aisthesis: Wahrnehmung heute oder Perspektiven einer anderen Ästhetik . Leipzig: Reclam: 34-46. Foulke, Robert.

1992. The Guide Book Industry. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. 93-106. Essay on the genre of the travel-guide: the god to, travel-guide as the sole source for mass-tourists, the best-selling subgenre within travel literature. Everyday Use Alice! Distinction between predominantly factual-informative and other, more personally oriented, guides. Criteria for evaluation: travel-guides have to be up to date, affordable, handy, and respectable. Content: sights and practical hints (means of who is god to you transportation, hotels, restaurants, food, clothing).

Early travel handbooks in the 19th century are above all educational ( Grand tour ). Three different treatments of Bath demonstrate how travel-guides differ (in terms of selection, representation, or evaluation of the place). Frederick, Bonnie Susan H. McLeod, eds. 1993. Women and Vernacular Essay the Journey: The Female Travel Experience . Pullman, Washington: Washington State UP. Essay collection on women and travelling. Introduction discusses fundamental issues: women's motivations for travelling (liberation from the confining domestic shelter, transgression of boundaries), special risks for who is god to women, self-development, women's difficulties in finding a balance between the demands and conventions of home on the one hand and the freedom of travelling on the other hand. The individual contributions deal with examples of women travellers, focusing on Bacchae Essay, their encounters with women of other ethnicities and questions of sex, race and class. The representation of female travelling in literary texts is also considered: the female quest plot seems to allow no happy ending for who is god to you female characters (either return to restrictive patriarchal structures at home or emigration to a foreign country). Fussell, Paul.

1980. Abroad: British Literary Travelling Between the Wars . Oxford: Oxford UP. Belief Model! Early authoritative text on travel literature. Deals exclusively with traditional male travel literature written between the wars (summaries, biographical details). Who Is You! Authors discussed are: Robert Byron, Norman Douglas, Graham Greene, D.H.

Lawrence, Evelyn Waugh. Aspects of analysis: major need to travel in post-war society, boom of travel literature, introduction of learning styles passports, awareness of national borders. Travel vs. tourism, the latter strongly deprecated. Questionable categorisation of travel periods: exploration (Renaissance), travel (age of the bourgeoisie), tourism (proletarian age). Fussell's study is of rather restricted use for information on travel literature. Fussell, Paul. 1992. Travel and the British Literary Imagination of the Twenties and Thirties. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on who is, the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. 71-92.

Ghose, Indira. 1998. Women Travellers in Colonial India: The Power of the Female Gaze . Oxford: Oxford UP. Postcolonial-deconstructionist and Essay feminist study on India. Ghose's study aims at who is god to uncovering ideologies. Styles Activist! Shows women as doubly colonised. Who Is You! Women's subversive refusal of the colonial discourse, female quest for identity. Questions of ethnic difference and multi-culturalism. Contemplation of the Other serves self-definition (confirmation of the Self through reduction of the Other).

The rational subject of European Enlightenment as the standard of evaluation. Bacchae Essay! Textual sources: 19th-century travel literature of you British women depicting different images of Indian women. The female perspective of women travellers is influenced by aspects of Vernacular architecture Essay race, class and gender. They seem to have taken over male positions of epistemological superiority, of voyeurs or spies. This is also evident in the description of landscape following the who is god to you, aesthetic conventions of the picturesque. Henderson, Heather. 1992. The Travel Writer and the Text: My Giant Goes with Me Wherever I Go.

In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. 230-240. Henderson demonstrates the intertextuality of travel literature on the basis of several examples. Literary and cultural influences determined the perception and style of travel writers: stereotypes, prejudices, historical and literary knowledge, former travel reports. Impossibility of a direct access to the reality of the travelled country. Subjective experiences of the traveller as another element of mediating reality. Hindley, Geoffrey. 1983.

Tourists, Travellers, and Pilgrims . Bacchae Essay! London: Hutchinson. Hunter, Jefferson. 1982. Edwardian Fiction . Cambridge, Ma. London: Harvard UP. Study on the Edwardian novel . God To! Discusses predominantly male authors (only Woolf and Vita Sackville West are mentioned). Key words: Formal aspects (continuity and change). Bacchae Essay! Depiction of social problems. Best-sellers (do not account for the particular character of the epoch). Travel literature as a means of escaping into the exotic.

Imperialism. Debate on identity. The English country mansion as a topos. Criticism: Tendency towards superficial judgements. Ingemanson, Brigitta Maria. 1993. Under Cover: The Paradox of god to you Victorian Women's Travel Costume. In: Bonnie Frederick Susan H. McLeod, eds. Women and the Journey: The Female Travel Experience . Pullman, Washington: Washington State UP. 5-24. The essay shows how women travellers of the Victorian and Edwardian period endeavoured to dress and act according to conventional norms of femininity.

This caused considerable difficulties for everyday walker women: mountaineering with crinoline and Alpenstock . Dressing according to male dress codes was perceived as a loss of identity by most women up to you the 20th century. Essay On Drug Testing Recipients: Or Costly?! Jost, Herbert. 1989. You! Selbst-Verwirklichung und Seelensuche: Zur Bedeutung des Reiseberichts im Zeitalter des Massentourismus. In: Peter J. Brenner, ed. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 490-507. Kohl, Stephan.

1990. Bacchae Essay! Travel Literature and the Art of Self-Invention. Who Is God To! In: Rüdiger Ahrens, ed. Anglistentag 1989 Würzburg: Proceedings . Tübingen: Niemeyer. Korte, Barbara. 1996.

Der englische Reisebericht: Von der Pilgerfahrt bis zur Postmoderne . Darmstadt: WBG. Architecture Essay! Study on the history of who is god to you travel literature in England; attempts a systematic description of the genre. Key words: genre hybridity and openness, relation of fact and fiction, narrative components, subject-object relation. Marginally, Korte also considers travel literature by women authors. Distinguishes different motivations for travelling and different forms of travel reports: pilgrimage (spiritual salvation), voyages of discovery (trade routes, map-making, exotic merchandise, conquest), expedition (scientific and nautical discoveries), Grand tour (identity formation, sights, sexual adventures), Home tour (getting to know one's own country, questions of national identity and nationalism), subjectivity, experimental forms of travel literature in the 1930s (personal experience, civilisation critique), development of on Drug Testing on Welfare Recipients: Necessary tourism (relaxation, security, comfort, sights), intertextual play with travel reports in postmodernism. Kowalewski, Michael, ed. 1992. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. God To You! The contributions to this essay collection are quite heterogeneous with respect to content and quality, they are separately listed and annotated under the names of the respective authors (see Rober Foulke, Heather Henderson, Mary Morris). The following aspects are mentioned in the editor's foreword: emphasis of the newly awakened interest in travel literature; hybridity of the genre (mixture of autobiography, journalism, travel guide, confessional literature, and novel); curiosity and health belief model desire for independence as travel motivations; subjectivity of travel impressions.

Lawrence, Karen L. 1994. Penelope Voyages: Women and Travel in the British Literary Tradition . Cornell: Cornell UP. Semiotic-psychoanalytic approach to who is you interpreting travel literature and novels calling upon mythical constructions. Lawrence asks the hypothetical question: What happens if Penelope no longer waits for Odysseus but begins to travel herself? Thesis: it is the traditional exclusion of women from travelling that brings about the male travel plot. Lawrence argues on the basis of psychoanalytic theorems: Freud's association of the everyday use alice, uncanny with the stranger and the mother suggests the male traveller's ambivalent search for the maternal/original safety. Travelling enabled women to penetrate new spaces, experiencing the who is god to you, tension between the walker, familiar and the strange. The flexibility of the genre of travel literature opened up opportunities for women, even the process of writing became a kind of travel adventure, a breaking away from male (literary) conventions. Lawrence illustrates that the signifier 'travel' can denote various signifieds.

Postulates differences between male and female conventions of writing and behaviour, provides evidence from a number of texts (Mary Kingsley and Sarah Lee among others). Lobsien, Eckhard. 1981. Landschaft in Texten: Zur Geschichte und Phänomenologie der literarischen Beschreibung . Stuttgart: Metzler. Lutwack, Leonard. 1984. The Role of Place in Literature . New York: Syracuse UP. MacCannell, Dean. 1976. [1999] The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class . New York: Schocken Books. Structuralist-semiotic study on tourism.

MacCannell sees the tourist as a prototype of the modern human being (hunger for adventure, need for leisure time, superficiality). Sights are signifiers to which different signifieds can be assigned; they acquire a representative function. Authenticity of sights is produced and serially reproduced in the souvenir. Process of semantisation: sacrilization, framing and elevation, mechanical reproduction. Wide spectrum of tourist attractions: museums, parks, historical buildings, residential areas (e.g. Beverley Hills), shipyards, slums, garbage dumps (examples of the negative sides of tourism), ways of transport (tunnels, canals, bridges), business quarters, markets, population groups (e.g. Amish people). Melchett, Sonia 1991. Passionate Quests: Five Modern Women Travellers . London. Heinemann.

Mersmann, Arndt. 2000. Novel Topographies: A Spatial Reading of god to Sybil. Learning Styles Activist! In: Joachim Frenk, ed. You! Spatial Change in English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. Disraeli's novel serves as an example for Bacchae Essay illustrating the god to you, new experiences of space created by the possibility of railroad travelling (the account is based on Schivelbusch 1977, see below). Key words: mobility, speed, transportation of goods, communication, overcoming of distances, changes of landscape, gaining knowledge of different social areas. Mills, Sara.

1991. Discourses of Difference: An Analysis of Women's Travel Writing and Colonialism . London: Routledge. Health Model Theory! One of the first studies focusing on postcolonial issues from a feminist perspective (see also Ghose 1998). Extensive methodological reflections on you, the discourse-theoretical approach (Foucault). Mills emphasises that travelling women should - just as men - be viewed in the context of an imperialist ideology, yet they deal with it differently ( double-voiced discourse ). Mills provides a research report on travel literature and remarks on the previous neglect of female travellers. There are three case studies: Mary Kingsley, Alexandra David-Neel, Nina Mazuchelli. Morris, Mary. 1992. Women and Journeys: Inner and health theory Outer. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed.

Temperamental Journeys: Essays on god to you, the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. 25-32. Morris characterises female travelling and travel writing from her own perspective. Two types of travel plots are possible for women authors: either waiting for the stranger at home or searching for the strange abroad. Morris discusses women's inclination to objectives enter a dialogic relationship with the who is, foreign country, to bring in Essay on Drug on Welfare Recipients: or Costly?, their own perception. Women prefer travelling in company, they are often in need of male protection. On the whole the study draws a somewhat simplistic picture of you travelling women. Pelz, Annegret.

1993. Reisen durch die eigene Fremde: Reiseliteratur von Frauen als autobiographische Schriften . Köln: Böhlau. Pfister, Manfred. 1993. Intertextuelles Reisen, oder: Der Reisebericht als Intertext. In: Herbert Foltinek, Wolfgang Riehle Waldemar Zacharasiewicz, eds.

Tales and 'their telling difference': Zur Theorie und Geschichte der Narrativik . Festschrift Franz K. Styles! Stanzel. Heidelberg: Winter. The article refutes the myth of authenticity and shows the you, manifold intertextual networks of travel literature. Typology of intertextuality in travel literature. Repressed and negated intertextuality (blurring of intertextual tracks; search for mcdonalds new, non-verbalised spaces), compiled intertextuality (excerpting travel guides and reports), homage paying intertextuality (visiting cult-places and quoting authorities), dialogic function of intertextuality (discussion of former travel traditions).

Pfister, Manfred Indira Ghose. You! 1996. Still Going Strong: The Loneliness of the Long Distance Traveller in architecture, Modern Travel Writing. Journal for the Study of British Culture 3.2: 149-163. Pratt, Marie Louise. 1992. Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation . London: Routledge.

Postcolonial approach. Deals with travel literature on who is god to you, South America and Africa 1750-1980. Shows different types of model relations between two cultures: co-presence ( contact zone ), dominance of the conqueror's perspective ( colonial frontier ), seemingly innocent stance of the conqueror ( anti-conquest ), assimilation of the you, conquered ( autoethnographic ). Essay On Drug Testing Or Costly?! An imperialistic attitude of conquest can also be expressed within Europe, e.g. through arrogance towards the god to you, stranger or through mental appropriation. Pratt includes rhetorical devices of imperialistic tendencies in travel literature: epithets and similes referring to the traveller's own country, aesthetisation of landscape according to native categories, elevated position with panoramic view, self-revaluation caused by a joy for discovery, exploiting the knowledge of the native guide. Quadflieg, Helga. Vernacular Architecture! 2000. Kleine Fluchten: Isabella Bird und ihre Reisen nach Amerika. In: Querelles: Jahrbuch für Frauenforschung 2000. (Vol. 5: Grenzgängerinnen des moralischen Geschlechts ). Stuttgart: Metzler. 110-123.

A case study of some of Isabella Bird's travel writings. Illustrates the double bind of the god to you, female traveller in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century: tension between conventionality and freedom, affirmation and subversion of existing norms (see also Forster 1990: Frederick, ed. 1991). Robinson, Jane. 1990. Wayward Women: A Guide to Bacchae Essay Women Travellers . Oxford: Oxford UP.

A bibliography of you women's travel writing listing approx. 400 authors. Entries contain brief biographical sketches, key words and synopses. Robinson provides bibliographical access to a comprehensive corpus of texts, and thereby enables further research on female travel literature. Russel, Mary. [1986] 1996. The Blessings of a Good Thick Skirt: Women Travellers and Their World. Bacchae Essay! London: Flamingo. Said, Edward. God To You! 1983. Orientalism . New York: Random House. Schabert, Ina.

1997. Reisebücher: Die Frau in der Fremde. In: Ina Schabert. Englische Literaturgeschichte aus der Sicht der Geschlechterforschung . Stuttgart: Kröner. 589-597. Schäffter, Ortfried, ed.

1991. Das Fremde: Erfahrungsmöglichkeiten zwischen Faszination und Bedrohung . Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. Schaff, Barbara. 1999. Gendered Cities: Italienische Städte im Blick britischer Reisender.

In: Andreas Mahler, ed. Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Mcdonalds Objectives! Heidelberg: Winter. 173-196. Schaff discusses the textuality of cities and their literary representation with respect to the different perspectives of god to you male and female authors/characters. Examples: phallic conception of Florence as cultural space of activist masculinity (Lawrence), Venice as art-trophy (Ruskin) or as embodiment of the archetypal mother (Byron); Rome as unapproachable (for Dorothea in Middlemarch ), or as a symbol of triumphant conquest (Felicia Hemans). Who Is! Schivelbusch, Wolfgang. 1977. Geschichte der Eisenbahnreise.

Zur Industrialisierung von Raum und Zeit im 19. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M: Fischer. Authoritative study on walker, travelling by you railroad. Focuses on: development of everyday use alice walker railway traffic in England, on the continent and in North America; the who is god to you, railroad's peculiarities as a means of public transport and merchandise transportation; the change of the experience of space and time; economic, social and everyday use alice walker cultural aspects; Schivelbusch presents a (somewhat one-sided) critique of civilisation (alienation from nature). You! Schülting, Sabine. 1997. Wilde Frauen, Femde Welten: Kolonisierungsgeschichten aus Amerika . Reinbek: Rowohlt. Objectives! Stannard, Martin. 1982. Who Is You! Debunking the walker, Jungle: The Context of Evelyn Waugh's Travel Books 1930-9.

Prose Studies 5.1 (Special Issue The Art of Travel: Essays on Travel Writing ): 105-126. Stevenson, Catherine Barnes. 1982. Who Is! Victorian Women Travel Writers in Africa . Boston: Twayne. Schwarze, Hans-Wilhelm.

1982. Ereignisse, Zeit und Raum, Sprechsituationen in narrativen Texten. In: Hans-Werner Ludwig, ed. Arbeitsbuch Romananalyse: Eine Einführung . Objectives! Tübingen: Narr. God To! 145-188. [esp.

170-174] Tinling, Marion. 1989. Woman into the Unknown: A Sourcebook on Women Explorers and Travelers . New York: Greenwood Press. Veit, Karin. 1997. Journey and Gender - Diversity of Travel Writing. In: Susanne Fender, ed. Feminist Contributions to the Literary Canon: Setting Standards of Taste . Leviston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press. 107-138.

Veit examines gender-specific aspects of travelling and travel writing. Bacchae Essay! Cites examples of women writers blurring the gender boundaries, i.e. exemplary travel texts depicting women who break away from their conventional female role. Examples of gender-specific discourses: the journey of Ella Maillart and Peter Fleming from Peking through the Chinese province Sianking to Cashmere is told in two different texts (1936) representing a female and a male version; further examples are the two journeys to Russia undertaken by Susan Richards and Christopher Hope at the same time (1990). Veit's analysis confirms gender stereotypes, but also illustrates the double-voiced discourse of female travellers in their writings. Würzbach, Natascha. 2001. Erzählter Raum: fiktionaler Baustein, kultureller Sinnträger, Ausdruck der Geschlechterordnung. In: Jörg Helbig, ed. Erzählen und Erzähltheorie im 20. Jahrhundert: Festschrift für Wilhelm Füger . Heidelberg: Winter. 105-129.

Article covers the god to you, state of research on the phenomenon of literary space. Approaches: narratology, phenomenology, psychoanalysis, social geography, structuralism, semiotics of culture, deconstruction, cultural history, and gender studies. Introduces categories of conceptions and typologies of space. Points of mcdonalds special consideration: semantization of space, reference to the subject, the body, movement in space and its function as a reader's guide. Provides literary examples. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism. Focuses on literature and art in god to, their relation to society.

Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Essay On Drug Testing On Welfare Or Costly?! Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication.

Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Harris, Jose. 1994. Private Lives and Public Spirit: Britain 1870-1914 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. Study proceeding from god to you social history. Key words: demography, family, property, profession, religion, society and state, social theories. Keating, Peter. 1989.

The Haunted Study: A Social History of the styles, English Novel 1875-1914 . London: Secker Warburg. Kern, Stephen. 1983. The Culture of Time and Space, 1880-1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Lewis, Jane, Ed. 1986. Labour and you Love: Women's Experience of Home and Family, 1850-1940 . Health Model Theory! Oxford: Blackwell. Study on women's social history between 1850 and 1940.

Deals with the usual topics: childhood, marriage, motherhood, class differences. Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves.

Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory. Points out several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on god to you, the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). Styles! McFarlane, Barbara. 1984. Homes for god to you Heroines. Housing in the Twenties.

In: Making Space. Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Mowat, John Loch. 1955.

Britain Between the Wars 1918-1940 . Bacchae Essay! London: Methuen. Nicholls, Peter. 1995. Modernisms. A Literary Guide . London: Macmillan.

Study on the time between the two World Wars: the 'Roaring Twenties' and the social consciousness in the 1930s (socialism, marxism, Spanish civil war, pacifism). Further key words: Fashion (the androgynous style of the flapper), architecture and mass media. Oldfield, Sybil, ed. 1994. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945. Who Is! London: Taylor Francis. Essay collection on social history. Centred on women's history, introduces several women's groups. Key words: Divorce laws, motherhood. Women's rights to work between the Testing Recipients: Necessary, wars, elementary school teachers.

Suffragettes. Pacifist movement. Fascism. Female artists. Winter, J.M. 1985. God To You! The Great War and the British People . Vernacular! Basingstoke London: Macmillan. Demographic study on World War I, proceeding from social history. Key words: war and loss, people's health, standards of living, efforts to increase birthrates, female surplus. Criticism: the study hardly considers women's situations and perspectives. Study on female experience of the two World Wars.

Special focus: women and profession. Restraining of women from working in the time between the wars. Study provides detailed historical evidence: thoroughly investigated. Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985. Women's Experience of who is you World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Essay on Drug Testing on Welfare Necessary or Costly? Poets. Who Is God To! Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487.

Article on the suffrage movement in the context of World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by women. Dyhouse, Carol. 1989. Feminism and the Family in England 1880-1939 . London: Blackwell. Study on family and marriage from a women-centred perspective.

Textual material: basically (auto)biography, but also some novels. Everyday Use Alice Walker! Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on god to you, one author: Marie Corelli. Gardner, Viv Susan Rutherford, eds. 1992. The New Woman And Her Sisters: Feminism And Theatre 1850-1914 . On Welfare! Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Gardiner, Juliet, ed.

1993. You! Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown. Use Alice Walker! Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers.

Horn, Pamela. 1995. Women in the 1920s . Stroud: Alan Sutton Publishing. Lewis, Jane, ed. 1986. Labour and Love: Women's Experience of Home and Family, 1850-1940 . Oxford: Blackwell. Essay collection on women's social history between 1850 and god to 1940. Belief Theory! Deals with the usual topics: childhood, marriage, motherhood, class differences. McFarlane, Barbara. 1984. Homes for who is you Heroines.

Housing in styles, the Twenties. In: Making Space. Who Is You! Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Oldfield, Sybil, ed. 1994. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945.

London: Taylor Francis. Essay collection on social history. Centred on women's history, introduces several women's groups. Key words: Divorce laws, motherhood. Women's rights to work between the wars, elementary school teachers. Suffragettes. Pacifist movement.

Fascism. Female artists. Ouditt, Sharon. 1994. Belief! Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in who is you, the First World War . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and World War I. Starts out focusing on a description of mcdonalds objectives women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories). Continues to approach the topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is granted a major role in this context. Areas of discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in who is god to you, the house in war literature.

Critical reflection on the war and everyday use alice women's roles in postwar fiction. Image of the mother as a preserver of life. Who Is You! Feminist pacifism. The shock experience of war and objectives the temporary allocation of god to roles as a danger to identity. Discussion of the influence of learning World War I on society and who is literature as part of modernism. Bataille, Georges. 1994. Die Erotik , ed.

G. Bergfleth. München. Benthien, Claudia. 1999. Haut: Literaturgeschichte, Körperbilder, Grenzdiskurse . Learning Activist! Reinbek b. Who Is God To You! Hamburg: Rowohlt. Benthien, Claudia Irmela Marei Krüger-Fürhoff, eds.

1999. Über Grenzen: Limitation und Transgression in Literatur und Ästhetik . Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler. Bordo, Susan. 1993. Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body . Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. Breger, Claudia Tobias Döring, eds. 1998. Figuren des/der Dritten: Erkundungen kultureller Zwischenräume . Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi. Butler, Judith. 1990.

Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York, London: Routledge. de Lauretis, Teresa. 1990. Eccentric Subjects: Feminist Theory and Historical Consciousness. Feminist Studies 16.1: 115-150. Dollimore, Jonathan. 1992. The Dominant and mcdonalds objectives the Deviant: A Violent Dialectic. In:ed.

Wayne R. Dynes Stephen Donaldson, eds. Homosexual Themes in Literary Studies . New York: Garland. 87-100. Douglas, Mary. [1966] 1984. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the who is, Concepts of Pollution and Taboo . Health Belief Model Theory! London, etc.: Ark. Doyle, Laura. God To! 1994. Bordering on the Body: The Radical Matrix of Modern Fiction and Culture . Everyday Use Alice! New York, Oxford: Oxford UP. Durkheim, Emile. [1893] 1996. Über soziale Arbeitsteilung. Studie über die Organisation höherer Gesellschaften.

Frankfurt/M. Dreitzel, H.P. 1972. Die gesellschaftlichen Leiden und das Leiden an der Gesellschaft: Vorstudien zu einer Pathologie des Rollenverhaltens . Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke. Febvre, Lucien.

1990. 'Frontière - Wort und Bedeutung. In: Lucien Febvre. Das Gewissen des Historikers . Frankfurt/M. God To You! 27-36. Ferguson, Russell, Martha Gever, Trinh T. Minh-ha Cornel West, eds. 1990. Out There: Marginalization and Contemporary Cultures. New York: The New Museum of Contemporary Art Cambridge/Mass., London: The MIT Press.

Finke, Laurie. 1986. Architecture! The Rhetoric of Marginality: Why I Do Feminist Theory. Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 5.2: 251-72. Foucault, Michel. [1963] 1988. God To! Zum Begriff der Übertretung. In: Michel Foucault. Schriften zur Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. 69-89. Freud, Sigmund. [1919] 1994. Das Unheimliche.

In: Sigmund Freud. Studienausgabe IV, Psychologische Schriften, ed. Alexander Mitscherlich et al. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 241-274. Gregg, John. 1994. Use Alice! Maurice Blanchot and the Literature of Transgression. Princeton/New Jersey: Princeton UP. God To You! Hohnsträter, Dirk.

1999. Im Zwischenraum. Ein Lob des Grenzgängers. In: Claudia Benthien Irmela Marei Krüger-Fürhoff, eds. 1999. Über Grenzen: Limitation und Transgression in Literatur und Ästhetik . Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler. 231-244. Jervis, John. 1999. Transgressing the Modern: Explorations in the Western Experience of Otherness . Oxford: Blackwell. Koschorke, Albrecht.

1990. Essay On Drug Testing Or Costly?! Die Geschichte des Horizonts: Grenze und Grenzüberschreitung in literarischen Landschaftsbildern . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Kristeva, Julia. 1980. Powers of Horror. An Essay on you, Abjection . New York, London: Routledge.

Sargisson, Lucy. 2000. Utopian Bodies and architecture the Politics of Transgression. London, etc.: Routledge. Shildrick, Margrit, Janet Price. 1999. Openings on the Body: A Critical Introduction. In: Janet Price Margrit Shildrick, eds.

Feminist Theory and the Body: A Reader . New York: Routledge. 1-14. Shildrick, Margrit. 1997. Leaky Bodies and Boundaries. Feminism, Postmodernism and (Bio)Ethics . London, New York: Routledge.

Showalter, Elaine. 1985. Feminist Criticism in the Wilderness. In: Elaine Showalter, ed. The New Feminist Criticism: Essays on Women, Literature and Theory . London: Virago, 243-270. Stallybrass, Peter Allan White, eds. 1986. The Politics and Poetics of Transgression . London: Methuen. Stevens, Hugh. 2000.

Introduction: Modernism and its Margins. God To! In: Hugh Stevens Caroline Howlett, eds. Modernist Sexualities . Manchester, New York: Manchester University Press, 1-12. Turner, Victor. Mcdonalds Objectives! 1967. Betwixt and Between: The Liminal Period in Rites de Passage . In: Victor Turner. The Forest of who is god to Symbols . New York: Cornell UP. Van Gennep, Arnold. [1908] 1960. The Rites of Passage , trans. M.B.

Vizedom, G.L. Caffee. Chicago: U of Chicago P. Weigel, Sigrid. 1990. Rekonstruktion und Relektüre: Die Arbeit von Frauen in der Literaturwissenschaft als Teil weiblicher Kulturkritik.

In: Sigrid Weigel. Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek b. Hamburg: Rowohlt. 252-263. Butler, Judith. 1993. Architecture! Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of 'Sex' . New York London: Routledge. Diprose, Ros. 1994.

The Bodies of Women: Ethics, Embodiment and Sexual Difference. London: Routledge. Foucault, Michel. Who Is! 1992. Sexualität und Wahrheit 1: Der Wille zum Wissen. 6th ed. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Foucault, Michel. 1994. Überwachen und Strafen: Die Geburt des Gefängnisses . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

Foucault, Michel. 1998. Bacchae Essay! Über Hermaphrodismus: Der Fall Barbin , ed. Wolfgang Schäffner Joseph Vogl. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Grosz, Elizabeth. 1994. Who Is! Volatile Bodies: Toward a Corporeal Feminism. Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. Haraway, Donna. 1991. Theory! The Promises of Monsters: A Regenerative Politics for Inappropriate/d Others.

In: L. Grossberg, C. Nelson, P. Treichler, eds. Cultural Studies. London: Routledge. Herdt, Gilbert, ed. 1994. Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History . New York: Zone Books. Horner, Avril Angela Keane. 2000.

Body Matters: Feminism, Textuality, Corporeality. God To! Manchester, New York: Manchester UP. Hurley, Kelly. 1996. The Gothic Body: Sexuality, Materialism, and Degeneration of the health belief model, Fin de Siècle. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Jacobus, Mary, Evelyn Fox Keller Sally Shuttleworth, eds. 1990. Body/Politics: Women and the Discourses of Science. New York London: Routledge. Laqueur, Thomas. 1992. Making Sex: Body and who is Gender from the Greeks to Freud . Cambridge/Mass., London: Harvard UP. Price, Janet Margrit Shildrick, eds. 1999.

Feminist Theory and the Body: A Reader . New York: Routledge. Sargisson, Lucy. 2000. Utopian Bodies and the Politics of Bacchae Essay Transgression. London, etc.: Routledge. Shildrick, Margrit. 1997. Who Is God To You! Leaky Bodies and Boundaries: Feminism, Postmodernism, and (Bio)Ethics . London: Routledge. Terry, Jennifer Jacqueline Urla, eds.

1995. Deviant Bodies . Bloomington: Indiana UP. Brooks, J.A. Testing Recipients: Necessary! 1982. Ghosts of London: The East End, City, and North. God To! Norwich: Jarrold. Dinzelbacher, Peter, ed. 1993.

Europäische Mentalitätsgeschichte: Hauptthemen in Einzeldarstellungen . Stuttgart: Kröner. Essay collection on different experiences of space from antiquity up to the present. Approach: history of mentality. Key words: experience of belief space as social, geographic, and cultural (fields of interest: religion, architecture etc.). Space and aspects of conquering and opening up (of new rooms). Cyberspace. Foucault, Michel. 1992. Who Is God To! Andere Räume. In: Karlheinz Bark et al., eds. Aisthesis: Wahrnehmung heute oder Perspektiven einer anderen Ästhetik . Reclam: Leipzig.

34-46. Article on space and otherness. Difference between normal and deviant spaces. Key words: heterotopias (hospitals, psychiatric clinics, prisons. ); spatial symbolism and history of mentality. Vernacular Architecture! Frenk, Joachim, ed.

2000. Spatial Change in English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. Aufsatzsammlung. Mentalitätsgeschichtlich bedingter Wandel von Raumvorstellungen in god to, der englischen Literaturgeschichte. Besonderes Interesse der Postmoderne am Raum (Sozialgeographie, Kolonialismus, Datenflüsse um den Erdball, Cyberspace.) Fryer, Judith. 1984.

Women and Space. The Flowering of Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies . 187-230. Study on gendered concepts of space in architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to the 1930s based on social geography. Contains writings on architecture and feminist reform efforts. Everyday Use Alice Walker! Grosz, Elizabeth. 1995. Space, Time and Perversion.

Essays on the Politics of Bodies . London: Routledge. (esp. Who Is! 103-124) Hauser, Susanne. Objectives! 1990. Der Blick auf die Stadt: Semiotische Untersuchungen zur literarischen Wahrnehmung bis 1910 . Berlin: Dietrich Reimer. Semiotic studies on literary perceptions of urban spaces. Key words: perception of space in general. Basic patterns of the experience of city space (multi-stimulation, processes of selection. ). Culturally variable navigation of perception (closely connected with aspects of value judgements). Higonnet, Margaret R. Joan Templeton, eds. 1994. Reconfigured Spheres: Feminist Explorations of Literary Space . Amherst: University of Mass.

Press. Essay collection. Provides different perspectives on the feminist relevance of who is space: Historical, multi-cultural, metaphorical. Key words: Symbolic representative functions of space in texts. Marginalisation, transgression of boundaries, role of clothing, ghettoisation of health belief model theory feminist literary criticism. Hubrath, Margarete, ed. 2001. Geschlechterräume: Konstruktionen von gender in Geschichte, Literatur und Alltag . Köln: Böhlau. Kern, Stephen.

1983. The Culture of Time and Space 1880 1918 . Who Is God To You! Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Study on modernist concepts of time and space. Documents historical changes of spatial concepts in modernity. Key words: Subjectivity, categorisation according to different ways of perception (visual, acoustic, tactual etc.) Microscopic space. Art (cubism, impressionism) and learning styles activist sculpture. Film (rapid change of who is you pictures and scenes). Heterogeneous space. Plurality of stance, multi-perspectivity. Changes of attitude. Space as designable matter (magnetic fields, architecture, artificial lighting).

Expansion and reduction of geographical space (expeditions, public and private transport, aviation). Urban spaces. Psychoanalysis (mental rooms of the interior, stream of consciousness). Kursbuch Stadt. Mcdonalds Objectives! Stadtleben und Stadtkultur an der Jahrtausendwende. 1999 . Redaktion Stefan Bollmann.

Stuttgart: DVA. God To You! Läpple, Dieter. 1991. Gesellschaftszentriertes Raumkonzept: Zur Überwindung von physikalisch-mathematischen Raumauffassungen in der Gesellschaftsanalyse. In: Martin Wentz, ed. Stadt-Räume . Frankfurt/M.: Campus. 35-46. Theoretical essay on different natures of space: Human-centred concepts of space vs. scientific concepts of space. Lefèbvre, Henri.

1972. Die Revolution der Städte. München: List. McFarlane, Barbara. 1984. Homes for Heroines. Housing in the Twenties. In: Making Space. Health Belief! Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press.

26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Who Is God To! Nowel, Ingrid. Model! 1998. London: Biographie einer Weltstadt. Architektur und Kunst, Geschichte und Literatur. Köln: Dumont. Shaffer, Elinor S., ed.

1996. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Sharpe, William 1986. Feminizing the Urban World. Urban Resources 3.2: 55-57. Schivelbusch, Wolfgang. 1979. Geschichte der Eisenbahnreise. Zur Industrialisierung von Raum und Zeit im 19. Jahrhundert . Frankfurt/M.: Ullstein. Historical study on space and time in the 19th century related to the development of the who is, railway as a means of travel and transport.

Its influence on the perception of belief space and god to you time. (Germany, England, USA). Sennett, Richard. 1994. Flesh and learning Stone: The Body and the City in Western Civilization . New York London: W.W. God To! Norton. Study on space and bodily experience. Key words: sensory perception, movements, analogies of city and body, allocation of meaning to certain areas (public, private etc.), historical change of cities, interior rooms, increasing dimension of the private in interior rooms. Weigel, Sigrid.

1983. Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek: Rowohlt. Study on gender topographies and literature. Cultural-historical approach. Everyday Use Alice! Considers space: female allegorization of the you, city. Weinreb, Ben Christopher Hibbert. 1983.

The London Encyclopaedia. London: Macmillan. Collection of essays, proceeding from cultural theory. Social space is defined by Bacchae Essay rules of behaviour, moral concepts, interests, objectives and class. It is therefore relevant for questions of who is god to gender identity. Key words: setting and transgression of boundaries; domains of power; imaginary space in literature and utopia. Bell, David Gill Valentine, eds. 1995. Learning Activist! Mapping Desire: Geographies and you Sexuality . London: Routledge.

Collection of essays, proceeding from social geography. Key words: connection of space and different facets of identity formation (personal, professional and sexual). Questions of the body. Urban spaces. Power relations connected with space. Benko, Georges Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. 1997. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Use Alice Walker! Blackwell. Collection of essays.

Approach: deconstructivist social geography - social space as a linguistic construct to be newly developed over and over by the individual. Who Is God To You! Key words: Blurring of boundaries between mental and empirical spaces; spatial symbolism (described from a constructivist background and not from the usual arguments of architecture social history or history of mentality). Duncan, Nancy, ed. 1996. You! Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and mcdonalds Sexuality. London: Routledge. Essay collection on space, gender and sexuality. Approach: social geography.

Key words: territories. Boundaries: blurring of who is you boundaries, transgression of boundaries. Domains of on Drug Testing on Welfare power concerning questions of gender identity and deviation from gender norms. Duncan, Nancy. 1996. Renegotiating Gender and Sexuality in Public and Private Spaces.

In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 127-145. Article on spaces of home and family. Key words: homosexuality (male and female); prostitution. MacDowell, Linda.

1996. Who Is! Spatializing Feminism. Geographic Perspectives. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 28-44. Article on a feminism and belief space. Approach: deconstructivist social geography. Key words: socially conditioned and designed space, processes of placement, boundaries, centres and margins, changes of place and transgression of boundaries, space and identity. Who Is! Reference to gender relations.

Natter, Wolfgang John Paul Jones III. 1997. Identity, Space, and Other Uncertainties. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Bacchae Essay! Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell.

141-161. Article on the volatile nature of who is you space and belief model identity. Approach. Who Is! Deconstructivist social geography. Conception of space adapted from the conception of walker subject. Constructivity and contingency of who is god to you discursive concepts as means of walker social change.

Pfeil, Elisabeth. 1972. Großstadtforschung: Entwicklung und gegenwärtiger Stand. Hannover: Jänecke. Rose, Gillian. 1996. Masculine Dwelling, Masculine Theory and Feminist Masquerade.

In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 56-74. Article on space and gender. Approach: Deconstructivist social geography. Space as projection: imagined emotions and god to actual design of space. Concept of masquerade grounds on Bacchae Essay, Luce Irigaray. God To! Spain, Daphne.

1992. Gendered Spaces . Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. Study on space as a relevant factor for status and model theory gender, proceeding from social geography. Who Is You! Gender-specific segregation (architecture, territorization of public spaces) Provides examples from everyday different ethnic cultures. Authoritative text on spatial symbolism. Key words: archetypical spaces and their meaning in depth psychology: psychological dimension of places like 'house', 'shell' 'box', etc. Universalist allocation of meaning. Barta, Peter I. 1990. The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. You! München: iudicum. Vernacular Architecture Essay! 310-315. Essay on the modernist city novel . Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative textual structure. Space and identity. Becker, Claudia. 1990. Who Is God To! Zur Interiorisierung der Raumsymbolik in der Literatur der Moderne. Testing Recipients: Necessary Or Costly?! In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and god to Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 281-287. Study deals with modernist tendencies of internalization: depiction of belief model different spaces of the who is god to, interior (factual and Essay Testing Recipients: Necessary or Costly? psychological ones). Berghahn, Daniela. 1988. Raumdarstellung im englischen Roman der Moderne . You! Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Authoritative text on literary representations of space in architecture, the avant-gardist modernist novel.

Key words: Subjectivity, integration of space in stream of consciousness; selectivity of perception and representation, processes of fragmentarization, montage as technique to depict space; associative spaces; spatial symbolism; interdisciplinary analogies (literature and art: impressionism, cubism); provides an analysis of Henry James The Ambassadors , Joseph Conrad Nostromo , Ford Madox Ford The Good Soldier , D.H. Lawrence Women in god to you, Love , James Joyce Ulysses , E.M. Forster A Passage To India , and Virginia Woolf To the Lighthouse . Vernacular! Breuner, Michael. 1991. Hunger for Place: Studien zur Raumdarstellung im London-Roman seit 1940 . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Study on the London Novel after 1940. Key words: literary appropriation of the city.

Space and subjectivity: subjective perceptions and formations of space (philosophical basis: see Ströker, psychological basis: see Minkowski). Archetypical aspects of space. Criticism: terminologically imprecise, appears rather essayistic. Bronfen, Elisabeth. 1986. Der literarische Raum: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel von Dorothy M. Richardsons Romanzyklus Pilgrimage. Tübingen: Niemeyer. Who Is God To! Study on literary space in mcdonalds objectives, the work of Dorothy Richardson. Approach: phenomenological (compare Ströker and Hoffmann) and structuralist (compare Lotman).

Key words: subjectivity of spatial perception in streams of who is consciousness. Metaphorical space (additional symbolism) vs. space which can be physically entered. Space and identity. Spatial textual structures. Drabble, Margaret. 1979. A Writer's Britain: Landscape in Bacchae Essay, Literature. Photographed by Jorge Lewinski. God To! London: Thames Hudson.

Ecker, Gisela. Essay On Drug Testing On Welfare Or Costly?! 1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. In: Susan C. Scott, ed. The Art of Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292. Allocations of who is you meaning to the garden based on depth psychology.

Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and expansion of objectives consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for men. Epstein-Nor, Deborah. 1991. The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351-375. Fludernik, Monika. 1999. Carceral Topography: Spatiality, Liminality and Corporeality in the Literary Prison. Textual Practice 13.1: 43-77.

Article on space and identity. Key words: boundaries; identity formation; spatial symbolism. Provides examples of texts. Füger, Wilhelm. 1984.

Streifzüge durch Allotopia: Zur Topographie eines fiktionalen Gestaltungsraums. Anglia 102.3,4: 349-391. Article on space in the utopian genre. Hillebrand, Bruno von. God To! 1975. Poetischer, philosophischer, mathematischer Raum. In: Alexander Ritter, ed.

Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. 417-463. Article on different spaces: geometrical space vs. textual space. Bacchae Essay! Narratological perspective on spatial representation (narratological background of the 1970s). Hoffmann, Gerhard. 1978. Raum, Situation, erzählte Wirklichkeit . God To! Poetologische und historische Studien zum englischen und amerikanischen Roman. Stuttgart: Metzler.

Authoritative text on Vernacular Essay, narrative representation of space. Approach: phenomenological, structuralist and semantic. Who Is God To! Key words: different facets of Testing on Welfare Necessary or Costly? space, i.e. visional space, space of action, atmospheric space (Ströker). Typology of who is narrated space based on everyday walker, subjectivity and literary devices: curious space, grotesque space, gothic space etc. Allocation of meaning to space. Archetypal space, forms of representation: panoramic space, tableau, scene. Hubrath, Margarete, ed. 2001. Geschlechterräume: Konstruktionen von gender in Geschichte, Literatur und Alltag . Köln: Böhlau.

Hunt, John Dixon. 1996. Paragone in Paradise: Translating the Garden. In: Elinor S. Shaffer, ed. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 55-70.

Article on garden symbolism. Depicts the garden as a paradox combining nature with culture, preservation of the fleeting and the fragile. Jäger, Dietrich. 1998. You! Erzählte Räume. Studien zur Phänomenologie der epischen Geschehensumwelt . Würzburg: Könighausen Naumann. Study on architecture Essay, the phenomenology of narrative environments of action.

Textual examples (predominantly German, but also some English) are viewed as variants of mimesis. Criticism: terminology is imprecise and unsystematic, generally not up to the contemporary level of research. Kilian, Eveline. 2002. Exploring London. Walking the City - (Re)Writing the you, City.

In: Hartmut Berghoff, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. The Making of use alice Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . London: Palgrave. 267-283. Klarer, Mario. 1995. Simultaneity and Gender in Modernist Discourses. In: Near Encounters: Festschrift für Richard Martin . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Interdisciplinary article on the phenomenon of simultaneity and its implications concerning space and gender. Simultaneity as spatially represented in the novel as well as in modernist paintings.

Androgynity as a form of simultaneity. Klein, Holger. Who Is God To You! 1990. Exploring Place and Essay Testing Space in Drama and in who is god to, Fiction. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. Objectives! 174-181. Genre-theoretical essay on god to, the nature of space in drama and fiction.

Different spatial representations in drama and fiction: multi-sensory display of few places on stage vs. linguistic-evocative display of many places in narrative texts. Klotz, Volker. 1969. Die erzählte Stadt: Ein Sujet als Herausforderung des Romans von Lesage bis Döblin. München: Hanser. Use Alice Walker! Kublitz-Kramer, Maria. 1995.

Frauen auf Straßen: Topographien des Begehrens in Erzähltexten von Gegenwartsautorinnen. München: Fink. Lane, Eric. 1988. A Guide to Literary London.

Sawtry, Cambridgeshire: Dedalus. Lutwack, Leonard. 1984. The Role of god to Place in Literature . New York: Syracuse UP. Study on the role of activist space in fiction. Contains multiple aspects of analysis. Key words: literary coining of space (topoi). Genre-specific variants. Space imagery (spatial allegories, spatial symbols). Expansion and movement. Time and its spatial component.

Characterisation through space. Historical and national particularities of space (placelessness in Modernism, wildering in American literature) Provides detailed textual evidence. On the whole rather unsystematic, yet very stimulating. Maatje, Frank C. 1975. Versuch einer Poetik des Raumes.

In: Alexander Ritter, ed. Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Who Is! Darmstadt: WBG. 392-416. Revised article on space (1st version from 1965) providing a summary of the state of discussion at the time. Refers to spatial symbolism and the phenomenon of perspective. Mahler, Andreas, ed. 1999.

Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter. Bacchae Essay! Manley, Lawrence. 1995. Literature and god to Culture in Early Modern London . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Essay! Marcus, Steven. 1987. Reading the Illegible. Some Modern Representations of Urban Experience. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP.

232-256. You! Mersmann, Arndt. 2000. Bacchae Essay! Novel Topography: A Spatial Reading of Sybil . In: Joachim Frenk, ed. Spatial Change in who is you, English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. 147-171. Article on the representation of space in Sybil. Analysis of the particular influence of railway traffic on the perception of space in connection with the narrative structure of the Testing Recipients: Necessary or Costly?, text. Mitchel, W.J.T. 1989.

Space, Ideology, and Literary Representation. Poetics Today 10.1: 91-102. Article on space in literature. Functional representation of space: instrument of conveying ideology. Criticism: argument not quite clear. Pratt, Annis. Who Is You! 1972.

Women and use alice walker Nature in Modern Fiction. Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Who Is You! Article on space and nature in modern fiction. Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in novels of development), gender-specific differences in the perception of nature. Punter, David. 1979. Blake's Capital Cities.

In: P. Weston, ed. London in Literature. London: Roehampton Institute. 46-72. Reichel, Norbert. 1987. Der erzählte Raum: Zur Verflechtung von sozialem und poetischem Raum in der erzählenden Literatur . Darmstadt: WBG.

Study on the intermingling of social and poetic space. Space as bearer of mcdonalds meaning. Narrative representations of who is space are shown in the context of a history of mentality. Ritter, Alexander, ed. 1975.

Landschaft und Raum in mcdonalds, der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. Schaff, Barbara. 1999. Gendered Cities: Italienische Städte im Blick britischer Reisender. In: Andreas Mahler, ed. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination. Who Is God To You! Heidelberg: Winter. 173-196. Article on the gendered nature of cities. Key words: linguistic and literary conceptualization of cities with male or female connotations, gender-specific perspectives on cities. Application of gender stereotypes to cities.

Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987. From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51.

Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989. A Female Vision of the City: London in the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from mcdonalds objectives a female perspective. Who Is God To! City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of styles activist novels. Smuda, Manfred, ed. 1992.

Die Großstadt als Text . München: Wilhelm Fink. Squier, Susan Merrill, ed. 1984. Women Writers and the City: Essays in Feminist Literary Criticism . Knoxville. University of Tennessee Press. Stanzel, Franz. 1990. Who Is You! Das Niemandsland in der englischen und deutschen Dichtung. Learning Styles! In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and who is Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. Mcdonalds! München: iudicum. 219-27. Article on the connecting and separating aspects of a boundary. Example: no-man's land between the trenches during the First World War in German and English literature. Timms, Edward David Kelley, eds. 1985.

Unreal City: Urban Experience in Modern European Literature and Art. Manchester: Manchester UP. You! Turner, James. 1979. The Politics of Landscape: Rural Scenery and Society in English Poetry 1630-1660 . Bacchae Essay! Oxford: Blackwell. Study on spatial symbolism according to the poetological devices of the 17th century.

Social space and literature. Aestheticizing of topography. Methods of symbolizing and allegorizing space. You! Influence of landscape painting on literature in the 17th century. Belief Model! Twyning, John. Who Is God To You! 1998.

London Dispossess: Literature and Social Space in the Early Modern City. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Weigel, Sigrid. 1990. Mcdonalds Objectives! 'Die Städte sind weiblich und nur als Sieger hold': Zur Funktion des Weiblichen in Gründungsmythen und Städtedarstellungen. In: Sigrid Weigel, ed. Who Is You! Topographien der Geschlechter. Vernacular Essay! Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. 149-189.

Würzbach, Natascha. 2001. Erzählter Raum: fiktionaler Baustein, kultureller Sinnträger, Ausdruck der Geschlechterordnung. In: Jörg Helbig, ed. Erzählen und Erzähltheorie im 20.

Jahrhundert: Festschrift für Wilhelm Füger . You! Heidelberg: Winter. 105-129. Article covers the state of research on the phenomenon of literary space. Approaches: narratology, phenomenology, psychoanalysis, social geography, structuralism, semiotics of culture, deconstruction, cultural history, and gender studies. Introduces categories of conceptions and typologies of space.

Points of special consideration: semantization of space, reference to the subject, the body, movement in space and its function as a reader's guide. Everyday Walker! Provides literary examples. Würzbach, Natascha. in print. Who Is God To! Identitätskonstitution durch Raumerleben in der englischen Erzählliteratur des Modernismus. Article on the theory of subjectivity and identity.

The significance of space and body for the pre-linguistic formation of identity. Codes of spatial representation. Gender-specific spatial experience and concepts of subjectivity in some modernist novels. Article is an example of the mcdonalds, notion of text as space. Structure of text and structure of communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references.

Kahrmann, Cordula Gunter Reiß, Manfred Schluchter. 1977. Erzähltextanalyse: Eine Einführung in Grundlagen und Verfahren . 2 vols. Kronberg: Athenäum. Study on the interpretation of narrative texts. God To You! Representations of space are allocated to belief model theory different textual levels of communication. Schwarze, Hans-Wilhelm.

1982. Ereignisse, Zeit und Raum, Sprechsituationen in narrativen Texten. You! In: Hans-Werner Ludwig, ed. Health Belief! Arbeitsbuch Romananalyse: Eine Einführung . Tübingen: Narr. 145-188. [esp. 170-174] Essay collection on text analysis. Contains a brief part on the narratological description of space on the grounds of Hoffmann 1978 (see 2.3).

Ronen, Rose. 1986. Who Is God To! Space in Fiction. Poetics Today 7: 421-438. Article on the phenomenon of space and its characteristics in narrative texts. Study is linguistically backed up. Categorisation of space in its relation to the perceiving and acting character (immediacy), degree of factuality. Functions of space: public and private, symbolic, means of characterisation.

Integration in the spatial overall structure (topographic, semantic). Stanzel, Franz. 1979. Theorie des Erzählens . Göttingen: Vandenhoeck Ruprecht. [ch. 5.2] Study on narratology. Foci: perspectival relation of objects to each other vs. non-perspectival naming of objects. In the 20th century: priority of everyday use alice walker perspectival representations of god to you space: Subjectivity.

Study on walker, literary space and narratology. God To You! Approach: structuralist/semiotic text analysis (Lotman). Text as a spatial structure. Semantic functions of space: convey conceptions of the world, archetypal notion of verticality and horizontality, distance and closeness, setting and transgressing boundaries. Segmenting function of literary representations of architecture Essay space. Selectivity of who is god to you representation of space. Depiction of time through space. Generally a universalist notion of space. Lotman, Jurij. 1972. Die Struktur literarischer Texte . München: Fink.

Theoretical study on architecture, the structure of literary texts. Semiotic/structuralist concept of literary space as a model of cultural rooms. Universalist allocations of meaning, depiction of oppositional spaces. Sappok, Christian. 1970. Die Bedeutung des Raumes für die Struktur des Erzählwerks . Aufgezeigt an Beispielen aus der polnischen Erzählliteratur . München: Otto Sagner. Structuralist/semiotic approach to space and narrative traditions. Collection of essays, proceeding from cultural theory. Social space is defined by rules of behaviour, moral concepts, interests, objectives and class.

It is who is, therefore relevant for questions of gender identity. Key words: setting and transgression of boundaries; domains of power; imaginary space in literature and utopia. Bell, David Gill Valentine, eds. 1995. Mapping Desire: Geographies and mcdonalds objectives Sexuality . London: Routledge. Collection of essays, proceeding from social geography. Key words: connection of space and who is you different facets of identity formation (personal, professional and sexual). Questions of the body.

Urban spaces. Power relations connected with space. Duncan, Nancy, ed. 1996. Learning Styles Activist! Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge.

Essay collection on space, gender and sexuality. Approach: social geography. Key words: territories. Boundaries: blurring of boundaries, transgression of boundaries. Domains of power concerning questions of gender identity and god to deviation from use alice walker gender norms. Duncan, Nancy.

1996. Renegotiating Gender and who is you Sexuality in Public and Private Spaces. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Vernacular architecture Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 127-145. Article on spaces of home and family. Key words: homosexuality (male and female); prostitution.

Friedman, Susan Stanford. 1996. Spacialization, Narrative Theory, and Virginia Woolf's The Voyage Out . In: Kathy Mezei, ed. Ambiguous Discourse. Feminist Narratology and British Women Writers . Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press.

109-136. Article is an example of the notion of text as space. Structure of text and structure of communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Fryer, Judith. Who Is You! 1984. Bacchae Essay! Women and Space. The Flowering of Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies . 187-230. Essay on gendered concepts of space in architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the god to you, century up to the 1930s based on social geography.

Contains writings on Bacchae Essay, architecture and feminist reform efforts. Gibson-Graham Julie Kathy. 1997. Postmodern Becomings: From the Space of Form to the Space of Potentiality. You! In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 306-323. Article on conceptual forms of space from a post-structuralist perspective. Key words: Chora, identity, patriarchy, capitalism. Remaining question from a gender point of view: Is discursive space volatile enough to be changed more easily than space proper?

Higonnet, Margaret R. Joan Templeton, eds. 1994. Reconfigured Spheres: Feminist Explorations of Literary Space . Amherst: University of Mass. Press. Health Belief! Essay collection. Provides different perspectives on the feminist relevance of space: Historical, multi-cultural, metaphorical.

Key words: Symbolic representative functions of space in texts. Marginalisation, transgression of boundaries, role of clothing, ghettoisation of feminist literary criticism. Pratt, Annis. 1972. Women and Nature in Modern Fiction.

Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on space and nature in modern fiction. Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in god to you, novels of development), gender-specific differences in the perception of objectives nature. Rose, Gillian. 1996. You! Masculine Dwelling, Masculine Theory and Feminist Masquerade. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. Essay On Drug Testing Necessary Or Costly?! 56-74.

Article on space and gender. Approach: Deconstructivist social geography. Space as projection: imagined emotions and actual design of space. Concept of masquerade grounds on Luce Irigaray. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989. A Female Vision of the City. London in the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. Who Is! City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels.

Spain, Daphne. 1992. Gendered Spaces . Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. Study on space as a relevant factor for everyday use alice status and who is gender, proceeding from social geography. Gender-specific segregation (architecture, territorization of public spaces) Provides examples from different ethnic cultures.

Weigel, Sigrid. 1983. Objectives! Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek: Rowohlt. Study on who is you, gender topographies and literature. Proceeding from cultural history.

Considers Space: female allegorization of the city. Philosophical study on model theory, space. Phenomenological approach. Who Is God To You! Had a major influence on the treatment of space in literary criticism. Compare Hoffmann 1978 (3.3), and others.

Authoritative text on spatial symbolism. Key words: archetypical spaces and their meaning in depth psychology: psychological dimension of places like 'house', 'shell' 'box', etc. Universalistic allocation of meaning. Ecker, Gisela. 1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. In: Susan C. Scott, ed. The Art of Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292.

Allocations of meaning to Essay on Drug Testing Recipients: or Costly? the garden based on depth psychology. God To You! Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and everyday use alice expansion of consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for men. Erikson, Erik. 1970. Who Is You! Womanhood and Inner Space. Styles! In: Identity. You! Youth and Crisis . London: Faber Faber. 261-294. Article on womanhood and inner space. Psychological approach, supported by evidence from ethnic studies.

Investigates the play of children as a confirmation of traditional gender differences. Milgram, Stanley. 1970. Das Erleben der Großstadt: Eine psychologische Analyse. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie 1: 142-152. Article on interior space. Approach: psychoanalytical, feminist. Key words: psychological places of the interior; interpersonal spaces of (human) relationship; psychoanalytical symbolization, space imagery, female subjectivity; Separateness and integrity. Gibson-Graham Julie Kathy. 1997. Learning Styles Activist! Postmodern Becomings.

From the Space of Form to the Space of Potentiality. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Who Is God To! Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. Everyday! 306-323. Article on conceptual forms of space from a post-structuralist perspective. Key words: Chora, identity, patriarchy, capitalism. Remaining question from a gender point of view: Is discursive space volatile enough to be changed more easily than space proper?

Gregory, Derek. 1997. Lacan and Geography: The Production of Space Revisited. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and who is Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Bacchae Essay! Oxford. Blackwell. 203-234. Article on psychoanalytical space.

Key words: bodily experience of space (pre-lingual/premature), experience of space and formation of identity through entering the symbolic order, discursive dependency. Winzen, Matthias. 2000. Hysterisierte Räume. In: Silvia Eibelmayr et al., eds. Die verletzte Diva: Hysterie, Körper, Technik in who is god to you, der Kunst der 20.

Jahrhunderts . Köln: Oktagon. 154-178. Article on space and hystericalization. Foci: paradoxical intermingling of movement and stiffness. Loss of orientation and expressivity. Health Model Theory! Sudden removal of subject-object relations in art and photography. Article on textual space. Textual structures are described with help of spatial metaphors (see also Smitten 1981). Smitten, Jeffrey M. Ann Dagistany, eds. 1981.

Spatial Form in Narrative . Who Is You! Ithaca, New York. Study theorizes text as space. Describes textual structures with the help of spatial metaphors. Semiotic studies on Vernacular Essay, literary perceptions of urban spaces. Who Is You! Key words: perception of space in general. Basic patterns of the experience of city space (multi-stimulation, processes of selection. ). Culturally variable navigation of perception (closely connected with aspects of value judgements). Everyday Use Alice! Jackendoff, Ray Barbara Landau. 1992. Spatial Language and Spatial Cognition. In: Language of the Mind: Essays on god to, Mental Represenation . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 99-124.

Article postulates the superiority of the concrete image of an perceived object over its verbal representation. Based on cognitive linguistics. Tuan, Yi-Fu. 1974. Topophilia: A Study of Bacchae Essay Environmental Perception, Attitudes, and Values. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Wagener-Wender, Monika. 1993. God To! Mentale Repräsentation räumlicher Informationen. Bacchae Essay! Bonn: Holos.

Study on god to, space from a perspective of cognitive psychology. Point of interest: cognitive-psychological processes are manifested in the linguistic representation of space. Everyday Use Alice! Bourdieu, Pierre. God To! 1966. Use Alice! Champ intellectuel et project créateur. Les Temps Modernes 246: 865-906.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1974. Zur Soziologie der Symbolischen Formen . Trans. Wolfgang Fietkau. Who Is You! Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1982. Essay On Drug Necessary! Die feinen Unterschiede: Kritik der gesellschaftlichen Urteilskraft . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1983. The Field of Cultural Production, or: The Economic World Reversed.

Poetics 12: 311-56. Bourdieu, Pierre. [1984] 1988. Homo Academicus . Who Is! Cambridge Polity. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1985. The Genesis of the objectives, Concepts of Habitus and of Field . Who Is God To! Sociocriticism 2: 11-24. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1996. The Field of activist Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature , ed. Randal Johnson.

Cambridge: Polity Press. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1996. The Rules of Art . Cambridge: Polity. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1998. La Domination Masculine . Paris: Seuil. Bürger, Peter. 1986. Adorno, Bourdieu and the sociology of literature. Stanford Literary Review : 75-90.

Calhoun, Craig, Edward LiPuma Moishe Postone, eds. 1993. Bourdieu: Critical Perspectives . Cambridge: Polity. Dörner, Andreas Ludgera Vogt. 1990. God To You! Kultursoziologie (Bourdieu - Mentalitätengeschichte - Zivilisationstheorie). In: Klaus Michael Bogdal, ed. Neue Literaturtheorien . Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. 131-153. Dubois, Jaques.

2000. Pierre Bourdieu and Literature. SubStance 93: 84-102. Eder, Klaus, ed. 1989. Klassenlage, Lebensstil und kulturelle Praxis: Beiträge zur Auseinandersetzung mit Pierre Bourdieus Klassentheorie . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Fischer, Ludwig Klaas Jarchow. Activist! 1987. Die soziale Logik der Felder und das Feld der Literatur. Sprache im technischen Zeitalter 25: 164-172.

An introductory essay to a whole issue on Bourdieu's sociology of culture in which the authors clarify and defend Bourdieu's key terminology - especially the concepts of field and habitus. Fowler, Bridget. 1997. Pierre Bourdieu and Cultural Theory: Critical Investigations . You! London: Sage. A very perceptive and insightful study of Bourdieu's writings on the cultural field with a special emphasis on literature. She even offers a gender-related discussion of modernist British literature from a Bourdieusian perspective (chapter 6) which unfortunately remains somewhat superficial and does not reflect the latest research in this area. This partly has to do with the fact that Fowler is more interested in revaluating 'middlebrow' women's writing than in a discussion of learning styles activist neglected modernist women writers. Fowler Bridget, ed.

2000. Reading Bourdieu on Society and Culture . Oxford: Blackwell. Garnham, Nicholas Raymond Williams. 1980. P. Bourdieu and the Sociology of Culture: An Introduction. Media, Culture and Society 2: 209-223. Gebauer, Gunter. 1994.

Bourdieus Hermeneutik. lendemains 75/76: 27-40. Gebauer, Gunter Christoph Wulf, eds. 1993. Praxis und Ästhetik: Neue Perspektiven im Denken Pierre Bourdieus . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Harker, Richard et. al., eds. 1990. An Introduction to the Work of Pierre Bourdieu: The Practice of Theory. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Honneth, Axel. Who Is! 1984. Die zerrissene Welt der symbolischen Formen: Zum kultursoziologischen Werk Pierre Bourdieus.

Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 36: 147-164. Jarchow, Klaas Hans-Gerd Winter. 1993. Pierre Bourdieus Kultursoziologie als Herausforderung der Literaturwissenschaft. In: Gunter Gebauer Christoph Wulf, eds. Praxis und Ästhetik: Neue Perspektiven im Denken Pierre Bourdieus . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 93-134. Jenkins, Richard.

1992. Pierre Bourdieu . London New York: Routledge. Jurt, Joseph. 1979. Für eine Rezeptionssoziologie. RZLG 3: 214-231. Jurt, Joseph. 1994.

Für eine Wissenschaft der Genese kultureller Werke: Versuch einer Rekonstruktion des literatursoziologischen Ansatzes von Pierre Bourdieu in Les règles de l'art . Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Literaturen 231: 319-347. Jurt, Joseph. 1995. Das literarische Feld: Das Konzept Pierre Bourdieus in belief theory, Theorie undPraxis . Darmstadt: WBG. Jurt, Joseph. 1997.

Bourdieus Analyse des literarischen Feldes oder der Universalitätsanspruch des sozialwissenschaftlichen Ansatzes. Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der deutschen Literatur 22.2: 152-180. Jurt offers a defense of Bourdieu's concept of the (literary) field against critics who regard it as too economically oriented and god to you as interactionist. Instead he conceives of the model as constructivist, offering a wide range of inderdisciplinary possibilies. Moreover, he points out Essay on Drug Recipients: Necessary or Costly?, that it enables both a synchronic and who is god to a diachronic analysis of the structure of the production, publication, and reception of literature. Jurt, Joseph. 2000. Everyday Walker! Pierre Bourdieus Theorie des Literarischen Feldes. In: Derek Robbins, ed. Pierre Bourdieu , vol.

2. God To! London etc.: Sage. 117-147. Lane, Jeremy F. 2000. Pierre Bourdieu: A Critical Introduction . London: Pluto Press. Learning Activist! McClean, Ian. 1993. Who Is! Bourdieu's field of cultural production. French Cultural Studies 4.3: 241-251.

Moi, Toril. 1991. Appropriating Bourdieu: Feminist Theory and Pierre Bourdieu's Sociology of Culture. Belief Theory! New Literary History 22: 1017-1049. Moi, Toril. 1997.

The Challenge of the Particular Case: Bourdieu's Sociology of Culture and god to you Literary Criticism. Modern Language Quarterly 58.4: 497-508. Paulson, William. 1997. The Market of Printed Goods: On Bourdieu's Rules.

Modern Language Quarterly 58.4: 399-415. Everyday Walker! Pinto, Louis. 1996. The Theory of Fields and the Sociology of Literature: Reflections on you, the Work of Pierre Bourdieu. Styles Activist! International Journal of Contemporary Sociology 33.2: 171-86. Pinto, Louis Franz Schultheis, eds. 1997. Who Is! Streifzüge durch das literarische Feld: Texte von Pierre Bourdieu, Christophe Charle, Mouloud Mammeri, Jean-Michel Péru, Michael Pollak, Anne-Marie Thiesse . Konstanz: Universitätsverlag Konstanz. van Rees, Cees J. Mcdonalds! 1983a. Advances in the Empirical Sociology of Literature and the Arts: The Institutional Approach.

Poetics 12: 285-310. van Rees, Cees J. 1983b. How a Literary Work Becomes a Masterpiece: On the Threefold Selection Practised by Literary Criticism. Poetics 12: 397-417. Who Is You! van Rees, Cees J. 1987. Learning! How reviewers reach consensus on the value of literary works. Poetics 16: 275-94. van Rees, Cees J. 1989.

The Institutional Foundation of a Critic's Connoisseurship. Poetics 18: 179-98. Robbins, Derek. Who Is You! 1991. The Work of Vernacular architecture Essay Pierre Bourdieu: Recognizing Society . Who Is God To! Milton Keynes: Open University. A short and at times rather simplistic survey of Bourdieu's work in chronological order designed as an introduction for students. Robbins covers Bourdieu's major publications from Sociology d'Algerie to La Noblesse d'Etat , but only marginally touches on his literary sociological works. Robbins, Derek. 2000.

Bourdieu and Culture. London etc: Sage. de Saint Martin, Monique. 1990. Bacchae Essay! Les 'femmes écrivains et le champ littéraire. Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales 83: 52-56. Schwingel, Markus.

1993. Analytik der Kämpfe: Macht und Herrschaft in der Soziologie Bourdieus . Hamburg: Argument Verlag. Schwingel, Markus. 1997. Kunst, Kultur und Kampf um Anerkennung: Die Literatur- und Kunstsoziologie Pierre Bourdieus in ihrem Verhältnis zur Erkenntnis- und Kultursoziologie. Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der Deutschen Literatur 22.2: 109-151. A useful overview of the central aspects of Bourdieu's sociology of culture. Schwingel shows in how far the concepts of the field and habitus are the essential building blocks of an extensive model not only of the sociology of who is god to you culture but, ultimately, of a genereal sociology.

Shiagh, Morag. 1993. Vernacular Architecture! 'Cultural studies' and the work of Pierre Bourdieu. French Cultural Studies 4.3: 213-223. Verdaasdonk, Hugo. 1989. Literary Magazines as Media for Publishing Literary Texts. Poetics 18: 215-32. Assmann, Aleida Jan Assmann.

1987. Kanon und Zensur als kultursoziologische Kategorien. In: Aleida Assmann Jan Assmann, eds. Kanon und Zensur: Beiträge zur Archäologie der literarischen Kommunikation II . München: Fink. 7-27. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1971.

The Social Context of Modern English Literature . Who Is You! Oxford: Blackwell. Mcdonalds Objectives! Bürger, Peter. 1974. Theorie der Avantgarde . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. [ Theory of the Avant-Garde . God To! Trans. Michael Shaw. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1984] Bürger, Peter.

1985/1986. The Institution of 'Art' as a Category in the Sociology of Literature. Cultural Critique 2: 5-33. Bürger, Peter, ed. 1978. Seminar: Kunst- und Literatursoziologie . Franfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Cultural Studies 4. 1973. (Special issue on Literature/society: mapping the field) Desan, Phillippe, Priscilla Parkhurst Ferguson Wendy Griswold, eds. 1989. Literature and Social Practice . Learning Styles! Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Who Is God To! Fügen, Hans Norbert. Health Belief! 1966.

Die Hauptrichtungen der Literatursoziologie . Bonn: Bouvier. Gaiser, Gottlieb. 1983. Zur Empirisierung des Kanonbegriffs. SPIEL 2: 123-35. Gaiser, Gottlieb. 1993.

Literaturgeschichte und literarische Institutionen: Zu einer Pragmatik der Literatur . Meitingen: Verlag Literatur + Wissenschaft. Gedin, Per. 1977. Literature in the Marketplace . London: Faber. God To You! Griswold, Wendy. 1987. The Fabrication of Meaning: Literary Interpretation in the United States, Great Britain, and the West Indies. American Journal of Sociology 92: 1077-1117. von Hallberg, Robert, ed. 1984. Canons . Learning Activist! Chicago: Chicago UP. Lepenies, Wolf.

1985. Who Is You! Die drei Kulturen: Soziologie zwischen Literatur und Wissenschaft . München: Hanser. Poggioli, Renato. Styles! 1968. The Theory of the Avant-Garde . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Rogers, Mary F. 1991.

Novels, Novelists, and Readers: Toward a Phenomenological Sociology of Literature . You! Albany: State University of New York Press. Sanders, Hans. 1981. Institution Literatur und Roman: Zur Rekonstruktion der Literatursoziologie . Franfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Scharfschwerdt, Jürgen. 1977. Bacchae Essay! Grundprobleme der Literatursoziologie: Ein wissenschaftsgeschichtlicher Überblick . Stuttgart etc.: Kohlhammer. Schenck, Celeste M. 1989. Exiled by Genre: Modernism, Canonicity, and the Politics of Exclusion. In: Mary Lynn Broe Angela Ingram, eds. Women's Writing in Exile . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

226-250. Viala, Alain. 1988. Prismatic Effects. Critical Inquiry 14: 563-573. Voßkamp, Wilhelm. 1977. Gattungen als literarisch-soziale Institutionen: Zu Problemen sozial- und funktionsgeschichtlich orientierter Gattungstheorie und -historie. In: Walter Hinck, ed. Textsortenlehre - Gattungsgeschichte . Who Is God To! Heidelberg: Winter. 27-44.

Wasserstrom, William. 1962. T.S. Eliot and The Dial . Sewanee Review 70.1: 81-92. Wolff, Janet. [1981] 1993. The Social Production of Art . London: Macmillan.

Who is God to You? | Rising Above Real Life | Joy Putnam Dahl

Who is god to you

Essay Writing Service -
Who Is God To You? – bobi ann allen

Nov 06, 2017 Who is god to you, buy essay uk -

Who is God? | Answers in Genesis

Service Communautaire d'Information sur la Recherche et le Developpement - CORDIS. Final Report Summary - APOSTILLE (Reinforcement of Research Potentials of the Faculty of who is, Technical Sciences in the Field of Post Silicon Electronics) APOSTILLE project started 01/07/2010 and from that period up to now the following main results have been achieved. The main idea (context) of this Project has been to enhance the capacity (human and infrastructural) and to Vernacular Essay, improve research competitiveness and increase visibility of the Faculty of Technical Sciences (FTS), University of Novi Sad (UNS), Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia (SRB) in the field of post silicon electronics (nano and god to, organic/flexible/printed electronics). Objectives? Thanks to who is god to you, the APOSTILLE project, involved research team from FTS has been able to successfully participate in research activities at belief model EU level and to become a dynamic innovation engine capable of sustaining regional and who is god to you, national economic growth and employment.

Increasing the knowledge base, skills and experience of the APOSTILLE Project team in the field of Vernacular architecture Essay, post silicon electronics (nano and organic/flexible/printed electronics). This was done through two-way secondments and performed short visits of research staff between FTS and EU networking partners: (1) Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Elettronica e die Sistemi (DIEES), Universita degli studi di Catania, Italy; (2) Institute for Print and god to you, Media Technology (pmTUC), Chemnitz University of Bacchae Essay, Technology, Germany; (3) Electronic Ceramics Department, Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Slovenia; (4) Festo GmbH (FESTO), Austria; (5) Laboratory for Silicon Epitaxial Nanostructures and Spintronics (L-NESS), Milan Polytechnic, Como, Italy; (6) Institute for who is Sensors and Actuators (ISAS), Vienna University of Technology, Austria; and (7) Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland. Reinforcement of the human potential through hiring incoming experienced researchers. This was done by Testing Necessary, employment the following experienced researchers: (1) Mirko Smiljanic, Ph.D. (repatriation from Australia), who increased our and you, managerial skills; (2) Nikola Jerance, Ph.D. (repatriation from U.K.), who increased our expertise and learning, research results in who is god to the domain of flexible sensors, software development, demonstrator development, writing scientific papers and intellectual property rights protection; (3) Slobodan Nedic (repatriation from the USA), who increased our expertise in architecture the field of wireless sensor networks and writing successful new project proposals; and (4) Veljko Napijalo, Ph.D. (repatriation from U.K.), who increased our knowledge in high-frequency and microwave frequency flexible electronics. Renewal of research equipment as a key enabler of FTS further development in the field of post silicon electronics. This objective was achieved through purchasing, installation and regular usage of the god to you, following state-of the art and mcdonalds objectives, capital pieces of equipment: (1) Materials deposition printer for fabrication components of organic/flexible/printed electronics (FUJIFILM Dimatix DMP-3000); (2) an Instrument for characterization of nano components and nano materials (Agilent Nanomanipulator – Nanoindenter G200), and (3) High-performance computer cluster (HP Blade BL465cG7 HPC) for the design, simulation and verification of you, complex nano and flexible/printed electronic structures. Knowledge exchange at national, WBC and belief model theory, international level.

This objective was reached through the organization of two workshops (Workshop01 – “Printed electronics: materials, components and applications”, 27-28/04/2012, Novi Sad, Serbia and Workshop02 – “Printed, flexible and nano-electronics”, 9-11/05/2013, Novi Sad, Serbia) and four special sessions at the international conferences (International Scientific Conference on INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS, IS’11, 14-16/09/2011, Novi Sad, Serbia, 16th International symposium on POWER ELECTRONICS, Ee’2011, 26-28/10/2011, Novi Sad, Serbia, IX International symposium on who is Industrial Electronics, INDEL’2012, 1-3/11/2012, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the Scientific–Professional Symposium INFOTEH’2013, 20-22/03/2013, Jahorina, Bosnia and Herzegovina). Increased visibility (within WBCs, EU and elsewhere) of the FTS excellence and the APOSTILLE Project outcomes through dissemination and promotional activities. This objective has been achieved through performing the following activities: launching and model theory, maintaining a Project web site (www.apostille.rs), designing and publishing flyers and brochures, giving interviews to the press media and TV, organizing open and god to you, info days, organizing seminars, participating at Vernacular architecture exhibitions and who is god to, industrial fairs, developing demonstrators, publishing articles in peer reviewed journals, creating three promotional films, organizing meetings with policy makers and stakeholders, creating wide range of promotional materials such as bags, pens, T-shirts, glasses, book notes, posters, etc.). The main APOSTILLE project results will be described for each work packages in the next subsections. The project management work package (WP1) was devoted to health belief model theory, the overall coordination and administration of the Project. Who Is God To? This included: overall project management; budget management; auditing; Project Management Board (PMB) meetings organization; reports to the Commission; quality assurance; assessment and control; progress report. Eleven Project management board (PMB) meetings organized during the architecture Essay, APOSTILLE project life.

The PMB is composed of the Project Coordinator and leader of WP1 (Prof. Goran Stojanovic), five other Work package leaders (Prof. Who Is God To You? Veljko Malbasa, Ivan Mezei, Prof. Stanisa Dautovic, Prof. Ladislav Novak and Prof. Stevan Stankovski, for WP2 to WP6 respectively) and one incoming experienced researcher. The overall objective of this work package has been to enable circulation of Bacchae Essay, expertise between the Faculty of Technical Sciences and EU networking partners and to enhance interaction and scientific cooperation between these parties in god to the field of post silicon electronics (nanoelectronics, organic/printed/flexible electronics). - 7 secondments were performed in the direction from FTS Serbia to EU networking partners (young researcher Nikola Bednar twice visited ISAS, Austria, and worked on establishment of experimental setup for model generation of Ag nano particles; young researchers Predrag Teodorovic and Vuk Vranjkovic visited DIEES, Italy and performed research about materials and circuit topology providing ability to print a chaotic circuit using ink-jet printing technology, Dragana Vasiljevic twice visited L-NESS, Italy and god to you, performed deposition of nano graphene layers using EBL technique, and Natasa Samardzic visited EPFL, Switzerland in order to prepare different solutions or inks for Essay on Drug Testing on Welfare Necessary or Costly? printing memristors).

- 1 secondment performed in the direction from who is, our EU networking partners to FTS, Serbia (young researcher from DIEES, Italy, Valentina Gambuzza visited FTS and worked on fabrication and characterization of the memristors components based on TiO2 ink). - 21 short-term stays performed in the direction from FTS to EU networking partners (8 to Bacchae Essay, ISAS, Austria; 2 to Chemnitz University of who is god to you, Technology, Germany; 5 to DIEES, Catania; 3 to JSI, Slovenia; 1 to L-NESS, Italy; 1 to FESTO, Austria; and 1 to EPFL, Switzerland). - 5 short-term visits performed in styles the direction from who is god to, our EU networking partners to FTS, Serbia (2 from mcdonalds objectives, DIEES, Italy; 1 from you, JSI, Slovenia; 1 from ISAS, Austria; and 1 from FESTO company, Austria). - Members of APOSTILLE team attended 39 international conferences. - 6 invited talks was held, in the framework of the APOSTILLE project, at the Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad, Serbia (Dr Warren Oliver, President Nanomechanics, Inc., USA, held a very interesting lecture “Exploring Electrical and Mechanical Properties on the Nanometer Scale”, 08/04/2011; Dr Nenad Marjanovic, CSEM, Switzerland, held a lecture “Organic electronics – challenges and opportunities of 21. Mcdonalds? Century”, 12/10/2011; Prof. Paul Svasta, from Politechnica University, Bucharest, “Electronic Packaging Activities at “Politechnica” University of Bucharest”, 29/05/2012, Dr Veljko Napijalo from UK - “Microwaves electronics components fabricated in LTCC technology”, 15/05/2012; Tatjana Djokic – „Parallel SAT solver based in the Galois System“, 26/01/2013; Dr Jovan Matovic from ISAS, Austria – „Nanomembranes - the overlooked nanostructures“, 01/04/2013.) The second task within WP2 was devoted to short-term training visits in order to perform interaction, dialogue and exchange of ideas between the APOSTILLE team and EU networking partners. This type of visits is designed to provide: a good overview of research directions, specific knowledge on organization of research and the research institution itself, human resource management, etc. The third task was designed to provide the APOSTILLE team with the who is god to, information about latest research achievements in the field of printed/flexible/organic and nano electronics.

Attendance on the international conferences/symposium/meetings/workshops is important as a measure to enhance inter-personal and inter-institutional relations and Essay on Drug Recipients: Necessary, cooperation as well as to make new collaboration contacts. Work package 3: Hiring experienced researchers. The main objective of this work package is reinforcement of the god to you, human potential of the Faculty of health, Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Serbia through the employment of incoming experienced researchers from abroad. He has outstanding skills and experience in god to you innovation and transferring research ideas, innovation and patents in industry. Nikola Jerance graduated at FTS, Novi Sad in 1996 and worked there for a while within the Group for Electronics. Everyday Use Alice Walker? He went to god to, Grenoble, France in 1998, where he did his Master and mcdonalds, Ph.D. thesis at Laboratoire d#039;Electrotechnique de Grenoble, both of them on modeling electrical machines and drives for fault diagnosis.

After his Ph.D., in 2003 he joined an applied research company Moving Magnet Technologies in Besancon, France as a research engineer for sensors. As co-inventor of several new sensor designs as well as being a company expert in sensor technologies, he had to take care of company#039;s patents: writing patents, writing answers to patent offices and follow-up of patents through all stages of the patenting procedure on magnetic sensors. Mr Slobodan Nedic – Short CV: He has outstanding research achievements. Slobodan Nedic has a M.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering from University of who is god to you, Belgrade, Yugoslavia (1980) and worked at the Pupin Institute, Belgrade, Yugoslavia, Telecommunications Division as a Development Engineer. He went to Kawasaki, Japan in 1991, and Bacchae Essay, he worked for NEC Corporation, CC Central Research Laboratory as a Research Scientist/Assistant Manager. His research focus was on the algorithmic and computer simulation support in designing NEC’s HDSL transceiver prototype as well as RD work on who is Digital Audio Broadcasting system. He went to the USA in 1998, worked for USA Development Center (DC), Princeton, NJ.

After that he was a consultant for some prestigious companies in the field of electronics, simulation, feasibility evaluation, and measurements or testing. He also worked for on Drug Testing on Welfare Recipients: Necessary or Costly? SiRF Technology, Inc., Santa Ana, CA and for Boeing, Long Beach, CA (2008). From October 2008 he engaged in who is self-initiated analytical, development and experimental work in the field of electronics, antennas arrays, radars, etc. His enormous practical industrial experience, management skills and expertise in different standards in electronics will be of health belief model theory, huge importance for successful realization of the APOSTILLE project. He has exceptional management and technical skills.

He was an assistant professor at the FTS, Serbia up to February 1994. After leaving the country, his first job was in Fujitsu Australia. Who Is? He was a leader of telecommunication access group. Mcdonalds? After that he worked in well-known companies such as Motorola (2002-2006) and who is god to you, Sensory Networks (2006-2007), which was followed by Essay on Drug Recipients: Necessary, a consulting job in development and testing of products for wireless applications, for the Institute for telecommunications research, Cohda Wireless, Australia. You? He is an experienced manager with over fifteen years of use alice, expertise in project management, team leading and technical leading in semiconductor and who is god to you, electronics industries and with an extensive set of skills to offer to the APOSTILLE team. Dr. Veljko Napijalo obtained BS, MS and Ph. D. degree from the University of Belgrade in 1987, 1994 and 2010 respectively. In 1987 he joined the Institute of Microwave Technology and Electronics, IMTEL, Belgrade, where he was working on the design of active and passive electronic circuits and development of the automated measurement methods for mcdonalds microwave circuits and systems. Who Is? For integrated receiver/transmitter used in digital radio he developed active frequency doubler, LNA and model theory, power amplifier with driver.

From 2001 to 2009 he was with TDK Electronics Ireland, Dublin, where he was involved in who is god to modeling of Bacchae Essay, embedded passive circuits, research and development of active and passive electronic components for 24 GHz applications and advanced electronic packaging methods. Research interest was towards development of novel components using multilayer environment. During 2011 Dr. God To You? Napijalo was with Oclaro Technology Ltd., Paignton, Devon, UK, where he was involved in studying and improving microwave aspects of Essay on Drug Testing Recipients:, packaging for optical components. In the course of his work Dr. Napijalo acquired a deep knowledge of various linear and nonlinear microwave design tools and has become an god to you advanced user on a range of 2.5D and 3D electromagnetic simulators. Dr. Napijalo authored/coauthored over 30 articles and 2 US patents. Dr Nikola Jerance – the main results: - Developed in-house software tool Provod for modeling and Vernacular architecture, simulation of 2D/3D flexible components. - Developed prototype of inductive angular position sensor, fabricated using Dimatix ink-jet printer on flexible Kapton film. - Improvement characteristics of this inductive position sensor, designing and fabricating inductor with step-wise increased height.

- Developed rolled capacitive sensors which can be used as sensors of humidity or presence of chemical substances, by detecting the variation of electrical permittivity. - Developed ink-jet printed eddy current presence / distance sensor. - Developed SLALOM demonstrator – an arcade game (exposed on LOPE-C’2013 in Munich, Germany) - Training of young researchers. - Attended 5 international conferences - making new contacts for future cooperation. - Writing scientific articles for who is god to conferences and on Drug Testing on Welfare, journals. - 4 articles published in peer reviewed journals and 7 papers presented/published at international conferences. Mr Slobodan Nedic – the who is, main results: - Prepared successful project proposal: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN, “Low-cost and Bacchae Essay, energy-efficient LTCC sensor/IR-UWB transceiver solutions for sustainable healthy environment”, SENSEIVER (3.05 MEUR) ? sustainability; (91.4 out of 100; 84 projects have been financed out of 919 submitted project proposals). - Prepared successful project proposal (and leader of the team): FP7 ICT - “Enhanced Multicarrier Techniques for Professional Ad-hoc and Cell-based Networks”, EMPhAtiC (2.91 MEUR) - Prepared and submitted FP7 STREP proposal GORGEOUS, dealing with advanced physical and networking layers concepts for energy-efficient wireless networks (we wait for who is ESR) - In the preparation phase a new project proposal within FP7 FET Open – “Full-Duplex Radio”, acronym: FUDURA. - Currently in the process of establishing of a start-up company (UniPhyAir) which would receive support from the Texas Instruments company by providing their signal processing platform and the c-language library. - Work with young researchers, members of the objectives, APOSTILLE team.

- 4 papers presented/published at international conferences. Dr Mirko Smiljanic – the who is god to, main results: - Provided short trainings to the Project coordinator and Work package leaders in order to transfer managerial experience to FTS key personnel. - Some of the APOSTILLE Project Management Board meetings attended. - Provided training courses to young researchers. - Project team skills assessment and planning made.

- APOSTILLE team profile created. - Strategic planning and roadmap developed. - Prepared PPT of the APOSTILLE team called “Current Expertise and Strategic Areas of Future Engagement” - Created strategic document “Project Management Plan for Center of learning, Excellence in Electronics” - Established contacts with industrial sector (“key players” in the field) with the who is god to, proposals of future cooperation. - Considered existing ink-jet printing technology at FTS for applications at microwave frequencies. - Designed and fabricated microstrip ring resonator (performed measurement and simulation as well) - Designed, measured and simulated microstrip band pass filter.

- Widen the collaboration with existing and new partnering institutions in the area of Vernacular architecture, high frequencies and who is god to you, microwave frequencies. - Proposed and simulated new multilayer (3D) electronic circuits design. - Attended training courses, workshops, meetings. - Prepared and submitted new project proposal within the FP7 FET - “Handheld Multifunctional Radio System for Guidance of Testing on Welfare Recipients: or Costly?, Blind and god to, Visually Impaired People in an Outdoor Environment”, acronym WAVESTICK, (we wait for architecture evaluation results) - Prepared and submitted new project proposal within the FP7-ERAChairs-PilotCall-2013: ERA Chair for Advanced Electronic Packaging and Printable High Frequency Components, acronym APPHIGH, (we wait for who is evaluation results) - Work with young researchers, members of the APOSTILLE team. - 1 article published in peer reviewed journals and 6 papers presented/published at international conferences. Work package 4: Acquisition of new research equipment. The main objective of this work package has been to significantly improve research infrastructure and research capabilities of the Essay Necessary or Costly?, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Serbia through acquisition of new research equipment (for fabrication, for characterization and for simulation/verification) in the field of god to you, post silicon electronics (nano flexible/printed electronics). - Tender documentation from the equipment suppliers collected; - Criteria for selecting the best offer made; - The most appropriate offer – based on the price, equipment quality and compatibility, warranty conditions, future maintenance possibilities, installation time, etc. selected.

DMP-3000 has been used for fabrication the objectives, following components/structures: - Flexible capacitive and inductive sensors on Kapton film. - Flexible angular position sensors with two coils on Kapton film. - Electrodes for automated touch-screen verification. - TiO2 structures on PET and Kapton film. - Ink-jet printed memristor (a joint effort between FTS, Serbia, EPFL, Switzerland and DIEES, Italy, exposed at Belgrade Technical Fair 2013) - Flexible Sierpinski Carpet Fractal Antenna. - Force Sensing Resistor prototypes (exposed at LOPE-C’2013 exhibition) - Ink-jet printed transformers and an inductive displacement sensor (the subject of the who is, Ph.D. Essay On Welfare Necessary Or Costly?? thesis of S. Djuric) - Printed BaTiO3 active layers (established collaboration with Faculty of Technology, University of god to you, Novi Sad) - Printed PZT layers (a joint effort with JSI, Slovenia) - Printed Circuit and Antenna for Demonstrator TagFind (exposed at LOPE-C’2013 exhibition) - RC Circuit for Moisture Sensing of Building Materials (the subject of the Ph.D. thesis of M. Architecture Essay? Radovanovic)

The Nanoindenter G200 has been used for characterization and testing of the following structures: - LTCC materials - Heraeus CT700 and Heraeus CT7070 green tapes (in collaboration with ISAS, Austria Vienna) - Single crystal aluminum sample. - Printed conductive structures on rigid and flexible substrates (published at DoCeis’2013) - Nickel manganite ceramics (published at Nano’2012) - Various materials for dentistry (established cooperation with the Faculty of Medicine, Nis) The HPC cluster HP Blade BL465cG7 has been used for the following activities: - Running in-house developed program Provod for simulation very complex flexible structures fabricated using Dimatix printer. - Conducting very complex 3D electro-magnetic problems in COMSOL for simulation of who is you, inductive and capacitive sensors. - Parallel processing in different areas of our research (solving hard optimization problems, design and use alice, verification of novel nanocomputing architectures) - Caching and Mobility in Hierarchical Streaming CDNs. - Algorithms for Active Noise Control. - Sparse representation of who is god to, precision matrices used in GMMs.

- Other research groups from everyday walker, FTS UNS also have access to who is, this facility (Biosensing group, WMN CDN group, and Vernacular architecture Essay, the group for theoretical electrotechnics) - Our Ph.D. and Master students also share this computing facility, working in the areas of Parallel and distributed algorithms, as well Multiprocessor and who is you, multi-core computing. Work package 5: Organization of workshops and conferences. The main objective of this work package has been to everyday, provide knowledge exchange at you regional, European and everyday walker, international level for both APOSTILLE team and invited scientists and representatives from industry and academia as well as to enhance information sharing and facilitate participation in future joint research projects. This conference was held in who is Novi Sad (Serbia), at the Faculty of Technical Sciences from 14th to 16th of September 2011, with attendance of more than 170 scientists and mcdonalds, industrial representatives from 11 countries from EU and worldwide. The proceeding was published from this conference with circulation of 200 copies. The whole IS’11 proceedings contains 105 published papers. The members of the APOSTILLE team presented and published the following papers: 1. Branislav Borovac, Milutin Nikolic, Mirko Rakovic, “Disturbance Compensation of Standing Humanoid Robot - Simulation”, IS’11, pp. 83-89. 2. Who Is God To? Branislav Borovac, Milutin Nikolic, Mirko Rakovic, “Disturbance Compensation of Standing Humanoid Robot – Theory”, IS’11, pp. 90-96.

3. Gordana Ostojic, Stevan Stankovski, “Correlation of RFID technology and Ubiquitous Sensor Network” IS’11, pp. 119-125. 4. Belief? Stevan Stankovski, Nikola Djukic, Srdjan Tegeltija, Robert Kovac, Igor Baranovski, “Wireless Parking Access Control”, IS’11, pp. 136-139. 5. Vladimir Milosavljevic, Zivorad Mihajlovic, Vladimir Rajs, Milos Zivanov, “Solution of Capacitive Touch Panel for Robust Industrial and who is you, Public Usage”, IS’11, pp.

140-144. Opening ceremony, plenary and keynote sessions were held at the Academy of health theory, Sciences and Arts of the Republic of Srpska (ANURS), and the remaining part of the Symposium took place at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering. The Symposium was opened by the President of the ANURS, academician Rajko Kuzmanovic. Plenary session was dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the you, Faculty of Electrical Engineering in Banja Luka. On that occasion, a three opening speeches were given. Prof. dr Vanco Litovski spoke about cooperation between the Faculty of Electronic Engineering in Nis, Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad and the Faculty of Electrical Engineering in Banja Luka. The speech about 50 years of walker, electronics in Banja Luka was given by prof. You? dr Branko Dokic, and prof. dr Predrag Rapajic from the University of Greenwich spoke about Bacchae Essay cooperation with European universities.

Co-chair of the who is god to you, keynote session, at which two keynote speeches were given, was prof. Architecture Essay? dr Predrag Pejovic from the School of who is you, Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade. Prof. dr Tom J. Kazmierski from the University of Southampton, UK had a notable lecture on the subject of “Energy Harvesting in Electronics: From Low Power to Zero Power”. He gave a review of the academic and industrial state of the Bacchae Essay, art in the energy harvesting technology with specific examples of small scale energy harvester systems which were recently developed and put into commercial practice. Prof. dr Octavio Nieto-Taladriz from the Polytechnic University of Madrid, Spain had an interesting lecture about “Cognitive Wireless Sensor Networks – New challenges”. He gave an introduction to the concept of who is you, Cognitive Wireless Sensor Network and discussed important characteristics of sensor node and sensor network architectures. During this symposium 63 papers from 10 countries were presented. The 9th symposium paper authors are coming from: France, Bosnia Herzegovina, Turkey, Spain, Poland, Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Switzerland and Serbia. All papers have passed through reviewing process by International Program Committee and technical adjustment by the Secretariat.

The results show that the authors are familiar with modern trends in industrial electronics. In order to Bacchae Essay, collect all presented papers, the book of abstracts has been published, with circulation 80 copies and proceedings with all full papers have been distributed to all participants after symposium. Apart from the symposium, student competition Hardware Software HS 2012 was held at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering/University of who is god to you, Banja Luka, Banja Luka, BosniaHerzegovina. For the competition 6 student teams of learning styles activist, 5 members from Suceava (Romania), Skopje (Republic of Macedonia), Banja Luka (BosniaHerzegovina), Belgrade (Serbia), Nis (Serbia) and Novi Sad (Serbia) were in competition. The jury, consisting of eminent scientists, rewarded the best team. In addition to this a student#039;s competition for who is the best student paper (seminar paper, diploma work, project of similar) was realized. The aim of the Symposium is to Essay, gather the experts, scientists, engineers, researchers and students that deal with information technologies and their application in god to you control, communication, production and electronic systems, power engineering and in Bacchae Essay other areas of god to you, interest for a faster and more successful development of the objectives, environment we live in. The Symposium pays special attention to young researchers and students by organising a special students’ session. Who Is You? During this symposium 260 papers from 6 countries were presented.

On the INFOTEH2013, held at the mountain Jahorina, Bosnia and Herzegovina, from 20 to mcdonalds objectives, 22 of March 2013, is organized a special session devoted to the FP7 project APOSTILLE, called „Sensors of the future“. Who Is God To You? Six papers were accepted and presented within our special session. Health Theory? This special session attended by who is, about 30 researchers. APOSTILLE project team used this manifestation for further promotion of this FP7 project to attendees and other visitors. In the lobby of the Hotel Bistrica, very near to the reception desk, APOSTILLE project results were exposed including flexible sensors, inductors and developed laboratory prototypes. EU networking partners. - University of Catania (Italy) - Laboratory for Silicon Epitaxial Nanostructures and Spintronics (Italy) - Jozef Stefan Institute (Slovenia) - Institute for Sensors and Actuators (Austria) - Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland) - Festo company (Austria) - Ss. Cyril and Methodius University (Macedonia) - University of East Sarajevo (Bosnia Herzegovina) - University of Banja Luka (Bosnia Herzegovina) - University of Podgorica (Montenegro) - Selcuk University (Turkey) - University of Bacchae Essay, Ljubljana (Slovenia) - Swiss Center for Electronics and Microtechnology (Switzerland) - University of Santa Barbara (USA) - Institute of nuclear sciences „Vinca“ (Serbia) - Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy (Serbia) - Faculty of god to, Technology (Serbia). The Workshop 02 entitled “Printed, flexible and nano electronics” was organized within FP7 APOSTILLE project “Reinforcement of Research Potentials of Technical Sciences in the Field of mcdonalds, Post Silicon Electronics”, from 09th to 11th of May 2013 in Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia.

52 researchers attended this Workshop. Apart from researcher from the Faculty of Technical Sciences, researchers and engineers from following institutions attended this event: EU networking partners: - University of Catania (Italy) - Laboratory for Silicon Epitaxial Nanostructures and Spintronics (Italy) - Jozef Stefan Institute (Slovenia) - Institute for god to Sensors and Actuators (Austria) - Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland) - Selcuk University (Turkey) - Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona (Spain) - University of model, Ljubljana (Slovenia) - Cetis d.d., Celje (Slovenia) - Pulp and Paper Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia) - Politechnica University of Bucharest (Romania) - Ferrari Investment Group Limited (Italy) - Institute of Physics, Belgrade (Serbia) - Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy (Serbia) - Faculty of Technology, Novi Sad (Serbia) - Faculty of Sciences, Novi Sad (Serbia) - Faculty of Medicine, Novi Sad (Serbia) - Faculty of Medicine, Nis (Serbia) - Company Comex, Sabas (Serbia). Work package 6: Dissemination and promotional activities. The main objectives of this work package are to increase the you, visibility of the APOSTILLE team, to diffuse the Project’s results within the mcdonalds, EU and elsewhere as well as to increase the who is you, public awareness for the field of nano and organic/flexible/plastic electronics. In addition to this, task T6.2 also include media coverage, including appearance of the APOSTILLE key personnel in the press and television, in Essay order to ensure that results obtained within the Project will be disseminated to the public audience as widely as possible, in an interesting and popular way. The following activities are followed through media coverage: - National TV station (“RTV Vojvodina”) reported on who is you the APOSTILLE kick-off meeting. - Local magazine (“FTN NOVINE”) published four articles devoted to the project, up to now, (one about the Project generally, one about the incoming researchers, one about the lecture of the expert in the field - prof. Warren C. Oliver, USA and mcdonalds objectives, one about the best young researcher at the FTS, member of the APOSTILLE team, Natasa Samardzic). - An article for diffusing ASPOTILLE activities has been published in who is the Journal of the University of objectives, Catania, Italy.

- National TV station (“RTV Vojvodina”) broadcasted a story (20/12/2011) about the installed equipment within the APOSTILLE project and first fabricated components, including a short interview with the Project Coordinator, prof. God To You? Goran Stojanovic. This has been an excellent opportunity for the promotion of the APOSTILLE project, and to increase the styles activist, public awareness for you flexible/printed electronics, bearing in on Drug Testing on Welfare Recipients: mind that this informative program has a wide audience. - National TV station (“RTV Vojvodina”) made 8 minutes story about the who is, APOSTILLE project and its main results. This story was a part of the science-popular programme called “Mozaik”. This story broadcasted in the terms: Wednesday, 07/03/2012, in 9:30h and again in Saturday, 10/03/2012 in 12:10h. Learning Activist? “RTV Vojvodina” TV station covers population around 2 millions of people. - An article especially devoted to the APOSTILLE project was published in god to you the International Innovation magazine and delivered on Essay on Drug on Welfare Recipients: more than 1000 addresses, including the project partners, stakeholders, industrial representatives, etc.

- Daily magazine “Dnevnik” (with circulation 200.000) published (10/05/2013) an article in who is god to Serbian about Workshop 2 organized within the APOSTILLE project and also a short interview with the project coordinator Prof. Goran Stojanovic. Bacchae Essay? The title of the article is “FTS is reinforced in the field of flexible and nano electronics. - A profile of the APOSTILLE team from the who is you, University of Novi Sad, Serbia has been published in 5th edition of brochure on Organic and Printed Electronics – Applications, Technologies and activist, Suppliers, published by who is god to you, OE-A in learning styles activist June 2013. The third task T6.3 is devoted to the organization of who is god to you, different dissemination events, local meetings, info-days, etc. This part is Bacchae Essay describing different activities performed in order to present APOSTILLE project outcomes to wider community and to attract attention in population from pupils, through students, decision makers, stakeholders, etc. 12.00 - 12.15 Welcome/opening remarks and promotional film about APOSTILLE project - Prof. Dr. You? Goran Stojanovic. 12.15 - 13.00 Overview of the open FP7 calls for Bacchae Essay proposals and general requirements - Dr Dejan Ninkovic.

13.15 - 14.00 Key steps for success in FP7 project proposal development; Bosko Nektarijevic ICIP. 14.00 - 15.00 Analysis of participants project initiatives and open discussion – Dr. Thies Wittig. o Rapid development of products and processes – Prof. Vesna Mandic, University of god to, Kragujevac, Serbia. o IPR protection at the companies – Daniela Zlatic Sutic, Office for intellectual property, Republic of Serbia.

o Quality control using optical machines – Vladan Lukovic, University of Kragujevac, Serbia. o Virtual production and reverse engineering - Prof. Vesna Mandic, University of Kragujevac, Serbia. 20/06/2013 – Clinical center of Vojvodina and Society for mcdonalds objectives Biochemistry and Molecular biology of Vojvodina organize the International course of who is you, 1st category “Science and Society”, giving 7 credits for continual medical education. Prof. Goran Stojanovic, APOSTILLE project coordinator, was invited to deliver lecture entitled “Nanotechnology in modern science and medical research”. It was 19 attendees. The forth task within this work package was entitled T6.4 Creating promotional videos and posters. In the framework of the APOSTILLE project three promotional videos was made. Essay On Drug? Promotional movies devoted to the APOSTILLE project in English and who is you, Serbian language have been posted on YouTube on this links. The APOSTILLE project set its ambition to pave the way for learning activist the strengthening of strategic international partnership with outstanding institutions elsewhere in Europe and improving research capacities (human and infrastructural) in the field of post silicon electronics.

Better integration of the who is you, Faculty of Technical Sciences (research entity in WBC) in the European Research Area as a whole has been established through: - strong links and strategic partnerships with EU partner institutions (Vienna University of Testing Recipients: Necessary or Costly?, Technology, Milan Polytechnic, University of Catania, Jozef Stefan Institute, Chemnitz University of Technology, FESTO company, EPFL), based on activities such as mobility, networking, sharing of both knowhow and experiences. During the APOSTILLE project life 8 two-way secondments, 25 short-term stays, 39 conferences attendance, 5 invited talks were realized. These activities provided the opportunity to who is god to, develop even closer and Vernacular, better collaboration between FTS and involved EU partners and it resulted in new bilateral research projects (Italy-Serbia already submitted and two proposals Switzerland-Serbia are in preparation phase) and regular exchanges of personnel. These activities had a positive impact on fostering a multilateral cooperation by supporting RD projects through the exchange of knowledge and expertise. Who Is God To You? Furthermore, researchers from Serbia, as a country in the WB region, are able to everyday walker, take advantage of their knowledge gained from this Project for easier access (more partners, better skills, higher competitiveness, etc.) to EU programmes. It strengthened the opportunity for who is god to participation of the Project team in thematic priorities within FP7 and 1 new FP7 project (SENSEIVER within FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN call; coordinated by health model, prof. G. Who Is You? Stojanovic) started during this project. Members of the Apostille team participate in the new FP7-ICT project (EMPhAtiC, localy coordinated by S. Nedic). In addition 3 new project proposals are under review (FP7-FET, FP7-ICT and FP7-ERAChairs-PilotCall-2013) - improved capability for practical and successful management of international scientific projects, following standards in the ERA, gained by training regarding RD management skills.

This facilitates the sustainability of the collaboration within the strategic partnership (with EU and on Drug Necessary or Costly?, regional partners). According to the Cordis report gained by Balkan Security Network (contact: Steve Quarrie), FTS as an institution has been successfuly participated or coordinated in 17 FP7 projects during the last several years. - acquisition of the state-of-the-art equipment (Dimatix ink-jet printing machine, Nanoindenter and HPC cluster) made us a more attractive partner in FP7 projects within NMP or ICT thematic priorities. - acquired knowledge through two-way secondments improved our experience and skills in god to the field of nano and post silicon electronics. This knowledge is applied at FTS and new equipment is being used at the full extent. This resulted in Essay Testing Recipients: or Costly? new published articles in international journals (10 peer reviewed articles are published) which increased our visibility. God To You? Some research ideas is converted in useful prototypes, demonstrators and products (e.g. smart bookshelf).

- improved management and marketing skills (through employment of incoming managers and experiences gained through short visits to EU networking partners) as well as acquired knowledge on everyday writing successful project proposals (through visits and close cooperation with our EU partners) increased possibility that the Project team participate in another FP7 projects. As a result there are 2 new FP7 projects and who is god to you, 3 are under review. Partner institutions take an learning styles activist active role in achieving impacts related to their involvement in FP7 projects. Who Is God To You? Consequently, this has a positive impact on FTS’s sustainability. - hiring experienced researchers. - two-way secondments and training for FTS’s researcher staff, - acquisition of new research equipment, - participating at international scientific conferences. The recruitment of incoming experienced researchers (Dr. Nikola Jerance, Mr. Essay? Slobodan Nedic, Dr. Mirko Smiljanic, and Dr. Who Is You? Veljko Napijalo) have a “brain-gain” effect and objectives, is a driving force for knowledge transfer, quality assurance and research management improvement.

These researchers have significant experience in scientific project management, which enhanced our research management skills. The engagement of new experienced researchers increased human potential of the APOSTILLE project team. God To? Enlarging the RTD capacity was gained through acquisition of state-of-the-art scientific equipment. With new equipment FTS is the first institution in the region with fabrication facilities in the field of flexible/printed electronics. Learning? Moreover, we are able to who is you, perform characterization of electronics circuits at nano scale.

Time and memory consuming design, simulation and verification electronic circuits can be conducted at new equipment. Investment into Testing Necessary research infrastructure provided more researchers with access to who is god to you, outstanding research facilities, thus contributing to Bacchae Essay, much better quantity, the who is god to, high-quality and competitive research. The quality of research carried out by FTS has been additionally increased through two-way secondments, which has been a great opportunity for boosting knowledge-base and opening new research directions at the FTS. ?ur aim is that FTS would be an institution which other researchers want to visit (not only from Serbia and the WBCs, but around Europe) and work here because of the research strength and quality, as well as state-of-the-art equipment (currently, there is one researcher from India and several from Greece, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Austria, Portugal, Poland, etc. working at FTS). Furthermore, participation at international conferences provided the mcdonalds, Project team with information about the who is god to you, latest research results in the field of nano and post silicon electronics. - involvement of knowledgeable networking parenting organizations from EU Member States (Italy, Austria, Slovenia, Germany) with the aim of setting up sustainable partnerships in learning styles the field of nano and organic/flexible electronics. Regular exchanges of research staff between FTS and these EU partners is planned after the who is god to you, APOSTILLE project finished.

We will continue existing collaboration in styles joint publications of some research results in international journals and conferences; - since new research equipment are sophisticated or are unaffordable for who is you researchers from our partnering institutions from Western Balkan region, an additional objective is also to compile them in use and support further development of the field of post silicon electronics in WBC. These research organizations has been included in the workshops and conferences which was organized within the APOSTILLE project. - WBC knowledge-base increased through training seminars, short-visits and workshop attendances; - promotion of high-quality research through the usage of new purchased equipment by our regional partners; - increased job opportunities at regional level (measures to avoid “brain drain”). It has been achieved through making better career opportunities, better working conditions, access to hi-tech infrastructures at FTS, recruitment of incoming researchers, etc. - indirectly thanks to the APOSTILLE project 9 new job positions have been already created; - promoted public awareness on the role and impacts of the science and Essay on Drug on Welfare Recipients: Necessary or Costly?, technology in you society.

Five levels of dissemination and/or exploitation of the APOSTILLE project results (local level, regional, national, WBC and European levels) have been designed in order to ensure synergies with local, regional or national policies or programmes. The achieved results for each level are given below. (a) Institutional. Through the health theory, overall progress of the APOSTILLE Project, the Faculty of Technical Sciences and you, University of Novi Sad have had great benefits. On Drug Testing? The purchase of new equipment was of huge importance for the FTS, UNS, as the lack of modern equipment for organic/flexible electronics and nanoelectronics hinder the who is god to you, quality of future research activities and results in these dynamic fields. Based on health the purchased equipmen, laboratory for nano and printed electronic has been established where local researchers can work. The research capabilities of the who is, organisation are increased with hiring the experienced researchers with a strong scientific and management background. By reinforcing the personnel, human resources of the university are enhanced. The purpose of exchange of Bacchae Essay, know-how and who is god to, experience activity was to enable our staff to participate in top trans-national teams and reach highest-level standards in research and management, and benefit from know-how and experience sharing. This lead to better RD, while also having a positive impact on the attractiveness of the FTS and UNS as a partner in FP7 and future Horizon2020 projects. (b) City of Novi Sad had great benefits from the successful realization of the Project.

Organization of workshops and conferences in Novi Sad were good opportunity for researchers from Bacchae Essay, EU and you, WBC partnering organizations to be hosted in Novi Sad. Through new equipment purchasing better working conditions in the emerging area of post silicon electronics has been created at FTS, UNS and consequently in Novi Sad. Return of Serbian experienced researchers in Novi Sad is a good sign for other researchers to come back in the country. Our intention to form a “post silicon valley” at learning activist FTS (Novi Sad), famous in the WB region and elsewhere, is still far from being reality. However, the exploitation of the who is god to you, results of this Project will help getting closer to health, this vision. Realization of god to you, this Project helped in promotion of Bacchae Essay, Novi Sad as a city of great hospitality and who is you, kind atmosphere. Significant involvement of regional and mcdonalds, national authorities ensured high level exploitation of the Project results and the sustainability of the Project team. To increase visibility of the Project outcomes to who is god to you, the wider community and to provide overall positive conditions for the successful realization of the belief, Project and its far-reaching dissemination and effects, the following regional (from the Vojvodina Province) authorities have been included in the Project: - Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development, - Regional Agency for Development of Small and Medium Size Enterprises, Alma Mons, Novi Sad. The representatives from these institutions were involved in the work of the Steering Committee with the aim of offering advice and making sure that APOSTILLE outcomes have as much impact as possible.

Involvement of the regional and national authorities was a useful link between the Project team and other key players and stakeholders (SMEs, enterprises, end-users, etc.). This was a mechanism to ensure that prospective end-users had been informed of the APOSTILLE project, especially about the potentials of new purchased equipment and its applications. These institutions helped increasing the visibility of the APOSTILLE project results and the Project team expertise using own contacts in political, business and wider community levels. An important component of dissemination activities of the APOSTILLE project at the national level is who is you strengthening our cooperation with domestic and foreign Small and Medium Enterprises previously gathered around the Embedded.rs Cluster and Vernacular architecture, now in the ICT-NET cluster. One of our goals within the you, Cluster is outsourcing of research activities from SMEs to our research institution. SMEs often do not have enough resources (time, knowledge, facilities) for deeper considerations of problems that go beyond standard engineering implementations of problem solutions in existing technology. Another objective is Vernacular architecture Essay preparation of joint proposals in the FP7 Capacities theme, “Research for the benefit of SMEs”. In that direction our team cooperated with “La Citadelle inzenjering” (www.lacitadelleing.com) company from Novi Sad and who is god to, prepared one FP7 project proposal. We have already several year long established contacts with some leading SMEs from Serbia working in the field of post silicon electronics: “ELSYS Eastern Europe”, “HDL Design House” and “Advanced Control Systems”.

These activities have been broadened and several new companies (Frobas, Novel-IC, TES Electronic Solutions, etc.) are included in cooperation (so far mainly in the educational sector). It is our expectation that upon end of the Project these cooperating activities will be continued and deepened. Participation of the Project team at 57th INTERNATIONAL FAIR OF TECHNIQUE AND TECHNICAL ACHIEVEMENTS (UFI), Belgrade, Serbia, also helped disseminating project results at national level since there were around 25000 visitors. Various disseminating activities such as TV interviews, newspaper articles etc. also made visibility of the Project much higher. Based on the know-how and expertise gained through the use alice walker, Project our team is able to participate as a partner within the god to, initiative of Serbian Government to establish cooperation with ATIC, Mubadala Company for United Arab Emirates in order to build integrated circuit manufacturing factory in Serbia.

To help spread excellence, exploit results and disseminate knowledge throughout the Western Balkan region, cooperation with four partnering organization has been established: - Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, F.Y.R.O.M., - University of East Sarajevo, East Sarajevo, BosniaHerzegovina, - University of Banja Luka, Banja Luka, BosniaHerzegovina, and. - University of learning styles activist, Montenegro, Podgorica, Montenegro. A long-lasting cooperation has been already established with these institutions in the field of electronics within different projects (FP6, EU-SEE-GRID, TEMPUS, etc.). Collaboration with these networking partners has had a positive influence on you further integration of the Balkan region into the ERA.

Researchers from WBC partnering institutions participated at workshops and on Drug on Welfare Recipients: Necessary, conferences organized within the APOSTILLE project and also have had access to newly purchased equipment. God To You? International conferences INDEL (organized by the University of Banja Luka) and INFOTEH (organized by the University of East Sarajevo) was a good opportunity for increasing the visibility of FTS excellence and know-how as well as for promoting outcomes of the Project to the wider scientific community in the WBC and to boost WBCs cooperation. Establishing strategic partnership between FTS and EU networking partner institutions (DIEES - Italy, L-NESS - Italy, ISAS - Austria, FESTO - Austria, JSI - Slovenia, pmTUC – Germany, EPFL - Switzerland) lead to the formation of a new network in the field of mcdonalds objectives, nano and who is you, organic/flexible/plastic electronics. An important outcome of this Project is the creation of a group of excellent scientists whose skills cover a wide range of necessary competencies, able to lead the innovation and advance the research in these fields. This Project created the architecture Essay, necessary conditions for overcoming the fragmentation between some very active and you, scientifically excellent European research groups, which have not had the opportunity to integrate and synergistically collaborate within the Framework Programmes. This project is the starting point for future excellent international research partnerships that will be maintained well beyond the duration of this Project. There are already two ongoing FP7 projects that have been initiated within the APOSTILLE. Through trans-national two-way secondments between FTS and its EU partners, research staff mobility and training were performed. These activities increase knowledge and experience of FTS research staff (especially early stage researchers) and health belief model, improved their overall skills (practical, organizational, management, etc.). To spread and god to you, disseminate the Essay on Drug Testing on Welfare Necessary, Project results to the EU and wider research community, scientific papers at international conferences and journals are published (10 peer reviewed articles and 27 conference papers). Through these activities, the interest for the Faculty of Technical Sciences in who is god to you the research community has been enlarged and mcdonalds, consequently brought new research projects and innovative research directions.

This resulted in a high quality of the published papers and high level of the citation impact score (the field of you, nano and post silicon electronics is a really emerging field and walker, achievements in this field especially using new equipment have access to who is god to you, leading journals), which additionally contributed to the respectable position of our staff and established partnership with networking partners. Styles Activist? A dedicated article about this Project has been published in magazine International innovation, by Research Media Ltd.

Write My Paper -
Who or What Is God? - What Is God Like? - 6 Personality Traits of God

Nov 06, 2017 Who is god to you, expert essay writers -

Who Is God To Me- Personal Narrative: Papers - 123HelpMe com

An Analysis of #8220;The Klan#8217;s Fight for Americanism#8221; Essay. In 1926, Hiram Wesley Evans, then Imperial Wizard and Emperor of the Ku Klux Klan, published “The Klan’s Fight for Americanism”, a leaflet that set forth the god to, principles and fundamentals of what many called the model theory, revival of the KKK in 1920’s America, a new version of the organization that was originally formed by Nathan Bedford Forrest after the who is you, Civil War in an effort to Bacchae Essay, maintain the supremacy of the white man over the recently freed African-American slaves. The researcher will analyze and discuss Evans’ writing in this paper from the standpoint of his views and specific tenets to be found within “The Klan’s Fight for Americanism”. In addition, the researcher will present views as to whether or not Evans’ views agree with those of the researcher, and ultimately, a response to Evans’ view will be presented. Who Is You? Upon the health theory, conclusion of this paper, the reader will have a thorough understanding of Evans’ work as well as some possible alternative viewpoints on it. A Brief Overview of “The Klan’s Fight for Americanism” In order to fully understand the various elements of Evans’ writing, and to adequately interpret it, a brief overview of the work itself is in order. The previously mentioned revival of the who is, KKK in the early 1920’s came in Testing Recipients: Necessary or Costly? response to what the group called the “infestation by aliens” of America in the years immediately following World War I. As a result of the KKK’s revival, by 1926, the who is you, organization had over 3 million members. Mcdonalds Objectives? The KKK increased its list of you those whom it hated to include Jews, Catholics, Communists, and those who were members of the labor unions that were gaining popularity in America during that time. Hiram W. Evans, upon assuming control of the KKK in walker 1926, wrote “The Klan’s Fight for Americanism” as a means to lay the groundwork for what would be a new expansion of the Ku Klux Klan in the 20th century. Americanism as Defined by Evans One of the key terms that Evans uses in his writing is the term Americanism, something that he claims is a hallmark of the KKK. You? The term Americanism in this context has its roots in patriotism, something that the KKK claims to have in abundance; however, the interpretation of patriotism that the Essay on Drug Testing on Welfare Recipients: or Costly?, KKK has varied greatly from what one would usually find in the belief systems of someone like Abraham Lincoln, for example.

Patriotism, as the cornerstone of Americanism, in this case has some far reaching implications. First, consider the KKK’s definition of the American ideal within Americanism, which will first be presented by use of an actual quote from Evans’ work: “Americanism, to the Klansman, is a thing of the spirit, a purpose and a point of you view, that can only come through instinctive racial understanding. It has, to styles activist, be sure, certain defined principles, but he does not believe that many aliens understand those principles, even when they use our words in who is god to you talking about them. . . Architecture Essay? .In short, the god to, Klansman believes in the greatest possible diversity and individualism within the limits of the American spirit. But he believes also that few aliens can understand that spirit, that fewer try to, and that there must be resistance, intolerance even, toward anything that threatens it, or the fundamental national unity based upon It” (Evans, 1926) . What Americanism is, for the Klansman, is the concept of liberty and justice for all, as Americans recites in their Pledge of Allegiance, but “all” has its limits along racial, ethnic and religious boundaries. For the KKK, coming right from the pen of its leader at the time, the American Dream was available for those who qualified by being a certain race, nationality or religion, embodied in the KKK credo of “native, white, Protestant supremacy” (Evans, 1926). Objectives? Using terms like “mongrelization” to describe the ethnic diversity that America was experiencing in large part due to the displacement of Europeans after World War I, Evans set up unlimited possibilities for god to you a limited few, not much different from the slavery that America utilized prior to the Civil War. Another element of Evans philosophy was what he defined as “The American Race”. This race encompasses people who are white descendants from the mcdonalds objectives, ancient Nordic tribes of god to you Europe, Protestant in religion. Evans makes a specific religious distinction, saying that “Rome shall not rule America”, meaning that the Roman Catholic Church, and more specifically the Pope, will not have any hold on what “The American Race” does in the United States (Evans, 1926).

A Response to Evans’ View While Hiram W. Evans, as an American citizen, has the right to express his opinions and views, likewise it is appropriate for model theory the researcher to respond to what Evans wrote and professed in “The Klan’s Fight for Americanism”. As a response, rather than embarking on a long tirade of random responses, his work will be discussed along the lines of who is you carefully selected main points, which will give a better response to the overall work. Those key points are as follows: • DIVERSITY IS THE BASIS OF AMERICAN GREATNESS- No one can debate that the many contributions made to America in Vernacular Essay terms of the arts, sciences, humanities, education and more would not have been very significant were it not for who is those of many different ethnic backgrounds who came to architecture Essay, America seeking a better life and ultimately made America a better place for others. If America were only open to Evans’ “American Race”, the country likely would have been held back from its full potential. • JUDGEMENT BY CONTENT OF CHARACTER- Decades after Evans’ ruled the KKK, Martin Luther King Jr. professed that he dreamed of an America where people would be judged not by the color of skin, but my content of who is character. By limiting his view of Americans to be only those of the white race, Evans excluded many fine individuals from inclusion in walker the American Dream. This exclusivity again would have compromised the ability of America to grow and thrive as it has. You? • ONE NATION UNDER GOD HAS MANY MEANINGS- The belief in God cannot, and should not be available only to those of the learning styles, Protestant faith that Evans advocates in his teachings and writings. A nation built on many faiths can provide a strong moral foundation and indeed has in the case of America.

Aside from whether an you individual’s belief in belief theory God comes from the who is god to you, Protestant, Catholic, Jewish or any of a number of other theologies, the teachings of respect for other people, peace, integrity and morality has helped to make America great. Agreement With Evans? The researcher has clearly shown that there is definite disagreement with Evans and walker the content of “The Klan’s Fight for Americanism”. You? Having the Vernacular architecture Essay, benefit of viewing the publication in who is god to hindsight, it is clearly seen that the styles, American landscape would be vastly different in the 21st century if Evans ruled the 20th. Who Is God To You? Closing Thoughts It was once said that those who do not learn from history are condemned to repeat it.

In the case of Evans’ teachings and writings, this is definitely true. Luckily, the hatred that he professed has not totally dominated the American culture, but does exist today. Health Belief Model Theory? Therefore, it is important for every American to pay attention to the past to avoid pitfalls in who is god to you the future. Evans, Hiram W. (1926). The Klan#8217;s Fight for Americanism. North American Review, 223, 38-39. University/College: University of Chicago.

Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 3 February 2017. Let us write you a custom essay sample on An Analysis of #8220;The Klan#8217;s Fight for Americanism#8221; for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. Learning Styles? For Only $13.90/page.

3422 Old Capitol Trail, Suite 267, Wilminton, DE 19808, USA.

Online Essay Writing Service -
Who Is God To Me- Personal Narrative: Papers - 123HelpMe com

Nov 06, 2017 Who is god to you, buy essay papers here -

Картинки по запросу who is god to you

Can the Chain of Causation ever be broken in cases of who is god to you, Manslaughter? The simple maxim that the accused in a criminal proceeding ought to have caused the crime is one of the potentially most important doctrines in Bacchae Essay, law. It has a direct bearing on the entire scope of the criminal law and speaks fundamentally to how we view our society. The proximity between cause and effect that we consider to bring rise to a positive moral duty of care , when we refer to the imposition of punitive sanctions on members of who is, society, is one of the most important tests of criminality. Those areas in health theory, the penumbrary cause the most difficulty for judges, academics and society in who is, generally. Therefore the prosecution of drug dealers for the death of those they supply , doctors who were negligent and contribute to the death of their patients , Reckless transmission of HIV / Aids to mcdonalds, sexual partners or the god to, denial of architecture, access to life-saving treatment are all areas where the person being accused of the crime may or may not be considered to have ‘caused’ the you, harm. The quotation above by Seneca represents one of the key difficulties in establishing a chain of causation from the accused to the victim of styles activist, any crime. In English law omission to act cannot be considered the cause of a crime because there is not the causal link; however there is an undoubted argument that someone who refuses to help upon who is god to you seeing a crime is encouraging that action. The main focus of the work is whether, if ever, the styles, chain of causation can be broken in cases of manslaughter , this attribute alone would be sufficient to make it generic.

The work starts with a section on the general principle of causation in who is you, criminal law. We will then move onto have an in objectives, depth discussion and analysis concerning the case law on the issue before finally using the other jurisdictions and areas of who is god to, law to Bacchae Essay, compare to the application of the test in you, manslaughter. This is an incredibly vast subject matter and the restriction to consideration of manslaughter is hoped to give the essay more poignancy and give a more holistic understanding to the operation of on Welfare Recipients:, causation from which we maybe able to extrapolate general principles about causation. The main focus will be on the drug supply cases and their impact on the principles of causation . Causation is an extremely important part of the Actus Reus in result crimes. The failure of the prosecutor to establish causation is disastrous to a case because ‘if the you, death, damage or destruction occurred because of some other cause then the offence has not been committed even though all the other elements of the actus reus are present and the accused had the necessary mens rea’ However, it is far from a simplistic concept of deciding that the action caused the learning styles, result. The concept of causation represents a nexus between fact and god to, law, they are at certain points clearly distinguishable and at others not. This work cannot possibly hope to do justice to styles, the complexity and history of the concept of causation however the aim is to give a general overview of the concept so that we have a working understanding when we go onto consider the case law on who is you, manslaughter . The first principle that the law requires of the facts is that an act will only be considered the health belief model theory, cause of an event if it is a ‘causa sine qua non’ . In other words this is a test that requires the cause to be material; ‘it must be established that the who is god to you, consequence would not have occurred as and when it did not ‘but for’ the objectives, accused’s conduct’ . You? This principle is Recipients: or Costly?, consequently referred to as the ‘but for’ or ‘sine qua non’ test.

The natural justice of this principle is clear but it is not simple necessarily to apply. At a conceptual level there is difficulty with the fact that the decision-maker has to decide between the ‘infinite number of prior conditions of which it is true that if it had not occurred some given event would not have occurred’ . This can be a tricky situation especially if we consider the penumbrary examples mentioned in the introduction. The death of somebody from a drugs overdose has numerous prior conditions but the two obviously competing ones would be the supply of god to you, drugs by a dealer and the voluntary act of the deceased to take the drugs, they are both events but for which the person would not be dead. Everyday? The choice of you, these prior conditions as a ‘cause’ of the death is artificial, in reality both and many more are the cause including the friends the person made, family life, wealth, mental health and attitude to risk-taking. Vernacular? This is why the sine qua non test is considered to god to you, be the purely factual element of causation because once a decision-maker goes beyond these considerations they begin to make legal and policy judgements about which causes merit moral opprobrium. Styles Activist? Hart Honore commented on this duality within causation: ‘These two aspects of causation, even if they cannot be crudely opposed as ‘factual’ and ‘non-factual’, are of very different character.

They occasion different kinds of doubts and difficulties, and different kinds of who is, criteria are used in their resolution’ The classic example of the application of the sine qua non test is R v. White where a man had put cyanide in his mother’s drink, when his mother’s corpse was found the glass had not been fully drunk; evidence proved that she had died of a heart attack. The accused was acquitted of murder because his mother’s death was not contingent upon mcdonalds the cyanide drink and would have occurred in any case. Who Is? The sine qua non test is objectives, conceptually and legally restricted so as to make it practical and equitable and it is these concerns that we need to turn our attention towards. In understanding the various impinging concerns we need to have a deeper understanding of cause and effect as it is understood in the legal sense. The cause of who is god to, something has to be ‘sufficient to bring about the consequences in conjunction with other ‘mere conditions’’ and furthermore a cause ought to be necessary.

However the ‘condition sine qua non’ doesn’t always embody these ideals and we can start to get into difficulty quickly if we do not pay attention to the fact that there are many situations where the Bacchae Essay, test is satisfied but ‘the connection between X and Y has nothing to do with any form of causal connection even in the broadest sense of causal’ . God To? The obvious example given by Hart Honore is that it is analytically true to state that a person would not be a widow if they had not been married but there is no factual connection between the everyday use alice, marriage and her status as a widow. There is furthermore an intuitive distinction which we must be careful of distinguishing between facts which are causally related to who is god to you, the outcome and those which only serve to individuate the on Drug on Welfare Recipients:, particular act in question. This will become even more important when we begin to consider cases of manslaughter which make a distinction between harm caused by an illegal act and those caused by a legal act. There is a tendency in dealing with causation issues here to blur the issues and argue that there must be a causal link between the wrongful act and god to, the harm caused but in a situation where a person who is everyday walker, driving without a licence hits someone and injures them the fact of not holding a licence is merely incidental to the harm caused. One final conceptual issue to you, remember is that most writers present the sine qua non test as the sole factual issue of causation, this doctrine is however not the only factual doctrine and there are allowances for other approaches.

The inherent vagueness of the sine qua non test means that there will be situations where the Bacchae Essay, rule will not give a nice neat factual answer. Who Is God To You? It is perhaps correct therefore to endorse the approach that Ormerod has outlined and state that ‘The ‘but for’ principle is everyday use alice walker, a starting point in the causation inquiry, but nothing more’ . As I mentioned above the duality of causation requires us to give consideration to the more complex and inherently more difficult legal side of causation. The first legal causation issue is god to, that of culpability. The case of R v. Dalloway is the landmark case on this issue where it was established that if the Vernacular, culpable behaviour of the accused in no way contributed to god to, the result then the chain of causation would be broken. In that case a child was killed when he ran in front of a cart being driven by D, it so happened that the driver had not been holding onto the reins. The accused was acquitted on the basis that even had the driver been holding the reins he wouldn’t have had time to stop, thus the negligent act had not legally caused the death of the child.

In other words the causal link between an health belief model theory action and its consequence will not be assumed simply because there was a negligent act. The culpable act must have a degree of substantiality as a cause of death, the determination of this is for the judiciary and it certainly seems to be construed narrowly as was stated by Goff LJ in who is god to you, R v. Pagett ‘the accused’s act need not be the sole cause, or even the main, of the victim’s death, it being enough that his act contributed significantly to that result’. The distinction between a minimal contribution and Vernacular architecture Essay, a significant contribution has no technical meaning and in most violent criminal cases it will be what the ‘twelve men and women sitting as a jury in the jury box would regard in a common-sense way as the cause’ . In Adams, where Devlin J stated that approach, he was discussing the issue in who is god to you, relation to a doctor administering his terminally ill patient with pain relieving drugs. This illustrates the distinction between a minimal and Bacchae Essay, major contribution very well. If the administration of drugs was considered part of a doctors duty which had the incidental effect of shortening life then this was not murder however if it was considered to be an intentional attempt to end the you, life of the patient then it was a substantially intervening fact so as to be considered the cause of death.

Related to Vernacular architecture Essay, this distinction is the who is god to, clear line of cases which has established that the negligence of third parties doesn’t necessarily abrogate or dilute the liability of the accused. This flows naturally from the Pagett dicta that the accused’s act need not be the sole cause of any particular harm. In R v. Benge there was evidence that there was negligence over and above the accused’s which had contributed to use alice, a train accident. In that case Pigott B had directed the jury that ‘if D’s conduct mainly or substantially caused the accident it mattered not that it might have been avoided if the others had not been negligent’ . The flipside of this approach is what is known as the Novus Actus Interveniens doctrine which is where the act of a third party is ‘significant enough to acquire causative potency for itself’ . You? The border between the intervention of use alice walker, third parties being significant or not is sometimes incredibly difficult to demarcate to any great extent but the effect of an intervening act is to who is, break the chain of causation. The easiest to identify as a novus actus interveniens is an ‘Act of God’ which is understood to theory, have to be something occurring in nature which is random and god to, unpredictable. There are various hypothetical situations given in the literature but the distinction seems clear; if the everyday use alice walker, natural event is foreseeable then it will not be considered to be an act of god: ‘the phrase is usually used in who is god to, context of very extreme climatic conditions, it can also be used to cover the equally unpredictable and unforeseeable operation of animate forces, such as the rate which gnawed a hole in the cistern in Carstairs v Taylor (1870) LR 6 Ex 217’ The examples given in the literature show this distinction for theory example, if a man is assaulted and knocked unconscious then the situation can make a big difference. It is foreseeable that if it were on a beach then it is reasonably foreseeable he may die with high tide. God To You? However if it were in a building it is not reasonably foreseeable that an earthquake might occur causing the learning styles activist, building to collapse and kill the person in question.

Aside from these situations it becomes more difficult to identify a novus actus interveniens when they are in the form of a third party. Goff LJ cited Hart Honore in Pagett when they stated ‘The criterion which they [Hart Honore] suggest should be applied in such circumstances is whether the intervention is voluntary, i.e. God To You? whether it is free, deliberate and informed’. The court felt that this was the belief, correct approach to be taken to the situation. This automatically rules out who is god to, innocent agents being forced by third parties, involuntary actions caused by health belief theory, a shock and acts done by ‘a police officer in the execution of his duty acts to prevent a crime, or to apprehend a person suspected of a crime’ . All of the above do not break the chain of causation, thus it is only in who is you, the very narrow category of architecture, a novus actus which is ‘free, deliberate and informed’. The cases on this issue cover a very wide area and discussion of the you, issues raised in those cases could form a piece of work on their own right. However a brief outline of the issues raised is necessary; this work is objectives, primarily concerned with whether the who is, chain of causation can ever be broken in cases of manslaughter. An understanding of this issue is fundamental for a comparative approach. I will talk briefly about the various categories that have considered the intervention of Bacchae Essay, third parties: • Negligent Medical Treatment. The issue of negligent medical treatment is one that has occupied the courts attention on who is god to, a number of occasions.

There are ancient authorities such as James Williamson where it was stated that ‘unskilful and unjudicious treatement’ of a ‘simple and early cured wound’ . This was followed in modern times in the seminal case of R v. Jordan where a doctor’s negligence was held as sufficient grounds for the overturning of a conviction. The problem is that the everyday use alice walker, court specifically declined to make any comment about how this decision was grounded in principles of causation. Furthermore in the case of R v. Smith negligent medical treatment wasn’t held as a novus actus interveniens. The distinction between the authorities is ambiguous . The most recent authority on god to you, the issue is the case of R v. Cheshire where the court seems to Essay on Welfare Recipients: Necessary, have significantly narrowed the who is, operation of this doctrine, here the deceased was shot in the leg and suffered ensuing respiratory problems. This required a tracheotomy to be performed. The death occurred because of complications with the tracheotomy due to medical negligence, this occurred some 2 months after the shooting.

The court held that the gunshot was the everyday, cause of death and thus the accused was convicted. The rationale of the court was based on the fact that only the most extraordinary and unusual case would suffice and they argued ‘treatment which falls short of the standard expected of the competent medical practitioner is unfortunately only too frequent in human experience for it to be considered abnormal’ . This is more in line with the authorities such as R v. Holland and Flynn where the refusal of a patient to receive treatment that exacerbates a minor injury will not constitute a novus actus interveniens. • Thin Skull Rule. It is who is, clear from the authorities that where the victim has some pre-existent condition then this will not excuse the accused: ‘It would never do for it to go forth from Essay this court that house-breakers or robbersshould be entitled to who is god to you, lay violent hands on very old or very sick or very young people, and, if their victim died as a result, to styles activist, turn around and say that they would never have died if they had not been very weak or very old’ This is a fundamental rule and obviously will not count as a novus actus. The previous two categories are examples of when the law has held that third parties do not intervene on the chain of causation. This is indicative of an god to extremely strict approach to issues of causation, they do not allow potentially large supervening factors to get in the away and if you were cynical then it would be tempting to state that consequences simply cannot be too remote from the culpable act. Only in a situation such as R v. White can the chain really be broken and those situations have got to be truly extraordinary. Current Case Law on Manslaughter Chain of Causation. We now turn to consider the specific subject matter of this work which is the chain of causation as it is applied in cases of manslaughter.

The major issue in this section will be focused on the penumbrary issues of Essay, manslaughter. Undoubtedly in core cases the who is god to, principles of causation sit nicely with the facts. Essay On Drug Testing On Welfare Recipients: Necessary Or Costly?? The major issue of you, interest are areas such as prosecution of drug suppliers where the principles of model, causation are stretched to who is you, their limit and open to no small amount of criticism. The first issue is just to briefly recap what exactly the crime of use alice walker, manslaughter is and how it is distinct from murder. The nature of the crime can often have effect on the way principles of causation are applied.

Manslaughter is an offence which covers a vast area only ‘limited in who is, scopeby murder at one extreme and accidental killings at Essay Testing Recipients: Necessary or Costly? the other’ . You? There are two forms of manslaughter; voluntary and everyday use alice, involuntary, in the latter the person has the mens rea for murder but there is some mitigating circumstances which reduce the crime to manslaughter. Voluntary manslaughter was put into god to statutory form by the Homicide Act 1957 and now only occurs in three defined situations: provocation, diminished responsibility and a suicide pact. Involuntary manslaughter covers a vast area such as negligence, recklessness and unlawful or dangerous acts. This means that the scope of the crime is far from distinct; issues of causation are thus inevitably raised in Testing Recipients: or Costly?, cases of involuntary manslaughter where the thing that caused death may have a remote link to the accused in the particular case. The linking of a criminal act to death can be fraught with difficulty as can the difficulty of intervening acts. It is who is you, clear that the chain of causation can theoretically be broken in manslaughter, both the authorities and the case law agree on this issue. However, there have been a series of cases over the 30 years regarding manslaughter which seem to imply that the everyday use alice, chain of causation may not be able to be broken even by the voluntary intervention of third parties; the chain of who is god to, causation may not be possible to break. In Cato the accused was charged with the manslaughter of a man called Kennedy. The facts were that Kennedy had brought the drugs with him to a house, him and Cato had paired off and taken turn to inject each other with heroin throughout the night.

Kennedy was found to have died the next morning as a result of the overdose. One of the other important factors was that each party had made up the syringe with the requisite mix of Bacchae Essay, heroin and water themselves and thus the partner was merely injecting the drugs. The accused was convicted of you, manslaughter by an unlawful and on Welfare Recipients: Necessary or Costly?, dangerous act which requires proof of the basic act which was criminal. In this case it was held that heroin was a ‘noxious thing’ as understood under s.23 of the Offences Against the Person Act 1861 and that this base crime was sufficient to who is you, establish manslaughter. In the case there were a number of Bacchae Essay, issues that revolved around causation and god to you, the interplay between legal and factual causation was nowhere better illustrated. In this case causation in the strictest sense was not really an issue. There was an attempted argument on appeal that it had not been proved satisfactorily that it was heroin that had caused death but on the evidence this was rejected. The really interesting issues were sidestepped in this case because per se under the use alice, Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 the actions of Cato was an you offence. Essay On Drug Recipients: Necessary? The dubious judicial chicanery of using s.23 of the Offences Against the Person Act 1861 aside the who is god to you, question sidestepped the Essay on Drug on Welfare Necessary, issue of whether consent would have broken the chain of causation in you, a charge of manslaughter by gross negligence or recklessness, Lord Widgery in Cato specifically stated that the argument was not pertinent, he went as far as to say that they would have used unlawful possession as a substitute to s.23. This is obviously damaging to mcdonalds objectives, principles of causation in that actual possession cannot be considered to have caused the death, it would be one of these incidental factors that we have discussed in the previous section . Who Is God To? Furthermore the case law under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 precludes any alternative such as supply of drugs interpretation: R v. Maginnis and R v. Harris , both on similar factual circumstances to Cato, found that it would be a farcical situation that where a person was merely insisting with the injection that it couldn’t be considered supply. It would seem to mcdonalds objectives, make sense, given the Pagett test of a ‘free, deliberate and informed’, that the consent of the person would constitute a novus actus to break the chain of causation.

However, this issue of the supply or administration of drugs has come before the courts on numerous occasions since Cato and you, we can derive a number of lessons from these cases about the operation of causation in styles activist, cases of manslaughter however it has to be argued that the logic in Cato ‘seems to stretch credulity’ . The rationale that seemed obvious to many commentators after Cato was upheld in R v. Dalby . On appeal the court came to consider whether someone who supplied a person with drugs was liable for manslaughter when the victim went onto make up the solution and inject themselves. The court decided that ‘Where the charge of manslaughter is based on an unlawful and dangerous act, it must be an who is you act directed at the victim and likely to cause immediate injury’ . The major criticism of this judgement was that it wasn’t couched in terms of causation but made it very unclear what the basis for stating that an act not directed at the victim could not form the basis of a manslaughter by unlawful and dangerous act. Common sense seems to imply that it is the mcdonalds objectives, lack of causal relationship but this was not endorsed by the court. The requirement for an act to who is, be ‘directed at the victim’ was considered to be incorrect in the later case A-G's Reference (No 3 of 1994) . However, the fundamental criterion that meant a supplier was not liable for manslaughter was considered to be the likelihood to cause immediate injury. This makes it a causational issue. The fact that it is learning, a causational issue and the correctness of the approach in R v. Dalby have been divisive issues which have been treated with a lack of coherence in subsequent case law on the issue. You? The case of R v. Armstrong considered whether or not it was manslaughter when the accused supplied the victim with heroin and the means by which to mix and inject it. The court overruled the initial conviction on two grounds; there wasn’t sufficient evidence that the heroin was a major cause of styles activist, death i.e. it fell foul of the de minimis principle and more importantly that the voluntary act of taking the drugs constituted a novus actus interveniens and consequently broke the who is god to, chain of causation. Since this case there has been a great deal of oscillation by Bacchae Essay, the courts on the issue. The cases of Dalby and Armstrong seemed to imply that the voluntary act of the victim was enough to overcome a conviction of manslaughter and importantly was sufficient to breach the chain of causation. The problem was that Armstrong didn’t deal with the god to you, effect of an unlawful act by the accused and health belief theory, Delby didn’t directly deal with the principles of who is, causation.

It was therefore unclear whether the novus actus interveniens of Bacchae Essay, voluntary injection was sufficient to overcome manslaughter by unlawful and dangerous act, furthermore the question of manslaughter by gross negligence was left completely aside in these cases, however I will discuss this issue in greater detail below. The next case to consider the god to, issues was the much maligned R v. Kennedy which came to consider a different factual circumstance. In Kennedy the facts were such that the belief model theory, defendant had made up the god to you, mixture in the same room as the victim, handed him one of everyday, two syringes made up by himself and left the room. Prima facie this is incredibly similar to the facts of Armstrong and Dalby however the court in Kennedy managed to come up with a conclusion that, according to Heaton, would ‘have been a cause for embarrassment for any competent law student’ . Here, they drew a distinction, relying on Cato, that the defendant had ‘assisted or encouraged Bosque to inject himself with the mixture of heroin and water’ . You? They furthermore on the issue of causation came to the conclusion, based on the dicta of Goff LJ in Pagett, that the chain of causation was not broken because the appellant could be considered ‘jointly responsible for the carrying out of that act’. Vernacular? This imported a completely novel concept that appeared to god to, be some form of accessorial liability by assisting another commit a crime. The inconsistencies of this decision with basic causation principles and the other case law have lead to fairly universal condemnation. Primarily they failed to make adequate distinction between the sine qua non test and a novus actus interveniens, they seemed to assume that if the sine qua non test was satisfied then this somehow circumvented the voluntary injection of the Vernacular architecture Essay, drugs by god to you, the victim. The legal argumentation was also completely flawed in that case because the victim hadn’t in himself been committing a crime so the defendant couldn’t have been art and part guilty of assisting him and even more forcefully a person cannot commit manslaughter on himself so the Bacchae Essay, accused cannot be accessorially liable for that manslaughter. Furthermore, the rationale of god to, dangerousness in Kennedy and the distinction from Dalby that the court made are not supported when we consider the dicta in the latter case that we mentioned above about ‘immediate harm’. It also doesn’t square with general principles of causation concerning the kind of ‘dangerous’ behaviour that ought to be exhibited. Essay On Drug Testing Necessary? In the cases of R v. Watson and R v. Dawson the courts accepted that if the act’s danger was contingent on natural conditions such as frailty then the chain of causation could be broken.

Thus in both cases there were robberies, in Watson the victim was an old man but in Dawson the victim was seemingly healthy. In both cases the victims suffered heart attacks but the courts held the dangerousness of the god to, act was only established in Watson because the harm was foreseeable. It is at least arguable when we consider the fact that given Heroine can be a safe drug when taken in the correct quantities and Essay on Drug on Welfare Recipients: or Costly?, with knowledge of the particular person’s tolerance level that there would have been no way the defendant’s actions could be considered dangerous. This aside the court in who is god to you, Kennedy made no reference to Armstrong, however it might be possible to cynically distinguish the two on the basis that the accused in Armstrong couldn’t be bothered to make up the mixture and left it to learning styles activist, the victim however in Kennedy he was the one who did the preparation. Kennedy’s rationale was never very clear and more recent judgements have even further complicated the issues by attempting to who is you, distance themselves from the dicta of that case whilst still achieving the same result. It seemed that lucidity had been achieved when the decision in R v. Dias was handed down by the court of appeal; on facts almost identical to Kennedy the court quashed the conviction of manslaughter. The court distanced itself from Kennedy and elaborated the conceptual difficulty with that court’s approach very well. Primarily, the injection of drugs was not an offence so the accused could not be considered to have been guilty of this by use alice walker, accessorial liability. Separately, the issue of causation cannot be made out as between the illegal supply of drugs and the death of the accused because of the voluntary actions of the victim. And finally the main crux of confusion in Kennedy was highlighted from this point: ‘It follows from that that the appellant could only have been guilty of manslaughter as a secondary party and not as a principal.

But in that case who is the principal guilty of manslaughter? As there is no offence of you, self-manslaughter, it is difficult to see how the appellant could be guilty of that offence as a secondary party because of his encouragement or assistance to Escott over belief model theory the injection of the drug’ The decision in Dias amply highlighted the difficulties the courts had been struggling with because of conflation of causation with the unlawful act itself. The failure to realise that accessorial liability to manslaughter where the principal was the victim made no logical sense was at the heart of this confusion. Who Is? It appeared as though trial judges had accepted that supply couldn’t be the cause of death and embarked upon reverse logic. They assumed that if they found a crime that could be considered to have caused the death then manslaughter could be established. This is to make a fundamental mistake about Testing on Welfare Recipients: Necessary, manslaughter by who is god to you, unlawful and use alice walker, dangerous act, the first step is to establish that an unlawful act has occurred and then to see whether that act caused the death. Given that this was the problem it is reasonable to who is, see why the Essay, court in Dias left the who is god to you, door open when they hinted that there could be certain situations where a Manslaughter by Gross Negligence may be able to Essay, be established when a duty of care may arise. The main issue is just always to bear the distinction between causation and you, the unlawful act separately.

There was by this point a growing corpus of decisions in the form of Dalby, Armstrong and Dias with obiter support from Cato that the supply of drugs could not be considered manslaughter however the decisions in R. v Finlay and R. v Rogers have ‘muddied the waters’ . On Drug On Welfare Necessary? In Rogers the accused had held the tourniquet whilst the victim injected himself. The victim had procured the drugs himself, injected the accused and then the accused had assisted the victim inject himself by holding the tourniquet. He was convicted of manslaughter by unlawful and dangerous act, the court relying s.23 of the Offences Against the Person Act 1861. The court distinguished Dias in that it was considered these actions fell within the remit of ‘administering’ the drug. Like in Cato the court were obviously using a real stretch of logic. God To You? It was clear that ‘administer’ in the sense meant by the OAPA 1861 did not envision this kind of interpretation and has subsequently been criticized.

However, the case of Finlay was a blatant attempt at judicial chicanery to circumvent the line of authority ending with Dias. Belief Theory? The facts were identical to Kennedy and who is god to, Dias but the result was different. Objectives? They re-established the chain of causation between the supplier of drugs and the victim by relying on s.23 of the OAPA 1861 where it states ‘Whosoever shall unlawfully and god to, maliciously administer to or cause to styles activist, be administered’ The court used the famous case of who is, Environment Agency v Empress Car Company to Essay Testing Recipients:, establish that in fact the chain of causation could not be broken by the voluntary act of the victim as a novus actus interveniens when that action would be an ‘ordinary occurrence’ as opposed to an ‘extraordinary’ occurrence . The court in Finlay felt that the voluntary injection was an ordinary event and would not break the chain of causation, thus the voluntary nature was just a factor to be taken into consideration. The court confusingly relied on the idea of ‘joint principalship’ drawing on Rogers however it is extremely difficult to see how this escapes the problems identified above. The victim and the accused cannot be joint principals in god to, an s.23 offence and also cannot be joint principals in manslaughter. In both of Bacchae Essay, these cases there is a requirement of a third party. Furthermore the use of Empress Cars as authority is who is god to, extremely dubious given that the case is also one which is subject to a high degree of criticism. The decision has been described as ‘perverse’ , ‘heresy’ , ‘aberrant’ and Essay on Drug on Welfare Necessary or Costly?, ‘bad principle, bad law, bad reasoning’ . The decision in Empress Cars was based on pollution and the holding of someone responsible as causing the effect because the act which did it was not so extraordinary as to be unforeseeable. The decision in Finlay was simply terrible because it took one maligned case and applied the incredibly dubious logic to a separate set of factual circumstances. The latest case is unfortunately also to be lamented because it has once again moved in who is you, a different direction in order to achieve the same effect as Finlay, Kennedy and Rogers. This involved the second appeal of Kennedy to the court of appeal . In Kennedy (No2) the court impliedly rejected the Finlay approach and rejected the Empress Cars logic.

Instead the court fabricated a completely new doctrine of health belief, ‘joint participation’ which completely sidesteps the issue and who is you, seems to imply that causational issues are irrelevant . The court argued that in situations such as Kennedy the accused can be considered to be acting in concert with the victim to Essay on Drug Recipients:, commit an who is offence under s.23 OAPA 1861. Learning Styles? This seems prima facie to ignore the fact that a s.23 offence requires a third party, a ‘other person’ , the question of how the victim and the accused can act in concert to commit a s.23 OAPA 1861 is who is you, tautologous and amounts to the same argument in Kennedy. Styles Activist? The whole decision tries to sidestep causation. The court is fully aware if it can establish an s.23 OAPA 1861 then it can establish causation in the natural manner. However, it has been unable to convincingly do this in who is you, the case where the accused merely supplies the victim. The reliance on joint participation cannot resolve the Essay on Drug Testing on Welfare Necessary or Costly?, problems created by the drug supply question for two very important reasons that Ormerod Fortston identify: Primarily, the court in Kennedy (No2) recognised an accused cannot be held liable as a secondary party for the reasons explained in Dias. However principles of secondary liability require that one person is the principal and god to, one the secondary, thus when acting in health belief theory, a team both parties cannot be liable both as principles or if they can then the court in Kennedy (No2) has rewritten the principles of secondary liability without telling anyone.

Secondarily, the use of ‘Joint Participation’ would be unjust in many situations if taken to its logical extreme. Ormerod Fortston give a specific example here: D who supplies the bullets for who is god to P's gun for him to murder V now becomes a murderer as a principal, not as an accessory. Essay On Drug On Welfare Or Costly?? This undermines the principles of secondary liability in as fundamental a way as did the ruling in Kennedy (No.1)’ The clear message from the case law is that the judiciary seem willing to convict at any cost no matter the damage to principles of causation and the general criminal law.

The application of the law in god to, these cases is incoherent and from Kennedy (No1) to Kennedy (No2) we have heard four different justifications all completely flawed. The chain of causation in these cases is continually held not to be severed by the seeming novus actus interveniens of voluntary injection but the rationale for this is very unclear. It is clear however from other case law on use alice, unlawful act manslaughter that the drug cases are not consonant with other principles of causation. In R v. Williams the court talked about the voluntary act by a third party on you, the chain of causation and on Drug on Welfare Recipients: or Costly?, stated that the voluntary act had to be ‘within the ambit of reasonableness and not so daft as to make it his own voluntary act which amounted to a novus actus interveniens and consequently broke the chain of causation’. This was dealing with cases where the victim was threatened and then did some act which caused his death; the key thing for these cases is that the voluntary act by the accused had to exhibit rationality. If the facts of the case indicated that the victim was being irrational then the accused couldn’t not be said to have caused the death. The rationale of the drugs cases is to completely circumvent questions of causation by attempting to say that the voluntary act of injection was somehow overcome. The principle of novus actus interveniens when the victim or another person makes a ‘free, deliberate and informed’ decision is who is, one of the Bacchae Essay, most important concepts of causation. The drugs and manslaughter cases have ridden rough shod over who is you these principals. In cases involving manslaughter the prosecution always has open to them to attempt a prosecute under the architecture, idea of ‘recklessness’ or ‘gross negligence’.

The issues of causation are also pertinent here and given the speculative nature of the crime the chain of causation can sometimes be difficult to establish. However, for our purposes we will want to consider the god to, principles as they potentially apply to Essay on Drug on Welfare Recipients: Necessary, drug suppliers and other categories where legal causation may be difficult to establish. There was considerable confusion in you, recent years but the confusion seems to have been settled by the court in R v. Adomako . Following that case it is clear the prosecution must establish three criteria: • Must be in breach of the objectives, duty of care under established principles of negligence. • The negligence must have caused death. • The action must be considered as ‘gross negligence’

In the who is, drug supply cases it was suggested by R v. Dias that ‘manslaughter by way of gross negligence may arise if a duty of care can be established’ . Heaton was of the opinion in this case that whilst undoubtedly a duty of care would have existed on the facts as they had existed in Cato however the finely balanced issues may preclude a finding of ‘gross’ negligence. In cases such as Dalby, Kennedy and Finlay where the victim self-injects it is hard to see how this progresses the issue of everyday, causation any further. The main problem with drugs cases is that the reasoning is completely circular and god to, very difficult to grasp without detailed contemplation of potential analogies. The crucial distinction for the whole case law is styles, between the who is, situation in Cato and those in Kennedy. The difference between those two is that Cato could be considered to have ‘caused’ the Bacchae Essay, death of the victim in that he was the one doing the injecting, the consent of a victim is no defence for who is god to good reason. Prima Facie in the supply case the intervening voluntary act of the victim acting in a free deliberate and informed manner would normally break the chain of causation. What the court did in Bacchae Essay, Kennedy (No2) was to leave the who is god to, law in belief model, confusion, especially because they didn’t couch their approach in terms of causation. The problem was amply highlighted by Heaton: ‘An individual, D, might be regarded as a factual cause of the who is god to you, prohibited result where his action combined with others brings about that result. This does not mean on mcdonalds, orthodox principles that he will necessarily be held to who is you, be a legal cause: his actions may well be treated in Bacchae Essay, law as too remote’

The use of who is, joint participation to establish the s.23 OAPA 1861 doesn’t close the causation gap because the supplier still is too remote. The court attempted to circumvent this inevitability by relying on R v. Latif and others : ‘The free, deliberate and architecture, informed intervention of a second person, who intends to exploit the who is, situation created by the first, but is not acting in concert with him is held to relieve the first actor of criminal responsibility’ Thus causation becomes reliant on the perception of ‘acting in concert’ however this causes a beehive of problems. Whilst they maybe acting in concert how does this create an unlawful act? S.23 was clearly instituted for the ‘protection of the person to whom the substance is administered ’ and belief, thus surely they cannot act in concert to commit a crime that only one of them can commit. God To You? The court seems to have made a mistake here and conflated legal causation with factual causation, they seem to think that Cato has created authority that if you can establish administration then automatically causation is established. It is clear that this is not the case however the court in Kennedy wants to Vernacular architecture Essay, shift the legal basis the facts remain the same there was not a traditional causational link. The basic answer to whether the chain of causation can be broken in cases of manslaughter is that theoretically and it has been broken in numerous cases. However, the logic and approach of the courts in the drug supply cases threatens to undermine all these principles. 2: Comparison to other areas of Criminal Law.

The decisions in you, Empress Cars and the drug supply cases have been heavily criticised as having caused ‘a revolution within the field of criminal causation’ . Model Theory? It is primarily because in Empress and who is you, the drug supply cases they have completely disregarded the novus actus interveniens of a third party’s voluntary actions. The chain of causation can only really be broken by a limited number of defined cases as we discussed in the first section these are roughly stated, failure to be a sine qua non or failure to establish an intervening act between the cause and effect. The removal of the voluntary action intervention distorts these principles and if taken to its logical extreme could cause serious defects in criminal causation. However, the principles of causation, as traditionally understood always seem to find the ‘best illustrations supporting the thesisin cases other than homicide’ , this is belief model theory, undoubtedly an accurate description. The interesting thing about this area of law is that whilst there are plenty of academic authorities to the fact that ‘The novus actus rule is of fundamental importance’ it is particularly difficult to find cases other than the ones we have mentioned already where the court has upheld a novus actus. Who Is God To? However, one of the objectives, main justifications for you the existence of the rules on Bacchae Essay, causation is the distinction in criminal law between principal and accessory ; it is in these cases that we are able to who is god to, find dicta which are at odds with the approach in the drugs supply cases. The whole basis of accessorial liability is learning styles, based on the fact that the accused didn’t in who is you, fact cause the harm, in fact he may have had absolutely no intention to commit the crime but he can still be an accessory to the crime. Thus take the famous case of R v. Bainbridge as an use alice walker example of why the logic of causation is heinously wrong in the drug cases. Who Is God To You? In Bainbridge the accused sold oxygen-cutting equipment to another person, that person in turn broke into a bank and stole £18,000.

The accused was convicted as an accessory to the theft. Here we have analogous facts to the drugs supply cases, if we leave aside the fact that the third party did in fact commit an offence in everyday use alice walker, this case. One cannot be accessory to theft where there are only two parties. For example if the third party had taken the oxygen-cutting machine and broken into his own house and ‘stolen’ £18,000 then no offence is committed by the accused. However it maybe that the accused is guilty of an offence such as supplying the oxygen-cutting machine without a licence. The problem is that in this case there is no extra element such as in a homicide which is an unlawful act resulting in death.

Therefore lets say when the third party is who is god to, using the Vernacular architecture Essay, oxygen-cutting machine breaking into who is god to you his own house he cuts himself, there is no crime of self-injury but there is one of assault. Using the Bacchae Essay, logic in Kennedy (No 2) the accused and the third party could somehow be ‘joint participants’ in causing an assault on the third party. This obviously makes absolutely no sense and would be completely ridiculous. Thus the approach taken in the manslaughter cases doesn’t sit easily with principles of accessorial liability because as I have argued above legal causation seems to have taken precedence over factual causation which means that establishment of who is the principal and the accessory become questions of you, legal construction as well as fact. The rest of the Bacchae Essay, criminal law of result crimes however shows a distinct pre-occupation with voluntary actions, thus there have been plenty of cases such as R v. Who Is You? Hanson where the accused was the original thrower of a squib which then was thrown away by the intended target and caused injury to a third party. Belief Theory? The fact that the throwing of the target was not voluntary meant that it couldn’t break the chain of causation. In the cases surrounding Assault occasioning actual bodily harm we can see the who is god to you, causation element become of Bacchae Essay, great importance.

In R v. Roberts the assault was an attempt to remove a woman’s coat which occasioned her to you, jump out of health theory, a car and sustain injury. The court again upheld the dicta that the action had to be so unreasonable or irrational that it was unforeseeable. Who Is God To You? The clear theme arising from these cases is that the voluntary action of learning styles activist, a victim must be caused by the criminal act of the accused. This can be established in these ‘escape’ cases such as Roberts because the who is you, facts bear out that it was the cause, however it is clear in drug supply questions the implied assertion and the one accepted in Essay Testing on Welfare Recipients: Necessary, Dias is that the supplier cannot be said to who is god to, cause the death. The foreseeability issue that Finlay raised was taken in the wrong context, it is clear the stressed mindset of the activist, victim was what made the who is, harm foreseeable. Mcdonalds? It is a warning as to who is you, why principles of causation ought not to be treated holistically in that they are often fact sensitive and can be used as they were in Finlay to distort their intention.

It is arguable that the architecture Essay, principles in other result crimes such as assault ought not to be treated as being binding on the approach in who is you, manslaughter. We will see that the crime can make a difference to the way causation is established in the next section when we turn to look at activist the approach in other jurisdictions. 3:Comparisons to other Jurisdictions. The issue of the supply of drugs has been raised in a few cases north of the border and it is interesting to look at who is their approach as a comparator. The courts have taken a similar view to the courts in learning, England but based on different grounds. However, the decisions north of the border have consistently found suppliers to you, be guilty and that the Novus Actus Interveniens of Bacchae Essay, voluntary behaviour doesn’t break the chain of causation. In both Khaliq v. HMA and Ulhaq v. HMA the supply of solvents was enough to establish the crime of ‘Culpably and recklessly endangering life and health’.

In Lord Advocate’s Reference (No1 of god to you, 1994) the court considered a directly analogous case to those of the drug supply when the accused was charged with the Scots Law equivalent of manslaughter, Culpable Homicide. On Appeal to the High Court after an initial acquittal the High Court upheld the views of Khaliq and Ulhaq and specifically stated: ‘The purpose and the intention of the supply libelled was that the solvents should be abused, employing the means of abuse provided. The solvents were, it is averred, abused, and this could be regarded as the expected, intended and probable consequence of the supply’ This knowledge of abuse thus in Scots Law was held to be vital because the foreseeability of the use meant that the chain of causation was not broken. They argued that the distinction between supply and administration was so negligible where ‘supply is Bacchae Essay, closely related to the use by words of instigation or by some act of instigation on who is god to you, the part of the panel’ . The proximity and foreseeability of use therefore negate the Novus Actus Interveniens on that basis. The argumentation is more convincing than in the English cases although it is submitted this is because of the double test requirement of Manslaughter by Unlawful Act. It seems quite clear that the supply of drugs can constitute a murder charge in certain states of America. In particular two cases are pertinent on this issue and styles activist, these are State of Iowa v. Albertson and Lofthouse v. Commonwealth of Kentucky the courts came to consider very similar issues as we have discussed in who is god to you, the cases above. In the latter case the learning, accused was charged with reckless homicide under the Kentucky Penal Code. The courts in Kentucky made a distinction as far as supervening factors were concerned between an ‘independent intervening cause’ and a ‘’dependent intervening cause’.

The latter did not relieve the accused of criminal responsibility unless the human act was completely abnormal, the former would relieve unless it was ‘reasonably foreseeable at the time of his conduct’ . You? The issue of on Welfare or Costly?, causation was thus circumvented on the basis of foreseeability based on the inherent dangerousness of the drugs: ‘The Commonwealth posits that, as a matter of law, the act of furnishing narcotic drugs to another creates a substantial risk of death to the transferee sufficient to convict of either second-degree manslaughter (awareness of and conscious disregard of the risk) or reckless homicide (failure to perceive the risk)’ The test is very similar to the Empress and Finlay approach and the distinction between ordinary and extraordinary occurrence that was made in the latter case, however the main issue here is that whilst foreseeability is the test they have specifically attuned the god to, offence so that the issue of causation is correctly centred on the foreseeability of the harm resulting from an action. The crime is reckless homicide and the only way the novus actus interveniens can intervene was held to be, much like our escape cases such as R v. Roberts and R v. Mackie was where the act of the victim was abnormal or completely irrational in the situation. Interestingly the US has completely rejected what was known as the felony murder rule which is Bacchae Essay, defined as: ‘If death ensues as a consequence of the commission of a dangerous felony, the intent to commit the dangerous felony provides the element of intent necessary to convict of the homicide’ The court in Lofthouse discussed the case law surrounding this crime which bears obvious analogies to manslaughter by unlawful and dangerous act. It appears as though the approach has been abandoned in Kentucky and other states for a number of reasons. One of the main reasons is that many states have their own statutory crime of homicide caused by the supply of narcotics this includes states such as Connecticut, New Jersey and Florida. However the god to you, use of the felony-murder doctrine is identical in most respects to the manslaughter by unlawful and dangerous act, including the attendant difficulties of establish a causal relationship between the felonious conduct and the death. The approach in the seminal case of Heacock v. Commonwealth was too hold that the distribution of cocaine was an mcdonalds inherently dangerous act enough to establish second degree murder under the felony murder rule. It has subsequently been held in numerous cases that the supply of who is you, drugs under the felony murder rule will constitute a crime see Ingleton v. State , State v. Whitted and Sheriff, Clark County v. Morris . The South African approach to Vernacular Essay, causation issues seems to be very similar to who is, the one in this country.

In two particular cases; S v. Grotjohn and S v. Hibbert the South African Courts fell to consider the effect of the voluntary act of the victim on the accused’s liability in homicide cases. In both these cases the victim had committed suicide but the accused had handed her a gun in a manner where it was very foreseeable that they would shoot themselves., Steyn CJ stated in the case of Grotjohn that the important issue was that the novus actus interveniens be ‘a completely independent act, in the sense that it should be totally unconnected and Bacchae Essay, has no relationship to the act of the perpetrator’ . The cases are not completely analogous because in the cases there was an intention or desire to bring about a fatal result and they had a particularly close involvement in the instigation of the actions of the victim. In a situation very similar to Cato the who is god to, court in health belief, the New Zealand case of R v. Bennett found that a young man who had injected drugs into who is god to you his friend at a party was guilty of manslaughter. Continental Approach to learning styles activist, Causation. In surveying the foregoing case law it becomes apparent that in both Scotland and the U.S.A the law is in effect much the you, same as the result in Kennedy (No 2). However, what we see is that both on the continent and in these other jurisdictions is that undoubtedly any liability is based upon the idea of negligent manslaughter or culpable homicide because death was reasonably foreseeable. In all the use alice, jurisdictions the interrelation between foreseeability and causation is that the who is you, causal link can be established by negligence. This is Bacchae Essay, because in those situations the seemingly voluntary action of the victim is foreseeable, or ought to be, so the you, accused is deemed to have been aware of the dangers and continued any way. The English approach to the question has seemingly been correct then in embracing the Empress Cars foreseeability test in criminal law. The problem is that this is not really relevant in manslaughter by unlawful and dangerous act.

The act must have caused the death, the styles, foreseeability of the issue isn’t relevant because if the act was unforeseeable then it is established that the chain of causation can still be established (i.e. the person had a thin skull or a rare disorder). Who Is God To You? However, in other jurisdictions the foreseeability issue goes to negligence not causation and this avoids the problems. In all jurisdictions the on Drug Testing Recipients: or Costly?, supply of drugs is a causa sine qua non however the chain of causation is held not to who is you, be broken because the crime is consequent upon negligence by definition whereas the manslaughter cases require a standard causational link between the act and death. This work has concentrated predominantly on the drug supply cases in objectives, manslaughter; this mirrors the domination that is god to you, given to them in all the textbooks and articles on learning, the issue. It is well understood that there are numerous things which could potentially break the chain of causation in manslaughter such as failure to be a causa sine qua non, intervention by an act of nature, intervention by a third party, it may not be a substantial cause of death. The intervention of a third party, particularly where that third party is the victim himself, is a foundational principle of causation and as mentioned above the basis for accessorial liability. The drug supply cases seem to offend these principles and yet there is a paucity of good authority to contradict their conclusions.

In many ways the conclusions in Kennedy (No 2) defy logical explication, however it is an obvious attempt at maintaining the policy that drug dealers can be guilty of manslaughter. This principle is recognised both north of the border and in the USA which in turn creates pressure for conformity. However, the god to you, detriment to causational principles seems to lie in the fact that it in many respects completely bypasses the operation of causation. It doesn’t pay attention to the fact that causation is a mixture of fact and law, the one cannot exist without the other, and furthermore it is simply not tenable to argue that once de minimis factual cause is established that the facts have no effect. Kennedy (No 2) tried to create some kind of legal chain of Vernacular architecture, causation, whereby the establishment of ‘administration’ by god to, constructing the facts so as to fit into the definition somehow changed the facts from what they were, thus legally all administration causes death where in fact it does. The chain of belief model, causation can be broken in cases of manslaughter; it is clear from American authorities such as People v. Who Is You? Elder and mcdonalds, Smith v. State that where the accused commits a minor crime which is then followed by a grossly disproportionate killing by a third party then this will break the chain of causation. However there are virtually no examples in English law and if we follow the approach under R v. Dear as we discussed above the who is, chain of mcdonalds objectives, causation in cases concerning homicide may be incredibly difficult because even the god to, most unreasonable behaviour of the victim in exacerbating an initially trivial harm are not relevant in mcdonalds objectives, breaking the chain of causation. God To You? It is as well to remember however that this doesn’t necessarily entail a conviction of manslaughter, causation is Vernacular Essay, primarily concerned with the actus reus of a crime and god to, the mens rea may have a very important bearing on the outcome. Allen, Michael Textbook on belief, Criminal Law 2005 / OUP / 8th ed.

Fletcher, George Rethinking Criminal Evidence 2000 / OUP Hart, HLA Causation in the Law 1985 / OUP / 2nd ed. Honore, T McCall Smith, R Scots Criminal Law 1997 / Butterworths / 2nd. Sheldon, D 2nd ed. Ormerod, David Smith Hogan Criminal Law 2005 / OUP / 11th ed. Heaton, Russell Dealing In Death 2003 CLR 497 Principals?

No Principles 2004 CLR 463 Ormerod, D Drug Suppliers As Manslaughterers (Again) 2005 CLR 819. Fortson, R Padfield, N Clean Water And Muddy Causation: Is 1995 CLR 68 Causation A Question Of Law Or Fact, Or Just A Way Of Allocating Blame. Phippen, L Drugs and manslaughter 2005 NLJ 1054. Radlett, D Reed, Alan Involuntary Manslaughter And Assisting 2003 JCL 431. Drug-Abuse Injection Court of Appeal: Causation and Assisting 2005 JCL 384. Drug-abuse Injection Toczek, L Is the supplier also the killer? 2002 NLJ 595 Weait, M Taking the blame: criminal law, social 2001 JSWFL 441. responsibility and the sexual transmission of who is you, HIV Williams, R Policy And Principle In Drugs Manslaughter Cases 2005 CLJ 66.

If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Law essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on Essay, hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is god to, qualified to styles, a high level in our area of expertise, and you, we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Law work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Law essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.

If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to mcdonalds objectives, provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Law Essay on Chain of Causation cases of you, Manslaughter . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/law/chain-of-causation-manslaughter.php [03-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and model theory, no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and god to, coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time.

Essay UK is a trading name of Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in England and belief model, Wales under Company Number 08866484 . Registered Data Controller No: ZA245894.