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Lewis Carroll Carroll, Lewis (Nineteenth-Century Literary Criticism) - Essay. Lewis Carroll 1832-1898. (Born Charles Lutwidge Dodgson) English novelist, poet, satirist, and dougies liverpool mathematician. Typography! See also Lewis Carroll Poetry Criticism and liverpool Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, Through the Research Essay Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There Criticism . Dodgson produced several essays on mathematics and symbolic logic as an Oxford lecturer in mathematics, but it was under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll that he published his most famous works, the fantasy novels Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and Through the Looking-Glass (1872). Originally intended for the amusement of children, the Alice stories, as well as Carroll's highly imaginative poetry, have been subjected to intense scrutiny and widely varying interpretations by scholars around the dougies liverpool world since their publication. The third child and the eldest son of eleven children, Carroll was born in the parsonage in Daresbury, Cheshire on January 27, 1832. In 1843, his father, a country clergyman, accepted a more lucrative position in Croft, Yorkshire, a post that also provided a larger parsonage for the family of thirteen.
Carroll's childhood was apparently a happy one, and he spent hours entertaining and caring for his many siblings, particularly his sisters. He began writing at an early age, producing poems and stories for the amusement of his siblings as well as a series of illustrated magazines for his family. Carroll's formal education began at active is, the Richmond Grammar School, where he spent a year and dougies a half; this was followed by scottish parliament building cost, three years at liverpool, Rugby, after which he attended Christ Church, Oxford, where he took a first in mathematics, earned a bachelor's and a master's degree, and remained for the rest of his life, first as a lecturer in mathematics and typography later as curator of the Senior Common Room. He produced a number of scholarly works on mathematics and symbolic logic and tutored countless students, including young women denied admission to liverpool the all-male university, in the hours movie, both subjects. In 1861, he became a deacon in liverpool, the Church of England but decided not to take holy orders. After the death of his father in 1868, Carroll assumed responsibility for his unmarried sisters, establishing a home for them in Guildford in Surrey.
Carroll never married and had no children of his own, but he was devoted to a succession of little girls he had befriended. The most famous of Research of Heredity Essay example these was Alice Liddell, the daughter of the Dean of Christ Church, who provided the dougies model for the fictional Alice and for whom Carroll wrote Alice's Adventures Under Ground, which he illustrated himself and never published, presenting it instead as a gift to Alice Liddell. It provided the basis for Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its sequel Through the Looking-Glass. Both works were published under the name Lewis Carroll, a pseudonym Carroll adopted in 1856. He published all of of Heredity example his poetry and fiction under that name, although he continued to liverpool produce scholarly texts under his own name. At the same time, he became fascinated with the emerging field of photography and daniel thomas egerton earned a considerable reputation as one of the first art photographers and liverpool the nineteenth-century's most celebrated photographer of children. Carroll died at the age of sixty-five in Guildford.
Carroll's best-known works, all produced under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll, were his fantasy novels, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Research example Looking-Glass. Famously innovative for their unconventional use of language, the dougies liverpool stories were also among the Theory of Instructional Design Essay first non-didactic, non-moralizing texts aimed at children. Carroll's nonsense verse, most notably The Hunting of the Snark (1876) and dougies “Jabberwocky” (from Alice's Adventures in daniel, Wonderland ) are usually considered related to his prose works by virtue of the similarity of language. His serious verse, published in several collections, is considered uninspired and dougies is largely forgotten today. The later novels Sylvie and daniel Bruno (1889) and liverpool Sylvie and Bruno Concluded (1893) were his only fictional works aimed at active euthanasia is, an adult reading audience. Dougies! Far more serious and didactic than the Alice stories, the two texts have often been treated by critics as a single, two-volume work, and occasionally as a fairly conventional Victorian novel. Far less famous than his fictional works are Carroll's writings on mathematics and symbolic logic.
They include A Syllabus of Plane Algebraical Geometry, Part I (1860), An Elementary Treatise on Determinants (1867), Euclid and His Modern Rivals (1879), and euthanasia is Symbolic Logic, Part I: Elementary (1896). Carroll's publications as Lewis Carroll, particularly the dougies liverpool Alice stories, were enormously popular with juvenile readers at the time of their publication and have since attained an assured place in the canon of children's literature. They have been reprinted countless times in a wide variety of editions and have been translated into virtually every modern language. The two books were originally considered nonsense for the amusement of children and were considered unworthy of analysis by serious scholars. Beginning in the 1930s, however, the Alice stories and the nonsense poem The Hunting of the scottish Snark have attracted increasing attention from literary critics and philosophers. Psychoanalytic critics in particular have for many years been preoccupied with the details of Carroll's life, particularly his sex life.
In addition to the much-documented phallic and womb imagery of his fiction, his extreme fondness for dougies liverpool, pre-adolescent girls—he often took them on overnight outings and photographed many of daniel them nude—made Carroll a suspicious character in his own time and even more so today. Morton N. Cohen confronts speculation about Carroll's relationship with his young friends, claiming that the author was a “model Victorian” who never acted on whatever erotic impulses he may have harbored for dougies, the young. As Cohen puts it, “Carroll knew that, given his preference for the friendship of children, if he once succumbed to any temptation, he would never be able to befriend them again. Is! His own uncompromising standards, his forthright, pious nature would not permit it. Besides he loved innocence so, how could he ever violate it?” Robert M. Dougies Liverpool! Polhemus seems to research agree: “Freudians have had grand times analyzing the kinks in Charles Dodgson's personality, but the striking irony is that psychoanalysis and liverpool its theories … seem to flow right out of Carroll's wonderland.” Michael Irwin also acknowledges that “the Alice books, of course, are a gift to the Freudian, proliferating as they do in holes, tunnels, doors, locks, keys, fluids and size-changes.” Nonetheless, Irwin claims, “that game is active euthanasia is, all too easy.” Daniel Bivona reads Alice's Adventures in Wonderland in the context of nineteenth-century imperialism, referring to Alice as ethnocentric because she assumes that the liverpool language and Science Research of Heredity Essay example behavior of the creatures in Wonderland operate according to no rules simply because they fail to conform to English rules. “Alice's ‘imperialism,’ such as it is,” contends Bivona, “is a semiotic imperialism: she is liverpool, incapable of the hours movie constructing, on a model radically different from liverpool her own, the ‘system’ or ‘systems’ that give meaning to the behavior of the creatures.” Several critics maintain that Carroll's fictional work anticipates modernism and even postmodernism, and his name has been linked with many of the literary figures of those movements. Polhemus reports: “From out of his rabbit-hole and looking-glass world we can see coming not only such figures as Joyce, Freud, Oscar Wilde, Henry James, Virginia Woolf, Kafka, Proust, Artaud, Nabokov, Beckett, Waugh, Lacan, Borges, Bakhtin, and Garcia Marquez, but also much of the character and mood of twentieth-century popular culture.” Michael Holquist has examined The Hunting of the Snark as a modernist text and concluded that the poem “is the most perfect nonsense which Carroll created in parliament, that it best exemplifies what all his career and all his books sought to do: achieve pure order.” Carroll's work does not consist of meaningless gibberish, according to Holquist, but is rather “its own system of signs which gain their meaning by dougies liverpool, constantly dramatizing their differences from daniel thomas egerton signs in other systems.” Peter Heath also rejects the idea that Carroll was a nonsense writer and claims that the author should be more properly categorized as an absurdist. Heath maintains that the Alice books are rational works “whose frolics are governed throughout, not by a formal theory of dougies liverpool any kind, but by close attention to logical principles, and by a sometimes surprising insight into abstract questions of philosophy.” Carroll's two later novels, Sylvie and Bruno and Sylvie and thomas egerton Bruno Concluded, have generally been considered far inferior to the author's earlier works.
Edmund Miller, however, believes that the two books should be treated as a whole and suggests that the resulting two-volume work has much in common with the early Victorian novel, particularly Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights. “Both works are infused with the sentiments of the age and yet combine traditional materials in completely original ways,” claims Miller. Access our Lewis Carroll Study Guide for liverpool, Free. A Syllabus of the hours movie Plane Algebraical Geometry, Part I (nonfiction) 1860. Alice's Adventures in dougies, Wonderland [as Lewis Carroll] (novel) 1865. The Dynamics of a Particle (satire) 1865. An Elementary Treatise on Determinants (nonfiction) 1867. Phantasmagoria and Other Poems [as Lewis Carroll] (poetry) 1869. The New Belfry of egerton Christ Church, Oxford [as D. C. Liverpool! L.] (satire) 1872.
Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There [as Lewis Carroll] (novel) 1872. The Hunting of the Snark: An Agony in the hours movie, Eight Fits [as Lewis Carroll] (poetry) 1876. Euclid and dougies liverpool His Modern Rivals (nonfiction) 1879. Rhyme? And Reason? [as Lewis Carroll] (poetry) 1883.
Curiosa Mathematica. Euthanasia Is! Part I: A New Theory of Parallels (nonfiction) 1888. Sylvie and Bruno [as Lewis Carroll] (novel) 1889. Curiosa Mathematica. Dougies Liverpool! Part II: Pillow Problems Thought Out during Wakeful Hours (nonfiction) 1893. Sylvie and Bruno Concluded [as Lewis Carroll] (novel) 1893. Symbolic Logic, Part I: Elementary (nonfiction) 1896. The Three Sunsets, and Other Poems (poetry) 1898. The Collected Verse of Lewis Carroll (poetry) 1929. The Complete Works of Lewis Carroll (novels, poetry, essays, satires, nonfiction, and letters) 1936. Symbolic Logic, Part II: Advanced (nonfiction) 1977.
SOURCE: Holquist, Michael. “What is a Boojum? Nonsense and Modernism.” Yale French Studies, no. 43 (1969): 145-64. [ In the following essay, Holquist examines The Hunting of the Snark as an experimental work that resists critics' attempts to interpret it as an allegory. ] The other project was a scheme for entirely abolishing all words whatsoever; and this was urged as a great advantage in point of health as well as brevity. … An expedient was therefore offered, that since words are only names for things, it would be more convenient for scottish cost, all men to carry about them such things as were necessary to express the particular business they are to. (The entire section is 7594 words.) Get Free Access to this Lewis Carroll Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more.
Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the dougies liverpool chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in Science example, one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. SOURCE: Beaver, Harold. “Whale or Boojum: An Agony.” In Lewis Carroll Observed: A Collection of dougies liverpool Unpublished Photographs, Drawings, Poetry, and New Essays, edited by Edward Guiliano, pp. 111-31. New York: Clarkson N. The Hours Movie! Potter, 1976.
[ In the following essay, Beaver explores the alleged connections between The Hunting of the Snark and Herman Melville's Moby-Dick.] Is it that by its indefiniteness it shadows forth the heartless voids and immensities of the universe, and thus stabs us from behind with the thought of annihilation, when beholding the white depths of the dougies liverpool milky way? (The entire section is 8642 words.) Get Free Access to this Lewis Carroll Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. SOURCE: Miller, Edmund. Building! “The Sylvie and Bruno Books as Victorian Novel.” In Lewis Carroll Observed: A Collection of Unpublished Photographs, Drawings, Poetry, and New Essays, edited by Edward Guiliano, pp.
132-44. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1976. [ In the following essay, Miller maintains that Carroll's two novels aimed at liverpool, adult readers are constructed according to thomas a highly organized plan and conform to many of the liverpool conventions associated with early Victorian novels. ] The Sylvie and Bruno books together form Lewis Carroll's most ambitious literary work. Yet the general public is hardly aware of its existence. This is a great shame, for the work is. (The entire section is 6745 words.) SOURCE: Kelly, Richard. “Poetry.” In Lewis Carroll, pp. 44-77. Boston: Twayne, 1977. [ In the following excerpt, Kelly discusses Carroll's poetry, maintaining that his serious verse is Science, of poor quality, while his humorous verse is brilliant. ] I SERIOUS VERSE.
Lewis Carroll's serious poetry is very dull. Most of his comic verse on the other hand, is generally amusing and sometimes exhibits a genius that remains unrivaled. Dougies! Nonsense poems such as “Jabberwocky,” “The Walrus and the Carpenter,” and The Hunting of the Snark, and parodies like “You are old, Father William,” “Speak roughly to your little boy,” and “Twinkle. (The entire section is Theory of Instructional Essay, 13276 words.) Lionel Morton (essay date December 1978) SOURCE: Morton, Lionel. “Memory in the Alice Books.” Nineteenth-Century Fiction 33, no. Liverpool! 3 (December 1978): 285-308. [ In the following essay, Morton discusses the role of memory and nostalgia in the poetry contained in the Alice books. ] The afternoon of 4 July 1862, on which the story of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland was first told during a boat trip up the the hours movie Thames, remained “golden” in Lewis Carroll's memory, although the dougies liverpool weather is Science of Heredity example, said to have been cool and wet. 1 Most importantly, it is dougies liverpool, nostalgically recalled in the three poems which Carroll attached to the Alice books. Research! These are not parts of the stories, but they express an. (The entire section is 9326 words.)
SOURCE: Cohen, Morton N. “Lewis Carroll and the Education of dougies liverpool Victorian Women.” In Nineteenth-Century Women Writers of the English-Speaking World, edited by Rhoda B. Daniel Egerton! Nathan, pp. 27-35. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986. [ In the following essay, originally published in 1984, Cohen discusses Dodgson's views on higher education for women and his personal contributions to dougies the education of women and girls in mathematics and formal logic. ] We are all aware that Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, better known as Lewis Carroll, nurtured all his mature life a special preference for the female of the species. The preference was special because it was a preference not for of Instructional Design, all females. (The entire section is 4261 words.) SOURCE: Cohen, Morton N. “Lewis Carroll and Victorian Morality.” In Sexuality and Victorian Literature, edited by Don Richard Cox, pp. 3-19. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1984.
[ In the following essay, Cohen addresses critical speculation about Carroll's sex life. ] A few years ago a well-known writer came to talk with me about Lewis Carroll. He was writing a biography of Carroll, and, as I was then editing Carroll's letters, he thought that I might be able to help him. Most of all, he wanted to liverpool know about Carroll's sex life. He asked me a long string of pointed questions, and he wanted specific, factual answers. Daniel Egerton! I could not, in all honesty, supply them. (The entire section is 8258 words.) Daniel Bivona (essay date September 1986) SOURCE: Bivona, Daniel. “Alice the Child-Imperialist and dougies the Games of Wonderland.” Nineteenth-Century Literature 41, no.
2 (September 1986): 143-71. [ In the following essay, Bivona considers Alice's Adventures in Wonderland as an allegory of nineteenth-century British imperialism. Parliament Building! ] Few would dispute the claim that Lewis Carroll was fascinated by games and puzzles. His interest in dougies, logical and mathematical games has been well documented. Moreover, although he seems rarely to have turned his attention to politics, on at least one occasion when he did—at the time of the typography Parliamentary debate over the Second Irish Home Rule Bill—he took a characteristic. (The entire section is 11612 words.)
SOURCE: Marret, Sophie. “Metalanguage in Lewis Carroll.” SubStance 22, nos. 2-3 (1993): 217-27. [ In the following essay, Marret examines the Alice books and The Hunting of the Snark in conjunction with Dodgson's nonfiction work on symbolic logic. ] The modernity of Lewis Carroll's literary work lies in the reversal of his own theses in the field of logic. Dougies Liverpool! Indeed, his intuitions about the role of the subject, discernible in his literary writing, seem to Theory of Instructional Design Essay condemn rationality, which nonetheless is one of the dougies foundations of the Alice books. Learning Essay! Symbolic Logic, the handbook to which he devoted the end of his life, would thus appear as an ultimate. (The entire section is 4581 words.) Robert M. Dougies Liverpool! Polhemus (essay date 1994) SOURCE: Polhemus, Robert M. “Lewis Carroll and the Child in Victorian Fiction.” In The Columbia History of the British Novel, edited by John Richetti, pp.
579-607. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994. [ In the following essay, Polhemus explores Carroll's representation of children, suggesting that the idea of using children as subjects in fiction was just emerging when the Alice books were published. Daniel Thomas Egerton! ] What do you suppose is the use of a child without any meaning? Lewis Carroll's two books, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and Through the. (The entire section is liverpool, 11870 words.) SOURCE: Schwab, Gabriele. Thomas Egerton! “Nonsense and dougies Metacommunication: Reflections on Lewis Carroll.” In The Play of the Self, edited by active euthanasia is, Ronald Bogue and Mihai I. Spariosu, pp. 157-79.
Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994. [ In the following essay, Schwab considers Carroll's experimental treatment of language, maintaining that his work anticipates the twentieth-century movements of surrealism, modernism, and dougies postmodernism. ] The history of nonsense literature is intrinsically linked to the history of literary realism. With the latter's insistence on the validity of the quotidian as an aesthetic object, nineteenth-century realism led to a radical redefinition of of Instructional Design Essay the. (The entire section is 9482 words.) SOURCE: Sherer, Susan. “Secrecy and Autonomy in Lewis Carroll.” Philosophy and Literature 20, no. 1 (1996): 1-19. [ In the following essay, Sherer discusses Alice's adventures as representative of the dougies liverpool Victorian child's desire to retreat to a secret place in Essay example, order to establish autonomy. ] Victorian novels quiver with morbid secrets and threatening discoveries. Unseen rooms, concealed doors, hidden boxes, masked faces, buried letters, all appear (and disappear) with striking regularity in the fiction of Victorian England. So many of dougies liverpool these secret spaces contain children, and especially little girls, little girls in hidden spaces.
The young Jane Eyre sits behind a. (The entire section is 7373 words.) SOURCE: Sigler, Carolyn. Euthanasia! Introduction to Alternative Alices: Visions and Revisions of dougies Lewis Carroll's Alice Books: An Anthology, pp. xi-xxiii. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1997. [ In the following essay, Sigler provides an overview of the the hours movie critical reception of the Alice stories over the last century and discusses Carroll's contributions to literary modernism. ] It may be thought that in introducing a certain little lady ALICEnce has been taken. But royal personages are public property. —Jean Jambon, Our Trip to Blundertown (1876)
Alternative Alices brings. (The entire section is 5285 words.) Elizabeth Sewell (essay date fall-winter 1999) SOURCE: Sewell, Elizabeth. “‘In the Midst of His Laughter and dougies Glee’: Nonsense and Nothingness in Lewis Carroll.” Soundings 82, nos. 3-4 (fall-winter 1999): 541-71.
[ In the following excerpt, Sewell explores the themes of scottish parliament death and dougies nothingness in The Hunting of the Snark and “Three Voices.” ] “Nonsense is how the English choose to take their Poesie pure. ” This sentence in one form or another keeps turning up in my pursuit of French poetry and active euthanasia of Nonsense over the last fifty years. I meant it originally as something of dougies liverpool a squib, but it organized the Theory of Instructional Design contents of my first work of criticism, The Structure of liverpool Poetry, . (The entire section is 7432 words.) SOURCE: Irwin, Michael. “ Alice : Reflections and Relativities.” In Rereading Victorian Fiction, edited by Science of Heredity Essay, Alice Jenkins and Juliet John, pp. 115-28. Houndmills, England: Palgrave, 2000. [ In the following essay, Irwin explores the theme of instability in the Alice stories. ] The Alice books are centrally concerned with instability. In Wonderland the dougies liverpool heroine suffers alarming shifts of size. In Through the Looking-Glass (1871) there is much straightforward physical disequilibrium. When the White Knight is sliding down the the hours movie poker Alice notes that ‘he balances very badly’.
1 He and the Red Knight repeatedly fall off their horses. (The entire section is 5697 words.) M. S. Ashbourne (essay date spring 2001) SOURCE: Ashbourne, M. Liverpool! S. “The Cheshire-Cat: Sign of Signs.” Interdisciplinary Journal for Germanic Linguistics and Semiotic Analysis 6, no. 1 (spring 2001): 79-106. [ In the following essay, Ashbourne examines the semiotic implications of the Cheshire Cat in the Alice stories. ] On January 14, 1898, Charles Dodgson, a.k.a.
Lewis Carroll, died at Science of Heredity example, the age of 65 years, leaving the world to grieve the loss of dougies one of active euthanasia its most gifted writers of books for children. Both Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (hereinafter: Wonderland ) and Alice Through the Looking Glass (hereinafter: Looking Glass ) are considered to be childhood classics. (The entire section is liverpool, 10542 words.) SOURCE: Silverstone, Ben. “Children, Monsters, and Words in Alice's Adventures in egerton, Wonderland and dougies Through the Looking-Glass. Typography Research! ” Cambridge Quarterly 30, no. 4 (2001): 319-56. [ In the following essay, Silverstone discusses the similarities between the dougies liverpool unconventional language employed by Carroll in his fiction and the “speculative morphologies” practiced by children as they master the rules of language. The Hours Movie! ] In the liverpool preface to thomas egerton the fourth edition of his Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, Walter Skeat acknowledges a debt to an earlier lexicographer: ‘I have also made some use of the curious book on Folk-Etymology by the Rev. A. S. (The entire section is dougies, 7653 words.) Demurova, Nina M. Is! “Alice Speaks Russian: The Russian Translations of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the dougies liverpool Looking-Glass. ” Harvard Library Bulletin 5, no. 4 (winter 1994-95): 11-29. Compares the various Russian translations of Carroll's most famous books. Pennington, John. “Alice at the Back of the North Wind, Or the Metafictions of Lewis Carroll and George MacDonald.” Extrapolation 33, no.
1 (spring 1992): 59-72. Discusses the influence Carroll and MacDonald had on each other's writing. Robson, Catherine. Men in Wonderland: The Lost Girlhood of the. (The entire section is 187 words.) Lewis Carroll Homework Help Questions.
The theme comes from humor, and satire. Carroll is known for funny poems with meaningful messages. Cost! I'd say one theme of this one is that children rarely really understand the adults in their. Charles Dodgson (1832-1898), aka Lewis Carroll, did suffer bouts with migraines, including migraines with aura (a perceptual disturbance). Migraines are a common malady related with Alice in. The entire book is a mockery of the systematic impulses of Christianity and dougies the Catholic Church. The instances of directives given to Alice (drink me, eat me) are specific references to the. Students have asked me if Lewis Carroll was on drugs, but I've never heard that he was a drunk.
Either way, the link below has a great description of his life, what he believed in, and why he. To find early responses to Lewis Carroll, you will need to search the daniel appropriate scholarly indices. For an undergraduate paper, you can rely on liverpool 20th and 21st century sources to point you to a.
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33 Writing Contests for Teens (Publication #038; Cash) In a world where J.K. Rowling#8217;s manuscript of #8220;Harry Potter#8221; was rejected 12 times and dougies liverpool, Kathryn Stockett#8217;s manuscript of #8220;The Help#8221; was rejected 60 times, it can be easy to become despondent about publishing your fiction, even more so for teenage writers aching to voice their thoughts to the world. However, there#8217;s an abundance of the hours movie writing competitions year round for teens and writing contests for high school students #8212; you just need to liverpool know where to look. Here, I compiled a list of 33 writing contests for teens. Genres include: fiction, poetry, nonfiction, screenplays, and plays. Some of these contests may sound like the competition is too stiff, especially if the organization receives thousands of submissions every year. But speaking from personal experience, you never know unless you try. Rejections will pile up for young authors, but so will acceptances accompanied by whoops and scottish building, fist pumps. Dougies Liverpool. Additionally, the experiences offered by certain teen contests such as working with professionals, revisiting your work, and perhaps even seeing it come to life either in a publication or on stage is indescribably rewarding and gratifying. So, young writers, submit on!
The theme is Learning Theory Essay, #8220;Making Meaning out of liverpool Ocean Pollution,#8221; and it challenges you to research, explore, interpret, and euthanasia, say something meaningful about the connections between human activities and the health of our oceans. Dougies. Prizes range from thomas egerton $100-$1,500. Grades: Middle school High school. This is an anthology to dougies liverpool look back on the past and view your younger work with pride. The author of the poem must have been age 15 or younger when the poem was written, and 18 or younger when submitted.
Ages: 18 or younger. Number of submissions: #8220;Thousands#8221; are submitted, 50 are chosen. If you have a novel over 20,000 words, submit it to the hours movie this contest where a community of readers will read your story. The more they love it, the better chance you have of dougies liverpool winning a publishing deal. Think of it as American Idol for your novel . Science Research. Plus, all published authors with Inkitt receive these great perks: $6,000+ invested into your book launch 25% royalties on every copy sold Cover design and professional editing Publicity on Amazon (over 90% of their books become bestsellers right after launching) This is dougies liverpool, a fantastic contest that can get you a ton of exposure and euthanasia is, even result in a book deal. Read the reviews on their website and submit today. It#8217;s free and easy to upload your manuscript and have readers start reading your work immediately. Any and all types of writing are welcome. Long short stories, short short stories, prose poetry, traditional poetry, blackout poetry, creative accounts of your life and dougies liverpool, experiences, essays about yourself, essays about what you love, plays, scripts, letters, lists, rants, lyrics, journal writing. The Princeton University Poetry Contest recognizes outstanding work by student writers in the 11th grade.
Prizes: First Prize – $500, Second Prize – $250, Third Prize – $100. Students in Theory of Instructional Design Essay, the 10th, 11th, and 12th grades enter in dougies, one of the following categories: poetry (a group of three poems), fiction (a short story or one-act play), or nonfiction (a personal or academic essay). First-place winners in each category are awarded a prize of $500; second-place winners receive $250. If you need help turning that book idea into a real manuscript, there is no better book than #8220;Go Teen Writers.#8221; From secret revision techniques to character advice, this helpful book will help get you to euthanasia the next level of writing. Teen literary magazine published quarterly.
Seeking writers ages 13-18 to submit fiction, novel excerpts, poetry, plays, nonfiction, new media, and dougies, cross-genre. Submit your best one-act play (one per playwright!) to the New Voices competition and you can potentially win cash, software from fabulous sponsors Final Draft and Great Dialogue, and even publication! Ages: 19 or younger. The Hours Movie. Eligibility for this annual playwriting contest is limited to liverpool students in the eleventh grade. Prizes: First Prize – $500, Second Prize – $250, Third Prize – $100.
The jury consists of members of the Princeton University Program in Theater faculty. Through Lewis University, Jet Fuel Review is run entirely by students under the supervision of faculty advisers Dr. Simone Muench and Dr. Jackie White. Jet Fuel Review is looking for quality in writing, whether it be in daniel thomas, poetry, prose, non-fiction, or artwork. Submission periods: August to October; January to March. Since 1923, the Scholastic Art Writing Awards have recognized the vision, ingenuity, and dougies, talent of our nation’s youth. Through the Science Essay, Awards, students receive opportunities for recognition, exhibition, publication, and scholarships.
Students across America submitted nearly 320,000 original works during our 2016 program year across 29 different categories of art and writing. Submissions period: September to dougies December. In this handbook for young writers, #8220;Spilling Ink,#8221; professional authors give advice to teens who want to become authors. By mixing personal anecdotes with practical advice, this book offers everything a young author will need to create incredible stories. One Teen Story is an award-winning literary magazine for the hours movie, readers and writers of young adult literature. Subscribers receive one curated and edited work of short fiction each month in the mail or on their digital devices. Submission period: September to May. Dougies. 13.
The Claremont Review. The editors of the Claremont Review publish the best poetry, short stories, short plays, visual art, and photography by Learning Theory Design Essay, young adults. We publish work in liverpool, many styles that range from traditional to the hours movie modern. We prefer pieces that explore real characters and reveal authentic emotion. Submission period: September to April. Sponsored by Hollins University, the Nancy Thorp Poetry Contest is in its fifty-second year. Dougies. The contest awards prizes for the best poems submitted by young women who are sophomores or juniors in high school or preparatory school. Prizes up to $5,000 are awarded to winners.
Winners are chosen by students and faculty members in the creative writing program at Hollins. Each year, young writers with and without disabilities, in U.S. grades 6-12 (or equivalents) or ages 11-18 for non-U.S. students, are asked to explore the disability experience through the art of Learning Theory of Instructional Design script writing for stage or screen. Writers may craft scripts from their own experiences and dougies, observations, create fictional characters and settings, or choose to write metaphorically or abstractly about the disability experience. Winners in these divisions will receive $500 for arts programs at their schools. Grades: 6-12 OR Ages: 11-18. The National YoungArts Foundation identifies and typography research, nurtures the most accomplished young artists in the visual, literary, design and performing arts and assists them at critical junctures in their educational and dougies liverpool, professional development. Additionally, YoungArts Winners are eligible for nomination as a U.S. Presidential Scholar in the Arts, one of the building, nation’s highest honors for high school students who exemplify academic and artistic excellence.
Ages: 15-18 OR Grades: 10-12. The Critical Pass Review is now accepting submissions online for its Critical Junior Poet#8217;s Award Contest, an dougies editor#8217;s choice award for exceptional promise in Science Research of Heredity Essay, the art of dougies poetry. Scottish Parliament Cost. Applicants between the ages of 13 and 18 can enter for free. The winner will receive a $100 cash prize, a $20 iTunes card, a CD of master poets reading their poetry, publication of his/her winning work in The Critical Pass Review #8216;s Summer 2016 issue, and more. Dougies Liverpool. Submissions period: November to March. #8220;Leap Write In!#8221; is from acclaimed author Karen Benke, who does a fantastic job helping teen writers to generate ideas for euthanasia is, their next story. This book has an dougies liverpool amazing spread of writing prompts, all designed to get your heart on the page and the reader#8217;s heart in their throat. The Patricia Grodd Poetry Prize for Young Writers recognizes outstanding young poets and is open to high school sophomores and juniors throughout the world.
The contest winner receives a full scholarship to the Kenyon Review Young Writers workshop. The Glazner Creative Writing Contest is an opportunity for high school juniors and seniors to Theory of Instructional Essay compete for a chance at publication in Santa Fe University of Art and Design’s online journal, Jackalope Magazine . To enter, students must submit up to 10 pages of dougies liverpool work in any genre to our contest email address ( #117;de.#121; 1507225691 #116;#105;#115;#114;#101; 1507225691 v#105;nu#101; 1507225691 #102;#97;tn#97; 1507225691 #115;#64;tse 1507225691 #116;#110;o#99; 1507225691 ). Deadline: November to December. The Young Authors Writing Competition is a national competition for high school writers of fiction, creative nonfiction and poetry. It began as a local contest in 1995, and Research of Heredity Essay example, since then has expanded into a national competition that has received tens of thousands of submissions from students across the country. Dougies Liverpool. 1st Place: $300, 2nd Place: $150, and 3rd Place: $50. Submission period: November to parliament January. The OddContest is an dougies liverpool annual competition for speculative (science fiction, fantasy, or horror) stories or prose poems no longer than 500 words. Prizes: $50 to first place; Odyssey Con membership and free books to top 3. Ages: 18 or younger. Selected writers will be invited to New York, expenses paid, for our Young Playwrights Conference to work with some of this country’s most exciting professional theater artists, and to hear their plays read in typography, our Off-Broadway Readings Series. Accepting Fiction, Creative Non-Fiction, Poetry, and Essays.
Winners and Finalists will be recognized at the 7th Annual University of Idaho Hemingway Festival, and cash prizes will be awarded in each category. Winners will also be considered for publication in an online University of Idaho publication. There will be one winner and one Finalist in each category with one Overall Grand Prize Winner. Cash prizes up to liverpool $500. Interlochen Arts Academy is a high school boarding school and summer camp. It online literary journal accepts submissions from high school students in five categories: Fiction, Non-fiction, Poetry, Screen/Stageplay and Hybrid form. Up to 6 pieces total. Submissions Period: February to March. Aerie International was born of a desire to Research of Heredity offer outstanding young writers and artists an opportunity to share, edit, and liverpool, publish their work internationally. What makes this journal unique is Science, that it is designed, edited and published entirely by high school students. Students whose work is liverpool, selected received $100 in euthanasia is, addition to a copy of the dougies, magazine.
Focusing on themes central both to the Holocaust and to active ethical decision making in our world today, the contest gives students from public, private and parochial schools the opportunity to share their creative works in response to survivors’ oral testimonies. Participating schools may submit a total of liverpool three entries from three individual students in the following categories: art, film, prose, and/or poetry. #8220;Writing Magic#8221; is for every young author who wants to Science of Heredity Essay create a world that magically transports the reader. She focuses on the core advice every writer needs: how to write beginnings and dougies liverpool, endings, how to create unforgettable characters, and how to write snappy dialogue that keeps readers laughing and crying. The festival includes plays written in workshops at Writopia’s labs across the country and plays submitted to our competition from playwrights around the world from playwrights in 1st through 12th grade (ages 6 to 18). Plays are professionally produced in scottish building cost, New York.
Grades: 1-12 OR Ages: 6-18. Since 1993, 12 plays are chosen by a panel of theatre professionals from submissions across America. Winning playwrights are provided careful mentoring and direction from liverpool industry professionals to help prepare their work for daniel egerton, public performance and dougies, hone their skills, talent and confidence. Nowhere else in the nation can young playwrights receive the prize of parliament building cost seeing their vision come to life on stage in a professional production featuring known actors from film, television and dougies, theatre. The plays are crafted by seasoned professional directors and each is euthanasia is, given several public performances in a month-long Festival.
Each year the Austin International Poetry Festival (AIPF) recognizes youth poets by publishing their work together in a truly diverse anthology. We welcome international poets from kindergarten through high school grade level or age to submit up to three poems. Winter Tangerine is a literary journal dedicated to the electric. To the salt. The sugar.
We want bitter honey, expired swee ts. We want catalysts. Accepting submissions of poetry, prose, drama, visual art, and short film. Submission period: April to liverpool October. Egerton. The Adroit Journal, published at the University of Pennsylvania is open to dougies all writers. The Adroit Prizes for Poetry and Prose are awarded annually to two students of secondary or undergraduate status whose written work #8220;inspires the the hours movie, masses to believe beyond feeling the liverpool, work.#8221; In other words, we strive to receive the the hours movie, absolute best work from emerging young writers in high school and college, and liverpool, the best of the best will receive these two lovely awards. Submission Period: To be announced. Hanging Loose Magazine is a professional magazine that welcomes high school submissions. Payment plus 2 copies. Send 3 to 6 poems, or 1 to 3 short stories, or an equivalent combination of poetry and prose to High School Editor, Hanging Loose, 231 Wyckoff Street, Brooklyn, NY 11217. Identify yourself as a high school age writer.
An online publishing opportunity for daniel thomas egerton, young writers. The New Pages Young Author’s Guide. A resource for young authors to find places to submit their work! Hi there#8230;#8230; Are these competition opportunities open to liverpool people outside of the USA? We are in South Africa and would love to submit #128578; Thanks very much. Active Euthanasia. I think many are, though you#8217;ll have to check with each one. Hey, I#8217;m also from SA! Would you like to chat on Whatsapp? Some say that deadlines are from September to May. Is this May 2017, or 2016?
May 2017, because the post was written only a few months ago. Cheers! There isn#8217;t much for some one who#8217;s 20. Are there any, I#8217;m from India. Dougies. People who are in cost, their 20s can apply to all the adult contests (meaning the majority of writing contests out liverpool, there!) Thank you so much for this list! I#8217;ve been looking for a list like this for a while. Thanks! Could you please add our contest to this list as well? The name of our contest is Lifesaver Essays Essay Writing Contest and the details can be found on our official webpage http://lifesaveressays.com/essay-contest. Theory Of Instructional Essay. I am an 11 year old living in New Zealand, I mostly do creative writing. Are any of these contests for me?
Yes, most of them allow for international submissions. Hello Alex yes some of these essay contests can be for you it depends. I am a student myself in high school and live in San Diego California. The ocean essay could be for you since you are 11 years old. Hope this helped. Where do I turn in the essay. Dougies. Where do we turn in daniel thomas, the story ? If you want to submit to liverpool each contest, I would suggest visiting their website and typography, following the guidelines. I am odudu uduak from Nigeria and l am 11. I love writing and l want to liverpool know contest will permits international submission.
Many of these contests request #8220;previously unpublished work#8221; only. From your personal experience, what exactly does this mean? For example, would winning a regional-only award from Scholastic Art-and-Writing render the piece #8220;published,#8221; although (I believe) Scholastic works are not available for public reading/viewing until the research, national level? Or would you be allowed to dougies still submit the award-winning work to is a contest requesting #8220;previously unpublished#8221; content? Thanks in advance! #128578; If the award didn#8217;t come with publication, then it#8217;s not published. It#8217;s only published if it#8217;s online or available to dougies liverpool the public. Hope that helps! Submit away! Do you have any contest that has a deadline after march? Contests usually take breaks over the summer (holding to a school schedule), but check the deadlines above to make sure. I was wondering if these contests are for the year 2017?
The deadlines only mention the Research Essay, months, not very helpful. It was written in 2016. Listing only the months keeps it perennially fresh, because the contests are often in the same months for each year. Dougies. DO you have any for 7th graders? I am writing a short fiction story that I would love to enter.
Most of the Science of Heredity Essay, middle school ones are for playwrights and poetry. Dougies. Thank you very much. No, these are the only ones I have, sorry. do u have anything for 6th graders. hi we are running a short story writing contest for Learning Essay, young writers. We thought you may be able to help the young writers by spreading the word! here is the link! I#8217;m an editor at Teen Ink Magazine. We are a national magazine that has been publishing teens for over 25 years. In fact, we publish about 150 teens in each monthly issue.
We also run writing contests throughout the year. For more information, please go to: http://www.TeenInk.com. I am intetrested in short poem writing. Sometimes writing on social issues. Dougies Liverpool. Could you help me understand a little more how to go about getting my work known.
Make it the active euthanasia, best you can make it, get friends to read it and give you feedback, and then submit to these contests. Thanks so much for the list! It was super helpful!
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essay on philosophy Your paper must offer an argument. It can't consist in dougies, the mere report of euthanasia, your opinions, nor in liverpool, a mere report of the opinions of the scottish, philosophers we discuss. Liverpool. You have to defend the claims you make. You have to active euthanasia is, offer reasons to believe them. So you can't just say: My view is dougies, that P. You must say something like: My view is that P. I believe this because. or: I find that the following considerations. provide a convincing argument for P. Parliament Building Cost. Similarly, don't just say: Descartes says that Q. Liverpool. Instead, say something like: Descartes says that Q; however, the following thought-experiment will show that Q is not true. The Hours Movie. or: Descartes says that Q. I find this claim plausible, for the following reasons. Dougies Liverpool. There are a variety of things a philosophy paper can aim to accomplish. It usually begins by thomas egerton, putting some thesis or argument on the table for consideration.
Then it goes on to do one or two of the dougies, following: Criticize that argument; or show that certain arguments for the thesis are no good Defend the argument or thesis against someone else's criticism Offer reasons to believe the thesis Offer counter-examples to the thesis Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of two opposing views about the thesis Give examples which help explain the Learning Theory of Instructional Design, thesis, or which help to make the thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to the thesis by dougies liverpool, their other views, though they do not come out and typography research, explicitly endorse the dougies, thesis Discuss what consequences the thesis would have, if it were true Revise the thesis, in the light of some objection. No matter which of Theory Essay, these aims you set for yourself, you have to liverpool, explicitly present reasons for the claims you make . Students often feel that since it's clear to the hours movie, them that some claim is true, it does not need much argument. But it's very easy to overestimate the strength of dougies, your own position. Active Is. After all, you already accept it. You should assume that your audience does not already accept your position; and you should treat your paper as an attempt to persuade such an dougies liverpool, audience. Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to typography, reject. Dougies. If you're to have any chance of persuading people, you have to start from common assumptions you all agree to. A good philosophy paper is modest and the hours movie, makes a small point ; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and it offers good reasons in support of liverpool, it. People very often attempt to accomplish too much in a philosophy paper.
The usual result of this is is, a paper that's hard to read, and which is dougies, full of inadequately defended and Learning Design, poorly explained claims. So don't be over-ambitious. Don't try to establish any earth-shattering conclusions in dougies liverpool, your 5-6 page paper. Egerton. Done properly, philosophy moves at a slow pace. The aim of liverpool, these papers is for you to show that you understand the material and that you're able to think critically about active is it. To do this, your paper does have to show some independent thinking. That doesn't mean you have to come up with your own theory, or that you have to dougies liverpool, make a completely original contribution to Essay example, human thought. There will be plenty of time for that later on. An ideal paper will be clear and straightforward (see below), will be accurate when it attributes views to other philosophers (see below), and liverpool, will contain thoughtful critical responses to the texts we read. It need not always break completely new ground. But you should try to come up with your own arguments, or your own way of is, elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at in class.
Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough. It's even more valuable to talk to dougies liverpool, each other about what you want to argue in your paper. Building. When you have your ideas worked out liverpool, well enough that you can explain them to someone else, verbally, then you're ready to sit down and start making an typography, outline. The overall clarity of your paper will greatly depend on dougies its structure. That is why it is Learning Theory Essay, important to think about these questions before you begin to write. I strongly recommend that you make an outline of dougies, your paper, and of the arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to write. This lets you organize the typography research, points you want to make in your paper and get a sense for how they are going to dougies, fit together. It also helps ensure that you're in a position to say what your main argument or criticism is, before you sit down to write a full draft of parliament, your paper. When students get stuck writing, it's often because they haven't yet figured out liverpool, what they're trying to say.
Give your outline your full attention. It should be fairly detailed. (For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more.) I find that making an outline is at least 80% of the work of writing a good philosophy paper. Cost. If you have a good outline, the dougies, rest of the writing process will go much more smoothly. You need to leave yourself enough time to think about the topic and write a detailed outline. Only then should you sit down to write a complete draft. Once you have a complete draft, you should set it aside for a day or two. Daniel. Then you should come back to it and rewrite it. Several times. At least 3 or 4. If you can, show it to your friends and get their reactions to it. Do they understand your main point?
Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to dougies liverpool, them? All of this takes time. So you should start working on active your papers as soon as the paper topics are assigned. You may think that since your TA and dougies, I already know a lot about this subject, you can leave out a lot of basic explanation and write in Science of Heredity, a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to another. Liverpool. I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the right sort of building, clarity. In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is obscure and complicated.
Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and frustrating. The authors in question are philosophically important despite their poor writing, not because of liverpool, it. So do not try to emulate their writing styles. Make the structure of your paper obvious. How can you do this? First of all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in the first case, on the other hand. These will help your reader keep track of Design, where your discussion is going. Be sure you use these words correctly! If you say P. Thus Q. Liverpool. then you are claiming that P is a good reason to accept Q. You had better be right. If you aren't, we'll complain. Don't throw in a thus or a therefore to make your train of thought sound better-argued than it really is.
Another way you can help make the daniel thomas, structure of your paper obvious is by telling the reader what you've done so far and what you're going to do next. Dougies Liverpool. You can say things like: I will begin by. Before I say what is Learning Theory of Instructional Design Essay, wrong with this argument, I want to. These passages suggest that. I will now defend this claim. Dougies. Further support for this claim comes from. For example. These signposts really make a big difference. Theory Of Instructional Design. Consider the following two paper fragments: . We've just seen how X says that P. I will now present two arguments that not-P. My first argument is.
My second argument that not-P is. X might respond to my arguments in several ways. Liverpool. For instance, he could say that. However this response fails, because. Another way that X might respond to my arguments is by parliament building, claiming that. This response also fails, because. So we have seen that none of X's replies to my argument that not-P succeed. Hence, we should reject X's claim that P.
I will argue for the view that Q. There are three reasons to believe Q. Firstly. The strongest objection to Q says. However, this objection does not succeed, for dougies liverpool the following reason. Research Of Heredity. Isn't it easy to see what the structure of these papers is?
You want it to be just as easy in your own papers. A final thing: make it explicit when you're reporting your own view and when you're reporting the views of some philosopher you're discussing. Dougies Liverpool. The reader should never be in doubt about whose claims you're presenting in a given paragraph. You can't make the structure of your paper obvious if you don't know what the structure of the hours movie, your paper is, or if your paper has no structure. That's why making an outline is so important. Be concise, but explain yourself fully.
These demands might seem to pull in dougies, opposite directions. (It's as if the first said Don't talk too much, and the second said Talk a lot.) If you understand these demands properly, though, you'll see how it's possible to typography research, meet them both. We tell you to be concise because we don't want you to dougies, ramble on about everything you know about a given topic, trying to show how learned and intelligent you are. Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and parliament cost, you should make sure you deal with that particular problem. Nothing should go into your paper which does not directly address that problem. Dougies. Prune out everything else. It is always better to concentrate on one or two points and develop them in depth than to try to typography research, cram in dougies liverpool, too much.
One or two well-mapped paths are better than an impenetrable jungle. Formulate the central problem or question you wish to address at the beginning of your paper, and parliament building cost, keep it in mind at all times. Make it clear what the problem is, and why it is liverpool, a problem. Be sure that everything you write is relevant to that central problem. In addition, be sure to Learning Theory of Instructional Essay, say in the paper how it is relevant. Don't make your reader guess. One thing I mean by explain yourself fully is that, when you have a good point, you shouldn't just toss it off in one sentence. Explain it; give an example; make it clear how the point helps your argument. But explain yourself fully also means to liverpool, be as clear and euthanasia is, explicit as you possibly can when you're writing.
It's no good to dougies liverpool, protest, after we've graded your paper, I know I said this, but what I meant was. Research Of Heredity. Say exactly what you mean, in the first place. Part of liverpool, what you're being graded on is how well you can do that. Pretend that your reader has not read the active euthanasia is, material you're discussing, and has not given the topic much thought in advance. Dougies. This will of course not be true.
But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to explain any technical terms, to illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said. Use plenty of examples and definitions. Examples are also useful for explaining the notions that play a central role in your argument. You should always make it clear how you understand these notions, even if they are familiar from everyday discourse. As they're used in everyday discourse, those notions may not have a sufficiently clear or precise meaning. For instance, suppose you're writing a paper about abortion, and you want to euthanasia is, assert the claim A fetus is liverpool, a person. The Hours Movie. What do you mean by dougies liverpool, a person? That will make a big difference to Theory of Instructional Essay, whether your audience should find this premise acceptable. It will also make a big difference to dougies, how persuasive the rest of your argument is. By itself, the following argument is pretty worthless:
A fetus is a person. It's wrong to kill a person. Therefore, it's wrong to kill a fetus. Learning Theory. For we don't know what the author means by calling a fetus a person. On some interpretations of dougies, person, it might be quite obvious that a fetus is a person; but quite controversial whether it's always wrong to daniel thomas, kill persons, in that sense of person. On other interpretations, it may be more plausible that it's always wrong to kill persons, but totally unclear whether a fetus counts as a person. So everything turns here on what the author means by person.
The author should be explicit about how he is using this notion. In a philosophy paper, it's okay to dougies, use words in ways that are somewhat different from the ways they're ordinarily used. You just have to make it clear that you're doing this. Example. For instance, some philosophers use the word person to mean any being which is dougies, capable of rational thought and self-awareness. Understood in this way, animals like whales and chimpanzees might very well count as persons. That's not the way we ordinarily use person; ordinarily we'd only call a human being a person.
But it's okay to use person in this way if you explicitly say what you mean by it. The Hours Movie. And likewise for other words. Don't vary your vocabulary just for the sake of variety. If you call something X at the start of your paper, call it X all the way through. Liverpool. So, for instance, don't start talking about euthanasia is Plato's view of the dougies liverpool, self, and then switch to daniel egerton, talking about Plato's view of the soul, and then switch to talking about Plato's view of the liverpool, mind. If you mean to be talking about the same thing in all three cases, then call it by the same name. In philosophy, a slight change in vocabulary usually signals that you intend to of Heredity, be speaking about dougies liverpool something new.
Using words with precise philosophical meanings. Philosophers give many ordinary-sounding words precise technical meanings. Consult the of Instructional Essay, handouts on Philosophical Terms and Methods to dougies liverpool, make sure you're using these words correctly. Don't use words that you don't fully understand. Use technical philosophical terms only scottish cost where you need them. You don't need to explain general philosophical terms, like valid argument and necessary truth. But you should explain any technical terms you use which bear on dougies liverpool the specific topic you're discussing. So, for Theory Design instance, if you use any specialized terms like dualism or physicalism or behaviorism, you should explain what these mean. Likewise if you use technical terms like supervenience and the like. Even professional philosophers writing for other professional philosophers need to explain the special technical vocabulary they're using. Liverpool. Different people sometimes use this special vocabulary in different ways, so it's important to make sure that you and daniel thomas egerton, your readers are all giving these words the same meaning.
Pretend that your readers have never heard them before. Presenting and assessing the views of others. Then ask yourself: Are X's arguments good ones? Are his assumptions clearly stated? Are they plausible? Are they reasonable starting-points for X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for them? Make sure you understand exactly what the position you're criticizing says. Students waste a lot of time arguing against views that sound like, but are really different from, the views they're supposed to be assessing. Remember, philosophy demands a high level of precision. Liverpool. It's not good enough for example you merely to get the general idea of somebody else's position or argument. Dougies. You have to get it exactly right. (In this respect, philosophy is more like a science than the other humanities.) A lot of the work in philosophy is making sure that you've got your opponent's position right.
You can assume that your reader is stupid (see above). But don't treat the philosopher or the research, views you're discussing as stupid. Dougies Liverpool. If they were stupid, we wouldn't be looking at them. Euthanasia. If you can't see anything the dougies liverpool, view has going for typography research it, maybe that's because you don't have much experience thinking and arguing about the view, and so you haven't yet fully understood why the view's proponents are attracted to it. Try harder to figure out what's motivating them. Philosophers sometimes do say outrageous things, but if the view you're attributing to a philosopher seems to be obviously crazy, then you should think hard about whether he really does say what you think he says. Use your imagination. Try to figure out what reasonable position the liverpool, philosopher could have had in of Instructional Design, mind, and direct your arguments against that.
In your paper, you always have to explain what a position says before you criticize it. If you don't explain what you take Philosopher X's view to be, your reader cannot judge whether the criticism you offer of X is a good criticism, or whether it is simply based on liverpool a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of X's views. So tell the reader what it is you think X is saying. Don't try to tell the reader everything you know about X's views, though. You have to go on Essay to offer your own philosophical contribution, too. Dougies. Only summarize those parts of research, X's views that are directly relevant to what you're going to go on to do. Sometimes you'll need to argue for your interpretation of X's view, by liverpool, citing passages which support your interpretation. It is permissible for you to discuss a view you think a philosopher might have held, or should have held, though you can't find any direct evidence of that view in thomas, the text.
When you do this, though, you should explicitly say so. Say something like: Philosopher X doesn't explicitly say that P, but it seems to me that he's assuming it anyway, because. When a passage from a text is particularly useful in supporting your interpretation of some philosopher's views, it may be helpful to dougies, quote the passage directly. Euthanasia. (Be sure to specify where the passage can be found.) However, direct quotations should be used sparingly. It is seldom necessary to quote more than a few sentences. Often it will be more appropriate to paraphrase what X says, rather than to dougies liverpool, quote him directly.
When you are paraphrasing what somebody else said, be sure to say so. (And here too, cite the pages you're referring to.) Quotations should never be used as a substitute for your own explanation. And when you do quote an author, you still have to explain what the quotation says in your own words. If the quoted passage contains an active euthanasia is, argument, reconstruct the argument in more explicit, straightforward terms. If the quoted passage contains a central claim or assumption, then indicate what that claim is.
You may want to give some examples to illustrate the author's point. If necessary, you may want to distinguish the dougies liverpool, author's claim from other claims with which it might be confused. Sometimes when students are trying to explain a philosopher's view, they'll do it by giving very close paraphrases of the philosopher's own words. They'll change some words, omit others, but generally stay very close to the original text. For instance, Hume begins his Treatise of Human Nature as follows: All the perceptions of the human mind resolve themselves into two distinct kinds, which I shall call impressions and ideas. The difference betwixt these consists in the degrees of force and Learning Theory of Instructional Design, liveliness, with which they strike upon the mind, and make their way into our thought or consciousness.
Those perceptions, which enter with most force and violence, we may name impressions; and dougies liverpool, under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions, and emotions, as they make their first appearance in the hours movie, the soul. By ideas I mean the faint images of these in thinking and reasoning. Liverpool. Here's an example of how you don't want to the hours movie, paraphrase: Hume says all perceptions of the mind are resolved into two kinds, impressions and ideas. The difference is in how much force and liveliness they have in our thoughts and liverpool, consciousness. The perceptions with the most force and violence are impressions. These are sensations, passions, and typography, emotions. Ideas are the faint images of our thinking and reasoning. There are two main problems with paraphrases of this sort. In the first place, it's done rather mechanically, so it doesn't show that the author understands the text. Liverpool. In the second place, since the Science example, author hasn't figured out what the text means well enough to express it in his own words, there's a danger that his paraphrase may inadvertently change the dougies liverpool, meaning of the text. In the example above, Hume says that impressions strike upon building cost the mind with more force and liveliness than ideas do.
My paraphrase says that impressions have more force and liveliness in dougies, our thoughts. It's not clear whether these are the same thing. In addition, Hume says that ideas are faint images of impressions ; whereas my paraphrase says that ideas are faint images of our thinking . These are not the same. So the scottish parliament building cost, author of the paraphrase appears not to dougies, have understood what Hume was saying in the hours movie, the original passage. A much better way of explaining what Hume says here would be the dougies, following: Hume says that there are two kinds of 'perceptions,' or mental states. He calls these impressions and ideas. An impression is a very 'forceful' mental state, like the sensory impression one has when looking at a red apple. An idea is a less 'forceful' mental state, like the idea one has of an apple while just thinking about it, rather than looking at it. It is not so clear what Hume means here by 'forceful.' He might mean. Don't be afraid of scottish building cost, mentioning objections to your own thesis.
It is better to bring up an objection yourself than to dougies, hope your reader won't think of the hours movie, it. Explain how you think these objections can be countered or overcome. Of course, there's often no way to deal with all the objections someone might raise; so concentrate on the ones that seem strongest or most pressing. So it's OK to ask questions and dougies, raise problems in your paper even if you cannot provide satisfying answers to them all. You can leave some questions unanswered at the end of the paper. But make it clear to the reader that you're leaving such questions unanswered on research purpose . And you should say something about how the liverpool, question might be answered, and about what makes the question interesting and relevant to the issue at hand. If something in a view you're examining is unclear to you, don't gloss it over. Call attention to the unclarity. Suggest several different ways of understanding the view.
Explain why it's not clear which of euthanasia is, these interpretations is liverpool, correct. If you're assessing two positions and you find, after careful examination, that you can't decide between them, that's okay. It's perfectly okay to say that their strengths and weaknesses seem to Science Research of Heredity, be roughly equally balanced. But note that this too is liverpool, a claim that requires explanation and reasoned defense, just like any other. The Hours Movie. You should try to provide reasons for this claim that might be found convincing by someone who didn't already think that the two views were equally balanced. Sometimes as you're writing, you'll find that your arguments aren't as good as you initially thought them to be. You may come up with some objection to your view to dougies, which you have no good answer. Don't panic. Daniel Thomas Egerton. If there's some problem with your argument which you can't fix, try to figure out why you can't fix it. It's okay to change your thesis to one you can defend.
For example, instead of dougies, writing a paper which provides a totally solid defense of view P, you can instead change tactics and write a paper which goes like this: One philosophical view says that P. This is a plausible view, for the following reasons. However, there are some reasons to be doubtful whether P. One of these reasons is X. Active. X poses a problem for the view that P because. It is not clear how the dougies, defender of P can overcome this objection. Or you can write a paper which goes: One argument for P is the 'Conjunction Argument,' which goes as follows. At first glance, this is a very appealing argument. However, this argument is Science Essay, faulty, for the following reasons. One might try to repair the argument, by.
But these repairs will not work, because. I conclude that the Conjunction Argument does not in fact succeed in liverpool, establishing P. Writing a paper of daniel thomas, these sorts doesn't mean you've given in to the opposition. After all, neither of these papers commits you to dougies, the view that not-P. The Hours Movie. They're just honest accounts of how difficult it is to find a conclusive argument for dougies liverpool P. P might still be true, for all that. Then come back to the draft and re-read it.
As you read each sentence, say things like this to yourself: Does this really make sense? That's totally unclear! That sounds pretentious. What does that mean? What's the connection between these two sentences? Am I just repeating myself here? and so on. Thomas Egerton. Make sure every sentence in dougies liverpool, your draft does useful work. Get rid of any which don't. If you can't figure out what some sentence contributes to your central discussion, then get rid of it. The Hours Movie. Even if it sounds nice. You should never introduce any points in dougies liverpool, your paper unless they're important to your main argument, and you have the room to really explain them.
If you're not happy with some sentence in daniel, your draft, ask yourself why it bothers you. It could be you don't really understand what you're trying to say, or you don't really believe it. Make sure your sentences say exactly what you want them to say. For example, suppose you write Abortion is the same thing as murder. Dougies Liverpool. Is that what you really mean? So when Oswald murdered Kennedy, was that the the hours movie, same thing as aborting Kennedy? Or do you mean something different? Perhaps you mean that abortion is a form of murder. Dougies. In conversation, you can expect that people will figure out what you mean.
But you shouldn't write this way. Even if your TA is able to scottish building, figure out what you mean, it's bad writing. In philosophical prose, you have to be sure to say exactly what you mean. Also pay attention to liverpool, the structure of your draft. Active Euthanasia. When you're revising a draft, it's much more important to work on the draft's structure and overall clarity, than it is to clean up a word or a phrase here or there. Make sure your reader knows what your main claim is, and what your arguments for that claim are. Make sure that your reader can tell what the point of every paragraph is. Liverpool. It's not enough that you know what their point is. It has to be obvious to your reader, even to a lazy, stupid, and mean reader. If you can, show your draft to of Instructional, your friends or to liverpool, other students in active euthanasia, the class, and get their comments and advice.
I encourage you to dougies liverpool, do this. Do your friends understand your main point? Are parts of the hours movie, your draft unclear or confusing to them? If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to understand it. Your paragraphs and dougies liverpool, your argument may be perfectly clear to you but not make any sense at all to someone else.
Another good way to check your draft is to read it out loud. This will help you tell whether it all makes sense. You may know what you want to say, but that might not be what you've really written. Reading the paper out loud can help you notice holes in your reasoning, digressions, and unclear prose. You should count on typography writing many drafts of your paper. Liverpool. At least 3 or 4!! Check out the following web site, which illustrates how to revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts. Euthanasia. Notice how much the dougies liverpool, paper improves with each revision: Writing tutor for Introductory Philosophy Courses http://web.williams.edu/wp-etc/philosophy/jcruz/jcruz/writingtutor/.
Also, don't begin with a sentence like Webster's Dictionary defines a soul as. Dictionaries aren't good philosophical authorities. Scottish Parliament Building. They record the dougies, way words are used in everyday discourse. Many of the same words have different, specialized meanings in philosophy. It's OK to end a sentence with a preposition. It's also OK to split an infinitive, if you need to. (Sometimes the easiest way to of Heredity example, say what you mean is by splitting an infinitive. Liverpool. For example, They sought to better equip job candidates who enrolled in their program.) Efforts to avoid these often end up just confusing your prose.
Do avoid other sorts of grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles (e.g., Hurt by her fall, the Learning of Instructional, tree fell right on liverpool Mary 's leg before she could get out of the way), and the like. You may use the word I freely, especially to tell the reader what you're up to (e.g., I've just explained why. Now I'm going to consider an argument that. ). Don't worry about using the verb is parliament cost, or to be too much. In a philosophy paper, it's OK to dougies liverpool, use this verb as much as you need to. You shouldn't need to use these secondary readings when writing your papers. The point of the papers is to teach you how to Essay, analyze a philosophical argument, and present your own arguments for or against some conclusion. Liverpool. The arguments we'll be considering in class are plenty hard enough to deserve your full attention, all by themselves.
Can you write your paper as a dialogue or story? But neither should your papers be too short! Don't cut off an argument abruptly. If a paper topic you've chosen asks certain questions, be sure you answer or address each of typography, those questions. Please double-space your papers, number the pages, and include wide margins. Liverpool. We prefer to get the papers simply stapled: no plastic binders or anything like that. Include your name on the hours movie the paper. And don't turn in your only copy! (These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not.) You'll be graded on three basic criteria: How well do you understand the issues you're writing about? How good are the arguments you offer?
Is your writing clear and well-organized? We do not judge your paper by whether we agree with its conclusion. Dougies. In fact, we may not agree amongst ourselves about what the correct conclusion is. But we will have no trouble agreeing about whether you do a good job arguing for your conclusion. More specifically, we'll be asking questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to accomplish in your paper? Is it obvious to the reader what your main thesis is?
Do you offer supporting arguments for the claims you make? Is it obvious to the reader what these arguments are? Is the structure of your paper clear? For instance, is it clear what parts of your paper are expository, and what parts are your own positive contribution? Is your prose simple, easy to read, and easy to understand? Do you illustrate your claims with good examples?
Do you explain your central notions? Do you say exactly what you mean? Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and charitably? Explain this claim or What do you mean by this? or I don't understand what you're saying here This passage is unclear (or awkward, or otherwise hard to read) Too complicated Too hard to Theory of Instructional Design Essay, follow Simplify Why do you think this? This needs more support Why should we believe this? Explain why this is a reason to believe P Explain why this follows from what you said before Not really relevant Give an example? Try to anticipate these comments and avoid the need for them! Your paper should do some philosophical work. Here are some more interesting things our student could have done in his paper. He could have argued that B doesn't really follow from dougies, A, after all. Or he could have presented reasons for thinking that A is false.
Or he could have argued that assuming A is an illegitimate move to make in a debate about whether B is active is, true. Or something else of that sort. These would be more interesting and satisfying ways of engaging with Philosopher X's view. Responding to comments from me or your TA. Your rewrites should try to go beyond the specific errors and problems we've indicated. If you got below an A-, then your draft was generally difficult to read, it was difficult to see what your argument was and what the structure of dougies, your paper was supposed to be, and so on.
You can only correct these sorts of failings by rewriting your paper from scratch. (Start with a new, empty window in your word processor.) Use your draft and the comments you received on typography research it to construct a new outline, and write from that. Keep in mind that when I or your TA grade a rewrite, we may sometimes notice weaknesses in unchanged parts of your paper that we missed the first time around. Dougies Liverpool. Or perhaps those weaknesses will have affected our overall impression of the paper, and we just didn't offer any specific recommendation about fixing them. So this is another reason you should try to improve the whole paper , not just the passages we comment on. It is possible to improve a paper without improving it enough to raise it to active euthanasia, the next grade level. Sometimes that happens.
But I hope you'll all do better than that. Most often, you won't have the opportunity to dougies, rewrite your papers after they've been graded. So you need to teach yourself to write a draft, scrutinize the draft, and revise and rewrite your paper before turning it in to be graded. Naturally, I owe a huge debt to the friends and professors who helped me learn how to write philosophy. I'm sure they had a hard time of it. If you're a teacher and you think your own students would find this web site useful, you are free to point them here (or to distribute printed copies).
It's all in the public good.