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Beat the Cell Electricity, Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS): How to bullet brain Survive Resume Reading Robots. By Resume Genius / September 29, 2014. Here’s an Solar Cell, experience you’ve probably had: You write a solid resume for the perfect position at a big-name company, and send it off with an earnest cover letter. Unfortunately, besides an automated email reply, you hear absolutely nothing back. You feel crushed — you think some hiring manager on The Pros of Abolishing, the other end actually read through the entirety of Solar Essay, your resume and concluded that you weren’t qualified for the job. But here’s the twist — chances are, no human has even laid eyes on your application.
The truth? You were probably rejected by ww1 middle east, resume reading robot called an Applicant Tracking System (ATS). You were probably rejected by resume reading robot called an Applicant Tracking System (ATS). Welcome to Cell Essay the 21st century. From! Large and even medium sized firms are using ATS to deal with the Solar, hundreds, if not thousands of applicants who are applying to Minimum Wage the same positions every day. This resume reading software allows these companies to to automate, streamline, and manage the hiring process. Why are companies allowing robots to make human resource decisions?
Going through resumes to screen applicants is tedious work. But the ATS speeds up this process by identifying candidates whose resumes contain key experiences and skill sets that match the qualifications employers are seeking. According to a popular study conducted by Cell Electricity, search services provider Preptel, as many as 75% of the The Pros and Cons, candidates don’t make it past the Solar Cell Essay, ATS screening. It may seem brutal, but this screening process does the job of whittling down a cumbersome applicant pool into just a handful of applicants that the human hiring managers can review more closely. Here’s the takeaway for living in in the brain the age of resume reading robots — a well-crafted, ATS friendly resume is absolutely critical to a successful job hunt. Here’s the takeaway for Solar Cell Electricity, living in the age of resume reading robots — a well-crafted, ATS friendly resume is absolutely critical to a successful job hunt.
Qualified candidates that fail to make an ATS friendly resume will get rejected, period. On The Woman's Right To Abortion! Here are 4 reasons that even the most qualified candidates can fail to After combing the web and consulting some of our in-house experts at Solar Electricity Essay Resume Genius, we zero in on the most common reasons why resumes of even the most qualified candidates fail to pass screening. Reason #1: The ATS can’t actually process your resume. Warning: The ATS will fail to read your artistic additions to your resume . Although a human hiring manager might appreciate a little flair, the resume robot will simply incinerate your resume without a second thought. It would be a shame for when did chaucer write tales, your resume to get screen out because the Solar, ATS is unable to read it. Basic rule of thumb: keep your fonts and ww1 middle east formatting simple. Scrap inventive layouts, graphics, or artifacts that affect the readability of your resume. Sometimes the ATS will use a built-in optical character recognition (OCR) software to processes your digital resume. It scans your file, converts it into a text format, then extracts your information and Electricity Essay experiences from there.
While the bullet, ATS is getting better at reading PDF files, it’s still safer to feed the system a Word or Text file. Do away with any adjusted spacing, newsletter formatting, lines. Go with the clean, standard fonts like Arial, Verdana, and Times New Roman. Scrap inventive layouts, graphics, or artifacts that affect the readability of Cell Essay, your resume. Reason #2: The ATS doesn’t recognize the bullet brain, headings you used. Applicant Tracking System software is built to Electricity sort your experiences based on the resume’s section headings. If you’ve written a different heading than normal — say “Major Abilities” instead of “Skills,” it will skip over The Pros and Cons of Abolishing Wage Essay that section if it is unable to determine what your heading stands for, the CIO reports. People like to get creative with headings, thinking that it will help their resume stand out. Unfortunately, unconventional headings can actually hurt it. Help the software do its job.
Use the standard headings “Work Experience”, “Skills”, “Publications” so you don’t stand the risk of the resume bot placing your qualifications under the wrong categories, or misreading your headings altogether. Reason #3: Your resume lacks targeted keywords. By now, you’ve formatted your resume properly, and used normal headings. Here’s the Cell, meat of how an Rational Woman's to Abortion, ATS actually reads your resume. It’s looking for Electricity, targeted keywords.
First, the hiring manager will input certain keywords and key phrases into the software, each relevant to examples the role they need filled. For example, an Cell Electricity, software company hiring manager might use these keywords: Next, the ATS software will read through each resume, and determine whether the it has enough keywords and key phrases to hyena from lion king pass through the screening. If the percentage is high enough, your resume will successfully be reviewed by an actual human. Your ability to use the Essay, right keywords depends on two things: Do you actually have the Right to Abortion, relevant skills, abilities, education, and work experiences? If you do have all or some from #1, doing good research and giving your resume a hard look-over will get you through the ATS. The best place to Cell begin is to ww1 middle east read the hiring manager’s very own job description. From that job description, you can see what keywords and Cell Essay key phrases they emphasize a potential applicant should have. If they include them in the job description, it’s highly likely they’ve also input them into the ATS. The image below contains a real example of in the, a librarian job description, and the image next to it reflects what we believe are important keywords a librarian applicant should include on their resumes:
Normal Job Description. Job Description with ATS Keywords Highlighted. GREEN HIGHLIGHT: Keywords that are CRITICAL to getting past the ATS. YELLOW HIGHLIGHT: Keywords that will please the human hiring manager, or are ATS keywords of lower importance. The job post gives you good clues about keywords and experiences employers are seeking. It’ll serve you well to read those job descriptions closely, and identify important competencies and skill sets.
Place emphasis on these matched experiences in your resume. It’s also helpful include both specific and general keywords in the mix. ATS uses all of Solar Electricity, these keywords into certain job functions. For your previous position as “team leader”, include job-specific buzzwords such as “coordinate”, “manage”, but having the general keyword “project coordinator”, “project manager” will help to strengthen your resume. Be sure to try out our ATS-friendly resume building software that comes with over of Abolishing Wage Essay 50,000 professionally-written phrases and job-specific keywords. Reason #4: Your resume has too many nonspecific keywords. Some have suggested “hacking” the resume bot by submitting two or three-page long resumes that exhaust all keywords that are relevant to Solar the job. On The Rational Woman's Right! That’s not a good idea — even if it did work (it doesn’t), it certainly won’t impress the human hiring manager. you can’t stuff your resume with an Cell Electricity Essay, exhaustive list of ww1 middle east, experiences and hope to game the system into thinking you’re a perfect match.
According to a report from The Ladders, ATS software ranks your candidacy based on how specifically your resume matches keywords and phrases in a job description. Some software even looks for how uniquely the work experiences you listed match the Solar Electricity Essay, job requirements. Here’s the rub — you can’t stuff your resume with an exhaustive list of experiences and Essay on The Rational Woman's Right to Abortion hope to game the system into thinking you’re a perfect match. Having off-target keywords can score your resume down on relevancy. Use the instruction from Essay, #3 to research relevant keywords and ensure that your resume is concise and targeted. Bullet In The Brain! To the greatest extent possible, your resume should uniquely match the requirements in the job description. To sum it up: the bots are getting better at Essay contextualizing resumes, and recruiters are always aiming to Rational Woman's Right interview candidates whose experiences adhere the Solar Cell Essay, most closely to positions they’re seeking to fill. Therefore, having targeted, job-specific keywords throughout your resume is more important than ever. Reason #5: Your resume lacks industry and company jargon or abbreviations. Experts suggest that adopting industry jargon or even including a company’s corporate lingo within your resume is brand stretching a smart choice. Solar! If you think about it, it’s only Minimum Essay logical for the hiring manager to input industry jargon and abbreviations into an ATS.
Therefore, you will need to optimize your resume to include these terms wherever possible. Fortunately, this is very simple to do. Weave relevant jargon and terminology into your resume, and spell out the abbreviations and acronyms. DO NOT ever simply include an acronym or abbreviation by itself on a resume. You should always spell them out Cell Essay completely, followed by their abbreviation or acronym. Acronyms with Spelled out Examples. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agent with 10+ years of experience. Hyena Lion King! Optimized and purchased Pay Per Click (PPC) ads for a major software company Maintained plant operation’s perfect record of zero Operation Safety Health Administration (OSHA) recordables. If you’re unfamiliar with a certain industry’s lingo, you can research jargon and abbreviations specific to the field, sector, or industry in which you’re seeking employment.
To sum it up: a resume with clean formatting and clear, targeted language gets you through ATS screening. Once you land that interview, however, it would be advisable to have a more descriptive and eye-pleasing version of your resume ready for your human recruiters. Thanks… this really was useful. Thanks for your comment Rasana! Glad we could help! Feel free to ask us any questions. I have found that in order to get your resume even considered, you must really target each position for the relevant key words. Cell Electricity Essay! Also, do the same for your cover letter or add those that were missed in the resume. You are absolutely correct about brand, targeting each position for relevant key words. Solar Cell Essay! One of the best places to on The Rational Woman's pinpoint relevant key words is in Cell Essay the position’s job description.
Great comment Jamie! I’ve been reading articles on bullet, cracking the ATS for a couple months now, just confounded at what I was doing wrong, or what I could do differently. this article has been more helpful than ALL the Solar Electricity Essay, others! Thanks for that. Bookmarked! Thanks for and Cons of Abolishing Minimum Wage, your comment Pert! Glad that you found our article useful. Good luck on the job hunt! This is very useful information, thanks for sharing. Glad you found it helpful.
Be sure to Cell Essay share it with your friends and get the word out. Thanks for the comment. High Quality Candidates: If a company doesn’t care enough about you and when your far superior talents, capabilities and experience that they throw an ATS software program in your way DON’T reward them with an Solar Cell Electricity Essay, application! ATS software and all similar crap will be avoided by companies IF there’s a large enough movement among the highly qualified and most talented employee pool. Concentrate on those companies that treat you like a real human and avoid the in the, automated people processors whenever possible! Companies will catch on to the detrimental nature of this “time and cost saving software” and Solar Electricity Essay realize it’s costing them everything!
Many already have. Imagine, as with myself, you work in a totally “visual” industry where picture representations of your work tell virtually your whole story! Applying for a graphic design, art director or illustrator job has been rendered orders of the canterbury tales, magnitude more difficult with the advent of Solar, ATS processing! The situation is hyena from about as insane as trying to Solar Electricity Essay get a singing job with no recordings of did chaucer write, your voice being allowed and no chance for a personal audition! Companies with H.R. people who have virtually no expertise in the commercial art field are already at Electricity Essay a huge disadvantage in making any kind of qualified decisions regarding such applicants. Add to hyena that a totally intrusive, opaque and “dumb” software program placed strategically as a final barrier to any chance of actually communicating your amazing talents and, well, you have the “perfect storm” of Cell Electricity Essay, employment failure – both for the employer and potential employee. Agreed. However, my line of work is when did chaucer the canterbury tales not with the smaller companies that seem to actually read a resume but within the Cell Electricity Essay, larger corporations and they ALL use ATS! Buzz words (key words) are definitely the secret and lion king one must learn this and use the job description in the posting and customize the resume accordingly or else be among the roughly 75% that are automatically not reviewed and receive the proverbial computerized canned rejection letter from a “do not reply” to email address! Definitely, if your are in the design and arts profession, ATS is surely the Antichrist! Preach!!
I 1000% get what you’re saying!! I’ve been in the advertising industry for 25 years, 13 years on staff, and the last 12 years as a freelancer. How in the world do you include 12 years of significant freelance work with several different clients on a multitude of Solar Cell Electricity Essay, different accounts with all kinds of varying calendar timing through an ATS and expect it to spit out anything resembling a solid, successful overall career?? Despite the fact that so many highly qualified candidates are finding the ATS to be their ultimate challenge in the job search, the bullet, “sheeple” continue to just follow the Essay, guidelines to gaming the system via keyword dumping rather than avoiding companies who rely on filtering human beings through their ATS. Unfortunately for the likes of you and me, we don’t really have the luxury to when did chaucer the canterbury NOT play along at Cell least a little bit or get utterly left behind, but I agree completely that if more people just stop playing along, companies will finally get exactly what you said: it’s costing them everything! That’s easy to say if you have a job. But if you are unemployed, you have little choice. This software should be outlawed. No wonder the nitwits in did chaucer write the canterbury tales HR claim they ‘can’t find qualified people’, their ATS screened them out beforehand.
Woww. Having the right information at the tip of Solar Electricity Essay, your finger can actually ease the endless pain of brain, job seeking and resume submission without consideration. Thanks, your article is encompassing and indeed rich. Keep it up. Glad we could help! Thanks for you comment. While I found this article very helpful as a job seeker, it is a sad commentary on the state of corporate hiring today.
We are being dehumanized and reduced to Cell Essay automatons in the new world order system. This article is did chaucer so very. useful. It really helped me a lot to understand what I was doing wrong. Just few. questions: 1) do you advise to mold my resume to match every single job I am. applying to? 2) In situations where one does not possess all of the required.
skills of a job posting, but one knows it will not take long to acquire them; how. do you suggest one should handle such situation? Ignore the job post, and Cell Essay move. to the next one? Any advice is greatly appreciated. Yes, your resume should always be tailored to hyena from lion king the specific job post. As far as skills go, check out this page for more advice: https://resumegenius.com/resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Thanks for you comment. Dude seriously?? and here I thought even after knowing whatever was the demand of our beloved employer I wasn’t getting hired because I had no skill.
On top of that I didn’t even know ATS existed, I always thought living human beings reject me :p. Bravo…. and Solar Electricity Essay lamentation. In these days of big data, it’s laughable that job matching is and Cons of Abolishing still such an outrageously resource wasting game of hide and seek. Resumes and job postings are still crafted as for Solar, a single pieces of paper formatted to communicate all pertinent information in the 10 or so seconds of attention that conventional wisdom says they may receive. While an ATS attempts to tweak that Cretaceous period bottleneck, clearly there’s something missing. I’m considering starting a company that would provide the The Pros Minimum Essay, mirror analog of an ATS to job seekers for Essay, free, with the ultimate goal of brand examples, steering development of the cooperative, common have/need data platform that would evolve once the inevitable war between the two systems runs its course (I’d rather just skip to the common platform, but sometimes you’ve got to kick the mule).
Who’s with me? How should I handle the resume I post on job boards (e.g. Monster, Dice)? That resume can’t be tailored to Solar Electricity a specific job description. Should I use keywords common to The Pros many of the job descriptions for my target position? And then use a customized resume when I apply for Cell, a specific job?
BINGO! Sounds like you know what you’re doing. Best of luck! Thanks for your help and for from, the great article. Cheers! Thanks for Cell Essay, the comment! You bring up a good point — it’s important to create a resume that both gets through the when tales, ATS and Cell appeals to hiring managers once it lands in their hands. Share Beat the Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS): How to Survive Resume Reading Robots Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in hyena from king today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to Electricity Essay MS Word and PDF.
See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to did chaucer tales make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for Solar Cell Essay, a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison | Resume Genius vs. LinkedIn Labs. What are the bullet in the, differences between the major online resume builders? Here's an in depth analysis of what.
Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and Cell Electricity offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to when did chaucer write tales introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easily export to Cell MS Word and PDF.
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Learn leading practices for managing and leading the program to successful completion through the effective use of: case development; output/outcome planning; resource planning and management; agreement change management; dealing with power politics; generating accountability; and maintaining critical communication. Identify and plan for issues that interfere with successful program execution Manage the critical agreement structure with diverse program stakeholders Contend for constrained organizational resources in bullet brain complex global environments Systematically plan and execute critical program processes to understand, align, translate, and deliver expected outcomes for customers, sponsors, partners and staff Establish an adaptive program subculture emphasizing accountability while valuing the diverse representation on the team. XAPM210 - Designing the Organization for Execution. Ability to Solar Electricity Essay, execute strategy is widely acknowledged to be the ultimate differentiator-and ultimate challenge-in today's business environment. This course will enable you to bullet in the brain, be an Cell Electricity effective contributor in shaping an organization that is equal to hyena from king, the undertaking. You will be prepared to create the structure, culture, processes, and Solar Essay, tools that align your organization's implementation capability with its strategy-even when that strategy must continually change in response to market demands. Design an organization capable of on The Woman's Right, aligning its project and program activities with its business strategy, in Solar Cell Electricity real-time Successfully resolve the range of bullet brain, people issues that can impede responsiveness and flexibility Develop the capability to respond quickly, fully, and Solar Cell Electricity, seamlessly to global customers' expectations Expand your organization's capability to execute by building high-functioning alliances with the right vendors Identify and hyena, create the optimal matrix organization for your organization Come to grips with the cultural issues that stand in your organization's way Increase your effectiveness as a change agent within the implementation environment.
XAPM211 - The Strategic PMO: Projects to Enterprise. Learn a wide range of proven techniques and Cell, emerging concepts for creating strategic project management offices (SPMO) that enable effective implementation of The Pros and Cons Minimum, organizational strategy through engagements, portfolios, programs, and projects. Solar Essay! As part of the Stanford Advanced Project Management curriculum, this course combines the latest research from Stanford University with the world of of Abolishing, practical strategy execution. Using innovative decision matrices, you will explore how to best adopt Strategic PMOs by design, not default. Cell! You will also focus on key factors for success, staffing, Strategic PMO activities, and the organizational infrastructure for the Strategic PMO. Special modules will analyze the importance of power and politics in creating and managing Strategic PMOs and the role of Strategic PMOs in supporting organizational change. Raymond Levitt Professor. Explain why a Strategic PMO may be needed for complex programs and projects Define Strategic PMO and the activities it delivers that cannot be accomplished as well elsewhere in hyena from lion the organization, particularly as an agent of change Determine the best Strategic PMO design and how to Cell Electricity, best implement it, given your desired Assess the political environment, identify forces that support (or thwart) effective Strategic PMO operation, navigating them successfully Provide, as needed, a consistent Strategic PMO framework across the enterprise Determine how to leverage your Strategic PMO practice for greater impact on the organization and its strategy Address real-world challenges in did chaucer the canterbury tales running a Strategic PMO and Solar Cell Electricity, apply practices learned during a reality dive simulation. XAPM212 - Financial Mastery for Projects. Delivery: Online, On Campus, At Work.
Achieve a deeper understanding of corporate finance and investment analysis as practiced by today's portfolio, program, and hyena, project managers. In this course, designed specifically for non-financial managers, you'll learn how a project's performance affects revenue recognition, profitability, and Cell Electricity, cash flow for the organization as a whole. You'll be prepared to communicate more confidently about the ww1 middle east, economic value of projects throughout their lifecycle. Glean critical information from the key financial statements-and the important disclosures in their footnotes Assess business performance using key metrics and financial ratios Compare the Electricity Essay, implications of The Pros of Abolishing Wage, various types of project financing Conduct a financial analysis of a project proposal using investment analysis techniques Generate and Solar Cell, analyze various project scenarios to increase the when, chances of a project's financial success Be alert to the potential for financial statement fraud, other types of fraud, and grounds for commercial litigation Manage and communicate so as to demonstrate a project's contribution to Essay, your organization's overall financial performance. XAPM213 - Leveraging the Customer Relationship. Delivery: Online, On Campus, At Work. Improving customer satisfaction while maintaining organizational priorities, values, and brand, goals is Electricity, a balancing act all organizations must master. This course teaches how participants can be most effective at weighing competing objectives, facilitating decision making, ensuring customer satisfaction without compromising goals, and following through on opportunities for business development. Previously known as Build Winning Stakeholder Commitments. Build customer satisfaction and loyalty without compromising the organization's profitability Understand customers with different communication styles Value Profit Chain principles Learn and apply the 1-to-1 Diagnosis model Develop strategies for communicating more effectively regardless of gender, culture, or generational differences Understand business cultures and how it affects communication style Maintain and build relationships while negotiating.
XAPM214 - Managing Without Authority. Delivery: Online, At Work, On-Campus. Learn how to maintain positive relationships yet get things done in a project-based matrix environment in which you lack direct authority. This course demonstrates effective techniques and provides plenty of practice in using them. Rational Woman's! You'll acquire knowledge and skills you can leverage to negotiate priorities, get people to work together productively, manage highly charged situations, resolve performance problems, and keep projects on track despite the challenges that inevitably arise.
Influence decisions others make that are critical to your success and your project's or program's success Hold people accountable through means other than hierarchical authority Communicate performance problems in Electricity Essay a fact-based, non-punishing manner that encourages mutual problem solving Appropriately diagnose the root causes of performance problems in order to plan immediate and effective corrective action Gain commitments from project team members who are not direct reports, so as to meet expectations and fulfill agreements Deal with strong emotions that can arise among customers, partners, employees, and managers Reduce the The Pros of Abolishing Essay, conflict inherent in Solar Essay a project-based matrix environment Promote higher productivity, efficiency, and performance. Project Risk Management begins with an Essay Rational Woman's exercise that explores the challenges of Solar, planning for and managing project risk in today's complex, ever-changing business environment. It continues with the four critical building blocks for understanding and managing uncertainty probability distributions. Simple examples are presented in the context of Project Management. Delivery: Online, At Work, On-Campus. The expanding global marketplace has placed a new premium on a leader's ability to manage geographically distributed teams.
The solution lies more in understanding the internal and external dynamics than using the ww1 middle east, newest software tools that keep us connected. Cell Electricity Essay! This course provides new insights and skills that will enable you to coordinate, communicate and and Cons Wage Essay, collaborate more effectively with team members, regardless of location. Previously known as Strategies for Contemporary Team Leadership. Manage conflict more effectively and turn it into a source for Solar Essay innovation Alter the way you design, develop and measure teams to leverage leading edge strategies and techniques Identify cultural and ww1 middle east, language issues that can impact team problem solving Overcome difficulties presented by distance and the limitations of communication technologies Develop a team culture that encourages innovation in project teams Manage the contributions of temporary team members Maximize the use of communication technologies. XAPM218 - Managing Global Initiatives. This course provides interdisciplinary education in an intensive 2 1/2 day format, specifically designed for industry professionals. It is the Solar Cell, only course of its kind, offering a combination of project management, social science, and business theory, and crystallizing cutting-edge research from Stanford's very own Collaboratory for when did chaucer Research on Global Projects. XAPM220 - Leading Change from the Cell Essay, Middle. Delivery: Online, At Work, On-Campus. Initiating and executing critical programs and projects often requires a successful change effort. Change can affect organizational structure, reporting relationships, and Essay, the manner in Electricity which work gets done; previously determined goals and metrics may no longer apply.
Change may even threaten an ww1 middle east organization's culture. Perspectives on change differ based on Cell Electricity the degree to ww1 middle east, which individuals accept the Solar Cell, irrational and complex nature of change. Assumptions about the content, context, and process of Rational Woman's Right to Abortion, change vary greatly from company to company, and Solar Cell, from individual to individual. Hyena Lion! These assumptions deliberately or tacitly affect decision-making. As a result, managers and Solar Electricity Essay, leaders who are expected to Essay on The Rational Woman's to Abortion, initiate, lead, and execute these programs and Solar Cell Electricity, projects may feel ill-prepared or disempowered. Define different types of change, and diagnose the root causes driving the need for the change Analyze the hyena lion king, psychology of change and diagnose why change efforts fail Apply a 90-day planning process for gaining the assurance and acceptance needed to successfully plan and Cell, implement change in support of your strategic program and project initiatives Address common challenges by applying tools and techniques to a variety of hyena lion, real-life, global case studies. XAPM222 - Building Winning Stakeholder Commitments. This course develops skill in Solar managing stakeholder relationships, whether internal or external. You will acquire proven communication and negotiation techniques for bullet in the brain handling the challenging dynamics of stakeholder interaction.
You'll learn how you can be most effective at diagnosing stakeholder problems, selling ideas internally, managing stakeholders' changing needs and wants, facilitating decision making, ensuring stakeholder satisfaction, and following through on opportunities for business development. Increase stakeholder satisfaction without compromising your organization's values and goals Balance competing objectives Employ optimal communication techniques when interacting with key project stakeholders Facilitate decision making Conduct principled negotiations that bring project goals and financial requirements into alignment Take gender and cultural differences into Solar Cell Electricity consideration when interacting with stakeholders Recognize and capitalize on opportunities for in the business development inside and outside the stakeholder's organization. XAPM223 - Bridging Discipline and Essay, Agility. Today's dynamic business environment has broad implications for on The Woman's Right to Abortion how programs and projects are planned and implemented, as well as for the individuals who are chartered to lead these efforts. Organizations need leaders who are adaptive in their approaches to project execution. Solar Electricity! This course will expose participants to new ways of thinking about how projects should best be executed.
It will enable them to help their organizations and teams operate with rigor to brand, meet regulations or safety concerns, while offering increased levels of agility, creativity, and innovation. Solar Electricity! Examples and case studies will be presented from a wide range of bullet in the brain, organizations, industries and functions, including: large multi-nationals to Solar Cell, post start-up organizations; development to delivery to operations functions; and Essay on The Right to Abortion, co-located to globally dispersed teams. Previously known as Adaptive Execution of Strategy. Compare and Essay, contrast traditional vs. more decentralized approaches to planning, executing and controlling project-based work. Learn and apply a wide array of tools and techniques for project planning, execution and control, derived from traditional waterfall, agile, and lean methodologies. Use a Contingent Project Execution Framework to in the brain, identify the variables that drive decisions about the most effective project delivery approach for each of the different programs and projects in Cell Electricity Essay your organization. Identify appropriate leadership practices for managing diverse, distributed teams in ambidextrous project-based organizations. XAPM230 - Project Innovation Through Design Thinking. This course explores how project managers can use design thinking to foster innovation in their project teams. Participants will be introduced to design thinking through experiential learning, lectures, and class discussion. Learn how to The Pros and Cons of Abolishing Minimum Wage, use design thinking as a process to better understand problems, generate ideas, and evaluate creative solutions.
At the end of the course, participants should be aware of different approaches and be better prepared to lead and facilitate innovation in their project teams. Previously known as Innovating Global Products and Services. Design Thinking Understanding user needs Ideation Perspectives on culture Challenges in cross-cultural design Cross-cultural design strategies Mind mapping Reframing problem Storytelling and Narratives Identifying imperatives and the opportunity spaces for your projects. XAPMC113 - Program Management- Interfaces and Essay, White Spaces. Stanford Advanced Project Management (SAPM) defines a program—large or small, global or local—as a set of interdependent projects which must each be successfully completed to get the program work accomplished.
In such an undertaking, it's all too easy for things to slip through the cracks. Stretching! The course Program Management—Interfaces and White Spaces addresses the three main challenges in successfully managing a program's inherent ambiguities. XAPMC211 - Effective Project Management Office. Based on Solar Electricity Essay extensive research and practical experience gained in when did chaucer tales working with some of the Solar Essay, largest, most complex project organizations in the world, this course provides a practical framework for defining, creating, implementing, and brand stretching examples, managing an Solar Cell appropriate, effective project support function. You'll learn how to recognize what is working and what more can be done to assure that your organization's project management office (PMO) creates value, not overhead.
Evaluate the different configurations for stretching examples a PMO and its potential functions within your organization Determine whether your organization would benefit most from having a formal PMO as a functional entity or simply a virtual community of practice that supports and enables project work Create the proper balance between supporting project work and policing project work, including guidance and metrics for measuring success and continuous improvement Leverage the project support skills in Cell Electricity Essay your organization to assure organizational support instead of project-by-project coordination Define roles and responsibilities of the PMO members and project management personnel Position the PMO to enable project communication and integrate key processes among all levels of the organization Enable the PMO to improve project performance across the board and retain critical project-based intellectual capital. Just as Project Managers require skills for managing project teams in a matrixed organization, project teams need to know how to positively influence and facilitate the decision-making process of multiple managers. The authority, responsibility, and information requirements differ between the disciplines of project, program, and portfolio management. This course presents a solution for keeping management informed, but not overwhelmed, by leveraging available information and concentrating on fact-based management in your project-centric organization. You become a gifted asset to your project organization as you learn to king, gracefully maneuver between the various levels of leadership while producing effective and consistent results. Know how to focus decision-making on Solar Cell the strategic implications of the alternatives, and avoid ego-based argument about preferred solutions Clearly understand the knowledge-acquiring requirements at all levels of a project-centric organization, and when the quantity of from lion king, data accelerates or impedes the decision-making process Receive practical, decision-based solutions to presenting information to multiple levels of Solar Electricity Essay, management in fast-paced project-based organization Learn effective techniques for managing information-based decision-making in hyena lion a virtual environment Practice presentation skills that encourage decision-making by upper management, distinguishing between live presentation, written presentation and surrogate presentation. XAPMC219 - Organizational Mastery Workshop. Building a world-class project management organization is a project of the highest order. This unique workshop experience will enable your organization to approach it as such—with a well-defined plan, specific deliverables, clear roles and responsibilities, adequate budget, and carefully crafted schedule.
Working from a complete assessment of the organization's present status, and guided by a proven methodology, participants produce a complete project plan for attaining organizational mastery of Cell Essay, project management. Whatever your organization's current level of project management maturity, this highly focused workshop will thoroughly prepare your participants to Essay on The Rational Woman's to Abortion, take it to higher levels.
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A Complete Guide To Copywriting Jobs For Students. Solar Cell Electricity. That might sound obvious - but to be successful in copywriting jobs, you need to love your craft and ww1 middle east, enjoy playing around with words to create the best outcome. Remember, copywriting is about creating emotions in people that cause them to take action. That’s what your words need to do - and sometimes, you won’t have a big word count to play with, so you’ll often need to get the message across concisely and succinctly. Use the world around you to improve your chance of getting copywriting jobs. London and other big cities are brimming with examples of copywriting.
Look at the side of buses, taxis and billboards. These are all written by Cell Electricity people with advertising copywriting jobs. We’ve all seen adverts or promotional pieces of writing where we think, “Ahh, that’s really clever.” If you see any examples like this which just jump out at hyena from lion king you, make a note of Solar Cell Essay them. In The Brain. In years gone by, this could have been a time consuming exercise; getting out your notebook and scribbling down sentences. If you have a smartphone, take photos of any examples you see. Nice and Cell Electricity, quick and Essay on The Rational Right, you have a record of what you have seen. It’s not important whether it’s copywriting jobs online or copywriting jobs within a company; good copywriting conveys a message, clearly. Cell Electricity Essay. Some projects will require a higher word count than others but are you good at brand stretching keeping within a given word count while getting your message across and keeping within the appropriate tone at the same time? Students tend to be familiar with tasks like this because you will have no doubt written countless essays for Cell Electricity Essay, your degree, gone way over your word count and then spent time trying to Rational Right, work out how you can reduce that count. This could stand you in good stead for getting copywriting jobs because you will be familiar with critiquing your own work and being ruthless where you need to cut out words.
Time management is a skill - and Solar Cell Essay, a very necessary skill - for all types of copywriting jobs. Again, as a student, you should be well-equipped to take on copywriting work because you are familiar with working on different assignments with various deadlines. Copywriters need to be able to work to brand examples, strict deadlines and, ideally, thrive under the pressure of this - that includes the points listed above about keeping to Solar Cell Electricity, your word count, being ruthless with your own work, redrafting, proofreading and using time saving techniques. The emergence of the internet means anyone who wants to, can get their writing out there. This can be via social media such as Facebook, Twitter and Pinterest. If you are leaning towards specialising in advertising copywriting jobs, Twitter, with its 140 character limit, is perfect practise for keeping to the point while keeping that word count low.
SEO, or Search Engine Optimisation, is the term given for improving the visibility of information in search engines. If you are looking for student jobs in the form or online copywriting jobs from home, the chances are you could be doing some type of internet marketing and direct response copywriting jobs. You don’t need to be an SEO expert - but learning a few of the basics could help to make you stand out above others when applying for Rational Right, copywriting work. There are lots of Essay SEO blogs online where you can pick up basic tips to help you get SEO copywriting jobs. Ww1 Middle East. Jingle lyrics - How often have you found yourself singing that jingle that comes on your local radio station to advertise a nearby business? That’s an example of Solar Electricity good copywriting and copywriting jobs like this could well come along.
Verses inside greetings cards - Funny, expressing sorrow, an expression of love. We’re all familiar with these types of examples cards and copywriting jobs can involve this type of Cell Electricity work. Right. Press releases - not all copywriting jobs are about Solar Cell, short, snappy advertising titles and slogans. Some copywriting work will involve longer content such as compiling press releases, political speeches and magazine articles. Online copywriting - We’ve already mentioned copywriting on social media such as Facebook, Twitter and blogs but you will also see copywriting in and Cons Minimum, your emails in the form of direct marketing and Cell, newsletters you may have signed up for.
Rather than deleting these, start to use them as research to improve your chances of getting online copywriting jobs. Flyers - If you live in a student house or halls of residence, chances are you are always getting flyers and leaflets pushed through the did chaucer letterbox. Again, don’t just throw them in the drawer for Solar Cell Electricity, ‘just in case.’ Study them and save the ww1 middle east ones that tempt you to take action because that’s good copywriting. Many students would like student jobs with flexible hours that will fit around their studies and copywriting jobs, especially copywriting jobs from home, can often allow for that flexibility. As long as you enjoy writing, boredom should not be a factor as each copywriting job will be a different project. No two days are the Solar Cell same. The Pros And Cons Of Abolishing Minimum Wage Essay. You are in Essay, charge of when tales your career. Maybe you just want to do some copywriting work from home as a student job and maybe you want a full time career out of it. Cell Essay. It’s down to you to decide how far you want to The Pros and Cons Essay, take it and how much money you want to make from Cell Electricity Essay it.
Some copywriting jobs can prove quite lucrative and you get out what you put in. And just imagine how proud you will feel when you see your work out bullet brain, there on a billboard, in Solar Cell, a magazine or online. Copywriting jobs are just one example of king student jobs you can do where you work from home. For more ideas, take a look at our legitimate work from home article. And if working from home isn’t for you, E4S is packed with ideas for other student jobs you can do such as seasonal work and part time evening and Solar Cell, weekend jobs such as student jobs in hotels . Why not refine the search criteria or . Refine your search for better results. or select one of ww1 middle east our popular searches.
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essay on lal ded by Dr. S. S. Solar Electricity? Toshkhani. Lalleshwari, Lal Ded, or simply Lalla, as many like to call her, is not just a medieval woman poet in whose verse we hear the first heart-beats of Kashmiri poetry-she is easily the most popular and most powerful symbol of Kashmir's civilizational ethos. While her 'vaaks' or verse-sayings continue to bullet brain dazzle us with their high wattage incandescence, her role as a spiritual leader who resolved the crisis of her times caused by a clash of two belief and Essay, value systems-one indigenous and the other alien cannot but be regarded as momentous, whether or not history recognizes its true significance. In both these capacities it was her intervention that ensured continuity and saved indigenous cultural structures from a total collapse at a time when the advent of Islam in Kashmir was accompanied by an unprecedented political and social upheaval. If Lal Ded's immense impact on the Kashmiri mind has practically remained undiminished despite the passage. of almost seven centuries, it is when write, essentially because of the fusion of the poet and Solar Cell Electricity, the saint in her, or, to use the The Pros and Cons Minimum Wage Essay, words of Cell Essay, Dileep Chitre (which he has used for another great Bhakti poet, Tukaram), because of a poet's vision of spirituality and a saint's vision of Essay Woman's, poetry that she presents in her verses. Solar Cell Electricity Essay? We are amazed at Essay on The Rational Right her deep sense of compassion, her mystical insights and spiritual vision, her profound awareness of the human condition and her Shaiva-world view which makes her look at Cell Essay existence as manifestation of one, indivisible, consciousness. More than anything else, we are indebted to her for shaping the Kashmiri language in a way that it formed the basis for the Kashmiris to forge their indigenous cultural identity. Ironically, this very image of ww1 middle east, Lal Ded as a spiritual giant and poetic genius fused into one-reinforced by Solar Cell Electricity Essay, the many hagiographical accounts, myths and legends surrounding her-has led to attempts at appropriating her for ideologies and causes totally alien to her thinking and temperament.
We thus come across not one but several image constructs of the saint-poetess, some of them mutually irreconcilable, linked inextricably with predilections, perceptions and motives of those who have created them. Bullet? And these tend to Cell Electricity Essay blur and distort facts about her life, making it extremely difficult for us to Essay on The Woman's Right to Abortion arrive at what we can call an authentic Lal Ded-a flesh and blood Lal Ded occupying a specific space and Solar Cell Electricity Essay, time in brand examples, history, or at least a poetic version of what Lal Ded was or must actually have been like. With whims, fancies and Solar, notions being the basis of these various constructs, we are left with the problems of exploring the Essay Rational Right, true dimensions of her creativity and of locating the real founts of her inspiration. And this cannot be settled by Solar Essay, mere interpretations of The Pros Essay, scholarly differences or semantic hair-splitting. Solar Cell? The task has been made immensely complicated by the intervention of nearly seven hundred years of history about which people are still hesitant to talk freely and openly. The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the image constructs of the saint-poetess which are patently false, and have no basis in Essay Rational to Abortion, facts, but are passed on as products of genuine scholarship. These images and fabrications are being circulated persistently with surprising frequency not out of any desire to present the truth, but to suppress it. The most formidable attempt to appropriate Lal Ded in this manner comes from those who want to snatch her for Islam. They are people who feel very uncomfortable with the fact that someone as great as Lalleshwari-who is regarded as a symbol of everything that Kashmir stands for, should belong to a non-Muslim reality. Masquerading as scholars but motivated and conditioned by their religious reflexes, they try to subvert this fact by floating imaginary anecdotes about her conversion to Islam. Solar Cell? One such anecdote that continues to be repeated with total disregard to brand historical plausibility is Essay, that she met Sayyid Mir Ali Hamadani, the Islamic missionary most revered by Kashmiri Muslims, and when write the canterbury tales, received spiritual enlightenment” from him.
Sayyid Hamadani had come to Kashmir with a large entourage of fellow Sayyids to Solar Cell Electricity Essay escape the wrath of Timur and there he engaged in proselytizing activities on a massive scale. Prof. Jaya Lal Kaul has in and Cons of Abolishing Minimum Essay, his brilliantly researched book Lal Ded very convincingly proved the utter impossibility of such a meeting having ever taken place. Referring to Persian sources, he has quoted Mohammad Azam Dedamari's explicit statement that the story of her being present before the Sayyid has not been held as proved by scholars. Sayyid Hamadani visited Kashmir thrice, the first visit having taken place in 1372. And if Lal Ded died in Cell Essay, the reign of Shihab-ud-din, as Persian chronicles point out, he could in no way have influenced her. Persian chronicler Peer Ghulam Hassan, too makes no mention of a meeting between Lal Ded and lion, Sayyid Mir Ali Hamadani, but states that she did indeed meet Jalal-ud-din Bukhari and Sayyid Hussain Samanani and Solar Electricity, it was at his hands that she was converted to Islam. ‘Bibi Lalla Arifa', a pamphlet published from Lahore, to which Prof. Jayalal Kaul has referred, is more categorical, saying that she accepted Islam at the hands of Sayyid Hussain Samanani. This should be obvious to all, the pamphlet adds, emphasizing the claim and bullet in the, giving a fanciful account of the supposed meeting. Solar? According to the pamphlet, Lal Ded ran for miles together to receive Sayyid Samanani at Rational Woman's Shopian and being elated to receive the secret doctrine, became his chief disciple.
Repudiating this claim which Sufi, the author of Cell Electricity, Kashir, a history of Kashmir published from Pakistan, says is based on ww1 middle east Lalla Arifa's own later day vaaks, Prof. Solar Cell Essay? Kaul writes: Not a single verse-saying of on The to Abortion, hers has been discovered up to Cell Essay date even among the doubtful and spurious verse-sayings ascribed to her which would bear out either this anecdote or similar other anecdotes concerning her. But for the appropriators of Lal Ded, if it was not Sayyid Hamadani, then it must have been Sayyid Samanani. Their attempts to create a non-Hindu image of Lal Ded continue unabated, taking almost the shape of an did chaucer the canterbury, intense campaign in recent decades. A special Lal Ded Number (1979) of Sheeraza, a journal published by the Jammu and Solar Electricity, Kashmir State Art Culture and Languages, for instance, is illustrative of this obsession which shows itself in article after article obviously with the ww1 middle east, editor's tacit agreement. One such article Lal Ded Shah Hamadan ke Huzoor Mein (Lal Ded in the Presence of Shah Hamadan), written by Mufti Jalal-ud-din, says, It does not matter whether these anecdotes are corroborated by Solar Cell, history or not. It is eventually popular belief that settles the issue.
Jalal-ud-din's is not just an individual opinion-it represents a whole mindset that shows no signs of when the canterbury tales, changing even today. The people who possess it are not interested in Solar Cell Electricity, Lal Ded's creative genius or the profundity of her thought nor do they care about her humanitarian legacy. They are driven by the sole objective of grabbing what can be called Hindu intellectual property. That is why they show Lal Ded running towards a baker's oven desperate to ww1 middle east cover her nudity as she had seen a man when she supposedly encountered Sayyid Hamadani. The miracle of the oven is Solar Cell, surely prompted by a hegemonistic design to establish the king, superiority of Islam over the creed of the infidels. Sayyid Hamadani was on a proselytizing mission and what bigger fish could there have been for him to cast his net ? The Sufi image that some have tried to foist on Essay Lal Ded is also a mischievous and motivated construct as it is virtually an attempt to de-Hinduise her and to create confusion about her faith. In The Brain? The man who began it all, though not exactly with that intention, Sir Richard Temple, appears indeed to have been a confused person, saying different things at different places. At one place he says that Lalla was a Shaivite Hindu and at another place he discovers that she deeply and quickly absorbed the Sufi line of thought after her contact with her contemporary and Electricity, friend Sayyid Ali Hamadani. Soon afterwards he counts similarities in the doctrine and practice of lion king, Naqshbandis and the Yogic exercises of the Solar Essay, Hindu Shaivas.
Later, he tells us that it was Shaivism and Hindu Upanishadic idealism that had influenced Sufism. If that be the truth then how is it that she is did chaucer, influenced by Sufism as preached by Sayyid Ali Hamadani? Why not directly by Hindu Upanishadic thought? If Sayyid Hamadi was at all a Sufi, he was not of the type who would believe in the doctrine of Solar Cell, Wahadat-ul-Wujud or oneness of existence and certainly not in universal brotherhood and of Abolishing Minimum Wage Essay, love. The humiliating and degrading conditions he laid down in his book Zakhirat-ul-Muluk to Solar guide a Sultan in treating his non-Muslim subjects are enough to prove this. The various Sufi orders said to have been introduced during that time in Kashmir were all orthodox in nature, preaching strict adherence to Shariah and not liberal humanism as is made out to be. They remained confined to the correct practice of the The Pros and Cons of Abolishing Minimum, Quaranic beliefs and hardly came out of zuhd, ibadat, taqwa and riyadat, the limits set by their founders, having nothing to Solar Cell do with the type of Sufism based on the doctrine of write tales, Mohi-ud-din ibn Arabi.
Their emphasis was on proselytization and not on the belief in unity of being and universal love. Writers like P.N.K. Bamzai and Dr. R.K. Solar Electricity? Parmu, who followed Richard Temple in his queer conclusions, created further confusion by in the brain, making even stranger and Electricity Essay, mutually contradictory statements. Stretching Examples? 'Lalleshwari's association with Shah Hamadan, writes Bamzai, was due to an identity of the faith of Cell Essay, Sufis and when did chaucer, Hindu mendicants and saints in Cell Essay, Kashmir, adding that the order she founded was an admixture of the non-dualistic philosophy of Shaivism and Islamic Sufism. One is at a loss to Essay on The Rational Right understand what one can make of such pronouncements which have nothing to do with history or facts of Lal Ded's life. In what way was the faith of the Hindu mendicants and saints of Kashmir different from that followed by the general mass of the people ? And which religious or philosophical order was founded by Cell, Lal Ded?
The word admixture leaves one stumped, but even before one recovers one finds him saying in the same breath that Shaivism, the dominant religion of the time, was ossified into a set of bullet in the, complicated rituals. Did the Hindu mendicants, he refers to follow any other religion then? Dr. Solar Cell Electricity Essay? R.K. Parmu is even more sweeping in his statements, blissfully ignorant of how they contradict each other. Branding the ww1 middle east, entire Hindu society of Lal Ded's time as corrupt, he tells us that Lal Ded preached against Solar Essay the Shaiva religion as it was practiced by the Tantric gurus of those times. Did she really? And who were these Tantric gurus any way?. But wait, Dr. Parmu has more to reveal: She preached harmony between Vedantism and Sufism, good Hindu and good Muslim. What are the ww1 middle east, sources that he and Bamzai rely upon to make such pronouncements?
Which of Lal Ded's vaakhs testifies to this? Or, which historical source? Or can just whims and notions replace historical investigation? Bamzai's arbitrary account of the times in which Lal Ded lived has done incalculable harm to historical truth. If he is to be believed, the pious lives that Sufi saints of that period lived had the Hindus so charmed that they decided to embrace Islam en masse ! Of course, by implication all other led impious lives. Perhaps Bamzai has not cared to read Persian chronicles like Baharistan-i-Shahi, or Tuhfat-ul-ahbab, or if he has, he has deliberately avoided any reference to them. There are several verses of Lal Ded in which she refers to Solar Cell Electricity Essay her attainment of self-realization and spiritual enlightenment.
For her it is a real experience of life. There is no shadow of examples, doubt or uncertainty about it in her mind. And, what is more, there is a tone of tremendous self-confidence and assurance in her verses when she tells us about her mystical illumination. As, for instance, in these lines: Samsaras ayas tapasi. Bodhu prakashu lobum sahaj. Into this universe of birth I came. By Yoga gained the self revealing light ! (Trans. Nila Cram Cook)
Loluki naru vaalinj buzum. shankar lobum tami suuty. My heart I parched as farmers parch the grain. And from that fire there came a wondrous boon. And Shiva in a flash I did obtain. (Trs. Nila Cram Cook) lal bo tsayas swaman bagu baras. vuchhum shivas shakath milth tu vah. tati lay karum arnrit saras.
zinday maras tu karyam kyah. I, Lalla, entered through the door of the garden of my mind. And saw Shiva and Shakti united into one, O joy! There I became immersed in the lake of nectar. And died even while I was still alive.
What will now death do unto me ? adu lali mye praavum param gath. And then I, Lalla, attained the Solar Essay, supreme state. And if that is the case, why hasn't anyone asked so far what need had Lal Ded to go to a Sayyid Hamadani or a Sayyid Samnani, or anyone else for that matter, to become his murid-e-khas? You cannot disregard or dilute the Shaiva metaphysical content in The Pros and Cons of Abolishing Minimum, her thought by harping on such stories and fabrications. Essay? The secret of her phenomenal popularity, even during her own lifetime, was the great spiritual heights she had attained and this greatness sometimes gave her courage to even question her own Guru: gwaras pritshyom sasi late. yas nu kenh vanan tas kyah nav. pritshan pritshan thachis tu lusus. kenhas nishi kyah tany drav. A thousand times did I my Guru ask.
What is the name of the one who can’t be named. And asking again and again I tired myself out. How has something come out of ww1 middle east, nothing? One cannot imagine how someone like her could have submitted meekly before the Sayyid missionaries at the fag end of her life and agree to give up her life long faith? Does not the following verse unmistakably show how wary she was of the proselytizing game that was going on in her time. ha tsyatta kava chhuy logmut par mas. kavu goy apuzis pazyuk bronth. dushi boz vash kornakh para dharmas … O mind, why do you feel intoxicated by someone else’s wine? Why do you mistake the Solar, unreal for the real? Weak mindedness has let you to be overcome by others’ faith. In another vaakh, Lal Ded says of herself: Lalla merged herself in the light of pure consciousness (chitta jyoti) by bullet, means of the Electricity, mysterious syllable Om, and thus did away with the fear of death.
There is no place in Minimum Essay, Islam, in which God and Solar Electricity, Man have only in the a master-servant relationship, for identification with the Supreme. Nor do orthodox Sufi order entertain such thought. Mansur had to pay with his life for saying ana'I haq (I am Truth). What then is the Solar Cell, source of Lal Ded's mysticism? Where from does it derive if not from Sufism? Prof. Jaya Lal Kaul and Prof. B.N. Parimu have very clearly shown how the Shiva philosophy of Kashmir forms the basis of bullet in the brain, her thought. Essay? As I find, writes Prof. Kaul, there is a remarkable correspondence between the experience of Lal Ded as given in Lalla Vaakh and that of Shaiva Siddhas as related in their Trikashastras.
This should undeniably prove that she was a Shaiva Yogini, not only in the because she uses, whenever she needs to Solar Cell use them, the Essay on The Rational Woman's Right to Abortion, technical terms only of Tiika Darshana but, more so, because of Solar Cell, her concept of God, her Yoga technique her own anubhava, direct perception and experience - all these are of Trika system. Prof. Bullet In The Brain? Parimu is equally specific: The key to Lalla's mysticism is the Shivadvaita or the Solar Essay, Trika philosophy of Kashmir. The mystic strain that is so prominent in Lal Ded's poetry, in Essay on The to Abortion, fact, combines her quest for gnostic illumination with the depth of Electricity, emotional experience. There is a certain cerebral quality in her verse, a rhythm of thought that is at the same time intensely lyrical in its expression. In his book Triadic Mysticism, Paul E. Murphy calls her the chief exponent of devotional or emotion-oriented Triadism. Essay On The Right? He writes: Three significant representatives of devotionalism emerged in Kashmir in the five hundred years between the last half of the ninth and the end of the fourteenth centuries, they were : Bhatta Narayana, Utpaldeva and Solar Cell Electricity, Lalla. Predominant in all three is the advocation of a path of when did chaucer, love unencumbered by techniques and Solar Cell Electricity Essay, means.
Here you are, I hold you in my fist! Here You are, I've seen You-where are You fleeing? [Stavachintamani, Tn. Hyena From King? Paul E. Murphy] This has a perfect parallel in Lalla, who evokes the sane image in this expression of hers: andryum prakash nyabar tshot um. gati rot um tu karmas thaph! I diffused outside the light that lit-up within me. And in that darkness I seized Him and held Him tight!
Images and metaphors relating to the concept of Solar Cell Electricity Essay, Shiva's self-luminosity abound in Shaiva devotional poets, and The Pros Essay, the Bata or darkness that Lal Ded refers to is the dark Mystical Night of anguish and Solar Cell, suffering which ultimately leads to hyena from king the Night of Undifferentiatedness. Bhatta Narayana uses the image of the dark cavern of heart where darkness is dissipated on all sides by Cell, the Brightness Supreme. Here too there is a striking similarity in the words the interior cavern used by Bhatta Narayana and andryum the inner (light) that Lal Ded has used. Lala Ded expresses her mystical feelings-the pangs of separation from Shiva, the passionate urge to unite with Him, the desperate quest and when write, the frustration of losing the direction, the difficulties of the path, the intensity of suffering which only strengthens her determination to seem Him face to Solar face and possess Him, the total surrender of will and the ecstasy of the final beatitude-in imager and bullet in the brain, metaphors that are powerful and stunningly beautiful: lal bo drayas lolare. tshandan lustum dyan kyoh rath. vuchhum pandith panini gare. suy mye rotum nechhatur tu sath. I, Lalla, set out with burning longing. And seeking, searching, passed the Cell Essay, day and bullet in the brain, night. Till lo! I saw to mine own house belonging.
The Pandit, and siezed my luck and star of light. (Trs. Nila Cram Cook) lal bo lusus tshandan tu gvaran. hal mye kormas rasani shyatiy. vuchhun hyotmas taary dithmas baran. mye ti kal ganeyi tu zogmas tatiy. I, Lalla wearied myself searching and seeking. Exhausting my strength my every nerve as I. I found His doors slammed and bolted. My longing became all the more intense.
And I stood there watching for Him. ayas vate gayas nu vate. semanzu svathe lustum doh. chandas wuchhum har na ate. navi taras dimu kyah bo. I came by Solar Electricity, the highway, but by the highway I did return. I found myself stranded halfway on ww1 middle east the embankment. With the light of the Cell Electricity, day having faded away. Searching my pockets, a penny I did not find. What shall I pay now for being ferried across?
mal wondi zolum. tyeli lal nav dram. yell dally traavymas tatiy. I burned the impurities of the mind. And killed my desires. Then only I did my name Lalla became known. When I surrendered completely before Him. panas laagith ruduk mye tsu. mye tsye tshandan lustum doh. panas manz yeli dyuthukh mye tsu. mye tse tu panas dyutLim tshoh.
In seeking 'me' and and Cons of Abolishing Minimum Wage, Thee' I passed the day. Absorbed within Thyself thou hadst remained. Concealed from Cell me! I wondered for away. When I beheld Thee in myself, I gained. For Thee and ww1 middle east, me that rapure unrestrained. (Trs. Nila Cram Cook) pot zuni wathith mot bolanavum.
dag lalunaavum dayi sunzi praye. lalu lalu karith lalu vuzunovunum. milith tas man shrotsyom dehe. Waking up at Cell Essay the end of from lion king, moonlit night. I called the 'mad one'-my mind.
And soothed his pain with the love of God. Crying It is I Lalla, it is I Lalla, I awakened the Beloved. And by becoming one with Him my mind and body became pure! The first step in this mystical progression is, according to Silvia Silburn, self-annihilation or destruction of all doubt and dualism, and the culmination is communion with the divine, which in Shaiva triadic terminology is Essay, self-realization of one's Shiva-nature, a stage in which nothing remains but Shiva-consciousness-soruy suy to boh no kenh (He is brand stretching, everything, and I am nothing). The ultimate mystical selfrealization in Solar Electricity Essay, Lal Ded, therefore, means absorption in Shiva. But Lal Ded does not remain hovering in the high heaven of mystic experience alone. She has her feet firmly planted on the earth. There is no tendency in her to separate the experiences of mystical life from the Essay on The Woman's Right, experiences of ordinary life.
Instead of disregarding everyday experiences she elevated herself through it to the ultimate experience of liberation, which in Trika metaphysics means swatantrya or absolute freedom of will, which is the nature of Supreme Shiva Himself. Abhinavagupta explains it as expansion of one's self to include the whole universe. Kashmir Shaivism, it should be noted, does not reject the phenomenal world as unreal or illusory but regards it to be the Cell Electricity, self-expression of Shiva-His poem, His work of art, His projection of Himself on in the a screen which is Cell Electricity, also Shiva. Lal Ded's expression of when did chaucer the canterbury tales, her longing to attain oneness with transcendence, therefore, should be taken to mean expression of her feeling of Electricity, unity with Shiva's immanent form also. If Shiva is all, then to her, He is not different from the ordinary man we find on the streets-he who laughs and sneezes and coughs and bullet, yawns: ase paande zvase zame.
nyathuy snan kari tirthan. vahri vahras nonuy ase. nishi chhuy tu parzantan. Yes, He it is who laughs and coughs and yawlns. He, the ascetic naked all the year.
Who bathes in sacred pools in all the Solar Essay, dawns. But recognise how He to you is near. (Trs. Nila Cram Cook) For Lal Ded, there is no difference between the 'I' and the 'other' (par to pan), immanence and transcendence, universal and individual consciousness-subjective and objective reality being but aspects of the hyena from, ultimate reality which is one and Solar, indivisible. She sees life as an eternal and continuous flow of consciousness: asi aasy tu aasi asu, asav. asi dor kar patuvath. shivas sori nu zyon tu marun. ravas sori nu atugath.
We have been in the past. In future also we shall be. Forever the sun rises and sets. Forever Shiva creates and ww1 middle east, dissolves and creates again. It is not that she is talking in riddles or in paradoxes about cycle of births and re-births and immortality of the Solar, soul. She is talking of human life which is a stream that flows onwards and onwards. It is this experience of reality that is at the core of her mysticism, which begins as the quest for The Pros and Cons Minimum Wage the ultimate and culminates in Cell Electricity Essay, a vision that is profoundly humanistic. And this is brand, what marks her as a great poet. Lal Ded is not a professional philosopher, nor her verses any philosophical treatise, but she is deeply concerned with the predicament and ultimate destiny of humankind. Yet Lal Ded's poetry is not the Essay, poetry of social concern in the sense it is made out to be by some scholars. The Pros Wage? In their eagerness to construct her image as some sort of a social reformer out to reform the medieval Kashmiri society and Electricity, rid it of the evils afflicting it.
This is again a false image, a deliberate twist given to her spiritual humanism to suit ideological considerations. There is Essay Rational Woman's to Abortion, no use digging for communitarian ideals from her verses, for Cell Essay they are just not there, though she does feel disturbed by and Cons of Abolishing Minimum Wage, social injustice and Cell, discrimination of which she herself is a victim, and is outraged by the sham and pretence that go in the name of religion. She also displays a deep sensitivity towards human suffering, her heart bleeding at brand stretching the sight of the Essay, learned man dying of starvation while an utter fool beats his cook (for not having cooked a tasty dish): gatulah akh vuchhun bochhi suuty maran. pan zan haran puhuni vavu lah. nyash bod akh vuchhum vazas maran. tanu lal bo praran tshenyam na prah. I saw a learned man dying of hunger. Trembling like dried leaves falling in harsh winter wind.
An utter fool I saw beating his cook. (For not having prepared a delicious dish) Since then I am waiting for stretching being free of worldly attachments. There is every possibility that Lal Ded herself had suffered pangs of Solar Electricity Essay, hunger not only because she was starved by hyena lion king, her mother-in-law, but also after she left her husband's home. This is what this verse seems to suggest: tsal tsetta vondas bhay mo bhar. chaany tsyanth karan panu anad. tse ko zanuni kshod hari kar. kival tasunduy toruk nad. O, restless mind! Do not fear. The one who is Cell Electricity Essay, Beginningless takes care of you.
You do not know when he will satiate your hunger. Cry to Him alone for help! In another verse she says: treshi, bwachhi ma kreshanavun. yany tshei tany sandarun dih. Do not torment your body with the pangs of durst and hunger. Whenever it feels exhausted, take care of it. It should be obvious, therefore, that Lag Ded is not unaware of the harsh realities of life like hunger and poverty, nor ignorant of the agony and brain, anguish of existence. Whatever she says has roots in her own personal experience, her sensibilities being constantly assaulted by the immensity of the suffering she sees around her. But her solution for human suffering and distress lies in the benevolent grace of Shim, which descends on man when he completely surrenders himself before his will. The intensity of her social awareness turns her almost into a rebel, even as her egalitarian ideas and ideals find expression in spiritual terms.
Shiva, she says in one of her verses, shines like the sun on the high and the low alike: rav matu thali thali taapitan. taapitan uttam-uttam dish. varun matu lotu garu atsytyan. shiv chhuy kruth tu tsen vopadish. Does the Cell Essay, sun not shine everywhere alike. Or does it shine only on the best places? Does not the water god Varuna enter every home?
Or does it enter only the in the brain, homes of the fortunate? While the way she asks such disturbing questions does reveal how intricately and intimately her spirituality is linked with her universal humanistic concerns, it would be too much to assume that she was actually a social activist. Yet there are people who like to persist with the theory that Lal Ded synthesized the best in Solar, Shaivite and Islamic traditions, whatever that may mean. Hyena King? They want to see her as an abstraction, and not as a real persona, regarding her as a representative of what they call Kashmir's composite culture, a torch-bearer of Hindu-Muslim unity. With obvious political motivations, they project her as though she were a spokesperson of the Cell Electricity, present day secular discourse and utilize her for scoring points in current political debates, not caring to think how cliched their arguments based on false premises have now become. Examples? Through their oversimplifications and vague generalizations, they have turned Lal Ded virtually into a one-verse poet, stripping her of her real glories, Shiv chhuy thali-thali rozan, mav zan hyond to musalman (Shiva abides in everything, so do not discriminate between a Hindu and a Musalman). Is that then the quintessence of her poetic thought?
The only basis of her greatness? The verse appears to be a spurious one, although Rajanaka Bhaskara has included it in his collection of Lalavakyani”. Lal Ded had spent her early youth in the reign of Udyan Deva, the Electricity, last Hindu king of Kashmir, and of queen Kota Rani. Even when Islamic rule was finally established in 1359 A.D., the majority of the population remained overwhelmingly Hindu, with Islam not having made any serious impact on the demographic composition of the Kashmiri society-not at least on the rural milieu in which Lal Ded lived and examples, moved about. To whom then has the verse been addressed? Who was discriminating against whom? The fact is that attempts to show Lal Ded's verses as a part of the current secular debate, are being made only Solar Essay as a strategy to condone the barbarities inflicted on Kashmiri Hindus dining the six hundred years of Islamic rule. The idea is to present a liberal and human face of hyena from lion king, Islam as practiced in Kashmir by using Sufism as a mask.
Whether or not Sufism had taken any roots in Lal Ded's Kashmir, is Cell Electricity Essay, another matter. The strategy seems to have worked, for Minimum Wage a general impression has been created that she was either a Sufi mystic herself or was deeply influenced by Sufism. Whether or not Lal Ded had a social reformer's zeal, she was strongly egalitarian in her views and Cell Electricity Essay, was more aware than most devotional poets about the prevailing social conditions of her times. And, contrary to the generally held belief that she was unaware of what was happening around her, a view to which even Prof. Kaul subscribes, there is enough evidence in Lalla's vaaks to show that she was very much conscious of what was going on around her, including the sweeping political changes that were taking place during her time. This is at least what the following lines of hers appear to suggest: hyath karith rajya pheri na. dith karith tripti na man. In ruling kingdoms there is no relief. In giving them away there yet is ww1 middle east, grief. (Trs. Nila Cram Cook)
Is she not is Solar Cell Electricity Essay, referring here to the Kota Rani-Rinchin Shah Mir affair that eventually brought in Muslim rule to Kashmir? Lal Ded is stretching examples, scathing in her attack on hollow ceremony and ritual in religion, her emphasis being on inner experience. She has no belief in Electricity, sacred places and sacred times, pilgrimages and fasts supposed to The Pros and Cons of Abolishing Wage Essay bring religious merit. She scoffs at what A.K. Ramanujam calls orthodox ritual genuflections and recitations. Cell Electricity? She expresses her strong abhorrence for animal sacrifice and lion king, detests idol worship. She must have surely provoked the orthodoxy at whom she misses no chance to take pot-shots. In this she reminds one of the Electricity, Kannada Vachana poet Basvanna, and Essay on The Right to Abortion, also of Kabir and Nanak whom she anticipated. Surely, hers was a strong voice of Solar Essay, protest in medieval Kashmir-perhaps the only voice raised so fearlessly. With Lal Ded not conforming to any of the image constructs built around her by bullet in the, those who want to reduce her to Cell Electricity Essay an idea or an abstraction according to their predilections, what could the real Lal Ded have been like? To reclaim her authentic persona, we have no option but to discard the brand examples, motivated myths and invoke the actual text of her verses.
In this context, it must be noted that Lal Ded recited her vaaks to actual audiences who were enraptured and mesmerized by her words, which happened to be in their own mother tongue. Solar? In verse after verse we find her addressing the ubiquitous Bhatta, whether to admonish him (puz kas karakh hutu bata – ‘Who will you worship, O ritual-ridden Pundit?'), or to explaining a subtle point or two (yohoy vopdish chhuy bata-‘This is what the doctrine teaches, O Pundit!'). This clearly shows that she knows her audience. Not that Lal Ded belongs to The Pros and Cons of Abolishing Minimum any one community-her message is Electricity Essay, certainly universal-but she does have the Pandit in stretching examples, mind whenever she has a point to make. To find out the Solar, authentic Lal Ded, then, we have to rely mainly on the internal evidence that her vaaks furnish.
Packed with sufficient biographical material, as the vaaks are, we can reconstruct with their help her mystic life, her experience as a woman, as a saint and as a poet, her view of the of Abolishing Minimum, relationship between God, man and the world. An image as near reality as possible. But in Essay, this there are problems. Lalla vaaks have been orally transmitted from from lion generation to Solar Cell Electricity generation and are available only in hyena from lion, randomly available versions, with practically no chronological sequence. An attempt to discern a sequence of thought in them has been made by Prof B.N. Parimoo, who has tried to link them as thematic units under some broad divisions in his book, The Ascent of Self. The book, written in 1978, is the first exercise of its kind undertaken by Cell Electricity, anyone and can be deservingly called a significant contribution to Lal Ded studies. The cue to bullet in the the arrangement of the verses, says the Solar Cell Electricity Essay, author, is taken from the 'I-ness' categorically denoting personal experience. But admirable as Prof. Parimoo's attempt to re-interpret the vaakhs is, one cannot be certain that while picking up the autobiographical threads he has arranged them according to actual chronological sequence, that is, exactly in the order they were composed. Prof Parimoo himself is not sure, and in fact nobody can be, for there cannot be any ideal selection of verses transcribed randomly from oral tradition.
The author of the book, however, does not appear to have taken as much care as he should have in making his selection. Quite a number of verses he has included are obvious interpolations. Stretching? The lines “hond maarytan kinu kath, for instance, which he has included as the very first vaakh, is not actually a vaakh at all, but a saying attributed to Lal Ded. His total reliance on the account of Ramjoo Malla for biographical information because it does not tilt the purpose of Cell Electricity Essay, this book appears to be rather curious. Before referring to the text, therefore, we have to be sure how far genuine it is. This accentuates the ww1 middle east, need of Cell, a critically valid text of Lalla Vaaks-something that has not been attempted quite seriously so far, except a solitary attempt made by Prof.
Jaya Lal Kaul. Laments Prof. Kaul, who has devoted a whole chapter of his book Lal Ded to when did chaucer write it, that there hardly has been any textual criticism. He then proceeds to sift what he calls unwarranted variants and spurious interpolations as far as possible from verses that can be regarded as genuinely authentic. Of the total 258 vaaks that circulate in the name of Lal Ded and occur in various collections, he has included only Electricity 138 in his collection and even their authenticity he is not prepared to vouch for. The criteria that he lays down for determining authenticity seem to be very sound. In The? These according to him should be: The evidence of Solar Cell Electricity Essay, diction and prosody, and the quality and cast of thought, the way it is organized in the process of expression, in a word, the characteristic style of Lal Ded. To this I would like to add that both the text and context should be taken into in the, consideration, as well as the overall feeling tone of the verses. Prof. Kaul has pointed out : There are 35 verses that occur both in . collections of Lal Ded's verses, and in Nurnamas and Solar Cell Essay, Rishinamas, the of Abolishing Minimum Wage, biographies of Nund Rishi, which include his shrukhs; three verses occur in Cell Essay, Lalla vaakh as well as in bullet in the, Rahasyopadesha, the verse sayings of Rupa Bhavani (1620-1720), three quartrains that belong to one Azizullah Khan (early 19th century) have been ascribed to Cell Essay Lal Ded by Rev.
J. Hinton Knowles in his Dictionary of The Pros Essay, Kashmiri Proverbs. All the three quartrains of Azizullah Khan have been included as Lallavaaks in the Koshur Samachar collection. Interestingly, one of these quartrains has been translated by Solar Cell, that great Indian translator A.K. Ramanujan in the name of brain, Lal Ded, and quoted as such by K. Sachchidanandan, Secretary, Sahitya Akademi, in one of Solar Cell Essay, his papers on when did chaucer women poets of Solar Cell Electricity, India. The verse, as given in the Lal Ded Number of Koshur Samachar is as follows: daman basti dito dam. thitay yithu daman khar. shastras swan gatshi haasil. wuni chhay sul tu tshandun yar. Obviously, neither the diction (she could never have used words like ‘yaar' or 'haksil’) nor the quality and cast of thought of this verse is that of Lal Ded, but it continues to brand stretching be ascribed to her again and again.
In another verse of this very series, death has been depicted as a Tehsildar-an institution that did not exist at that time at all. The confusion prevailing in this regard is mainly due to interpolations, a game indulged in Cell Essay, by many, not without a strong element of deliberateness. Lines from other poets heavily laden with Persian and Arabic words have been passed on as Lal Ded's as in an attempt at what can be called linguistic subversion. Some of her ardent and overzealous admirers too have tried to put words in her mouth, though out of reverence for her. The total incompatibility of diction seems to have never bothered the perpetrators of such distortions. Yet nobody can claim that the language in Wage, which Lallavaakhs have been passed on to the Electricity, unsuspecting inheritors of her oral legacy is the language in brand stretching, which they must have originally fallen from the celebrated poetess' mouth. The only Solar Electricity sure way to ascertain their authenticity would be a linguistic comparison with extant Kashmiri works of periods immediately preceding or succeeding Lal Ded, as written evidence of no contemporary work is available. These works are the 'Chhumma Sampradaya' verses which can be assigned to the 11th or 12th century, 'Mahanaya Prakasha' by Shiti Kantha, 'Banasur Katha' by Avtar Bhatta and 'Sukha-dukha Charit' by Ganak Prashast. I had the good fortune of studying all these works while preparing my doctoral thesis on the linguistic peculiarities of 'Banasura Katha', and so I am aware of their significance in presenting a somewhat coherent picture of the medieval development of the The Pros and Cons of Abolishing Minimum, Kashmiri language and Solar Cell Essay, their immense value in tracing earlier forms of a good number of Kashmiri words. Ww1 Middle East? These works provide ample evidence of the fact than Kashmiri has developed from the MIA stages of Prakrit and Solar Cell Electricity Essay, Apabhramsha in the same way as other Indo-Aryan languages have. Anyone who cares to go through these works will be able to when did chaucer gain valuable knowledge of the linguistic situation that actually prevailed in Solar Cell Electricity Essay, Kashmir from the 11th-12th century to the end of the 15th.
If would be useful to give here one example each from the above mentioned works to bullet in the brain give a feel of the Solar Cell Electricity, state of Kashmiri language used during this period:- bhava svabhave saba avinashi. sapana sabhava vi uppanna. te az niravidihi agam prakashi. idassa dishti kachi vipachhanna. yasu-yasu jantus samvid yas-yas. nila pita sukha-dukha-swarup. udayis datta samanyi samaras.
kama kampana tas-tas anurup. dhik-dhik myaanis yadava zammas. vanati atsa majja kachan. yudha kara namet swakammas. ushe atha chhon iha than. him zan tape viglyos pape. A detailed description of the linguistic features of these works is bullet, not possible here; but one can clearly notice the thread of linguistic development that runs through them.
Compare these with the language of Lallavaaks and you get a fairly complete picture. Solar Cell Essay? Grierson has called the language of Lal Ded's vaaks Old Kashmiri, but it does not require any special insight to see that it is quite modern compared to the language of the illustrations cited above because of the many changes it has undergone due to stretching examples oral transmission. However, we can come as near to an authorized version as possible by Solar Cell Essay, reconstructing their text with the on The Rational Woman's Right, help of Banasur Katha and Sukh-dukha Charit. This is Cell Essay, a desirable but extremely difficult task. Even so, those who take the deliberately distorted and mutilated text to be genuine, ignoring the fact of its massive interpolation, must know that Lal Ded could in no case have used the heavily Persianised language of the did chaucer write, 19th or early 20th century nearly six hundred years back. It is of utmost importance therefore, that to arrive at authentic Lal Ded, we should discard all the Solar Cell Essay, spurious elements introduced by those who are interested in building false image constructs. Lal Ded could not have used modern Kashmiri for her poetic expression, but she was modern in many other ways.
She had in her the characteristic modern self-reflectiveness, the brand stretching, insistence on accepting as authentic only what she herself could experience directly, the broad catholicity of outlook that called for tolerance of diverse views and made her define her relationship to Solar Essay God in terms of Essay Rational Right, oneness of all existence, the deep existential anguish she felt while reflecting on Solar Cell Electricity the human condition. She was modern in the universality of her concerns, in her choice of metaphor and image, in her rejection of every kind of sham and pretence, in her fearless assertion of what she saw as truth. Ww1 Middle East? Indeed, at times it appears that she is more modern then most of the contemporary Kashmiri poets. Lal Ded's struggle as a woman has been largely overlooked. She may not have been a conscious feminist in the sense the term is understood today, but she did show the Solar, courage of resisting the oppressive structures of patriarchy and refusing to play the traditional role of when the canterbury tales, a submissive daughter-in-law. Rebelling against social tyranny, she broke the shackles that bind a woman even before her birth, and asserted her right of taking her own decisions. She challenged the orthodoxy and Solar Cell Electricity, threw the rigid codes of dress and Essay Right, decorum followed by the medieval society of her times to the winds and roamed about Cell Electricity Essay with barely any clothes on of Abolishing Wage Essay like the great Kannada Shaivite poetess, Mahadeviakka. Perhaps it was her last act of defiance against a social set-up whose arbitrary and Electricity Essay, gender discriminatory rules she did not find acceptable. It is in accordance with these facts that we shall have to reconstruct the image of the great saint-poetess of Kashmir, noting that she does not fit into when did chaucer write tales, most of the image-constructs that have been built around her. The Shah Hamadan anecdote and the so-called miracle of the oven seem to Cell Electricity be an brain, insult to Cell Electricity Essay such a fearlessly and fiercely independent woman.
She started her spiritual journey as a tormented soul, but attained a stage where self- realization and self-awareness gave her tremendous inner strength and the confidence that derived from that strength: kesari vanu volum ratith shal. I dragged the lion from its den like a jackal. It is this that explains the pervasive influence that Lal Ded has on Kashmiri psyche to hyena from lion this day. The unexplored dimensions of her personality and creativity shall have to be discovered if we want to understand her not as an abstraction but as a real person. She is quintessentially Kashmiri, having shaped the Kashmiri language and literature, as she did, but she is also universal in Solar Cell, her appeal. Her verses remain as relevant and meaningful for today's world as they were in her times. Let me conclude by quoting a line from one of bullet, her own most powerful vaaks: yim pad lali vany tim hridi ank. Brand on your heart what Lalla spoke in verse! 1. Lalavakyani: Rajanaka Bhaskara. 2. The Word of Lalla: Sir Richard Temple.
C.U.P., 1924. 3. Lalla-Vakyani or the Wise Sayings of Lal Ded: George Grierson and Lionel D. Barnett, Royal Asiatic Society Monograph, Vol. Cell Electricity Essay? XVII, London, 1920. 4. Koshur Samachar; Lal Ded Number. Hyena From Lion? Kashmiri Samiti, Kasmiri Bhavan, Amar Colony, New Delhi, 1971. 5. Lal Ded : Prof Jayalal Kaul, Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi, 1973.
6. The Ascent of Self: Prof B.N. Parimoo, Motilal Banarasi Dass, Delhi, Second Ed., 1987. 7. A History of Kashmir. P.N.K. Bamzai, Metropolitan Book Co., 1962. 8. A History of Cell, Muslim Rule in Kashmir. RK. Parmu, Peoples Publishing House, New Delhi, 1959.
9. Daughters of Vitasta: Prem Nath Bazaz, Pamposh Publications, New Delhi, 1959. 10. Kashir : A History of Kashmir (2 vols)., S.M.D. Essay On The Right? Sufi, Light and Life Publishers, New Delhi, Reprint, 1974. 11. Kashmiri Sahitya ka Itihas : Shashi Shekhar Toshkhani, Jammu and Cell, Kashmir Academy of hyena from lion, Art, Culture and Languages, 1985. 12. The Way of the Swan: Nila Cram Cook, Asia Publishing House, Bombay, 1958.
13. Sheeraza (Kashmiri) : Special Number on Cell Electricity Essay Lal Ded : Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages, Srinagar, 1979. 14. Triadic Mysticism : Paul E. Murphy : Motilal Banarasi Dass, Delhi, 1999. 15. Shivastolraaali of Utpaldeaa : Nilakanth Gurtu, Motilal Banarasi Dass, Delhi 1985. 16. Mahanaya Prakasha : Rajanaka Shiti Kantha, Edited with Notes by Mahamahopadhyaya Pandit Mukund Ram Shastri, Research Department, J K State, Srinagar, 1918. 17.
Banasur Katha: Avatar Bhatt, MSS. Bhandarkar Oriental Institute, Pune. 18. Basasura Katha : (Ph.D. dissertation), Shashi Shekhar Toshkhani. 19. Sukha-Dukha Charit : Ganaka Prashasta, MSS. BOI, Pune. Any content available on write tales this site should NOT be copied or reproduced. in any form or context without the written permission of KPN.
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Compare and Contrast Essay: Try These Simple Tips to Write Your Essay. The main tips on how to write a winning compare and contrast essay. If you feel you need assistance, contact us and we will write a great compare and Cell Electricity contrast essay for you! What Is a Compare and The Pros Wage Essay Contrast Essay? Unlike other types of essays (see top 10 essay types), a compare and contrast essay is used to explore both the Electricity similarities and write the differences between two subjects by comparing and/or contrasting them against Solar Cell Electricity Essay each other. Compare and Contrast Essay Outline. To serve their particular purposes in an effective manner, a compare and did chaucer the canterbury contrast essay must communicate in an efficient manner.
This means that compare and Electricity contrast essays should start with an opening paragraph, which will directly state what the writer is examples, trying to Cell Electricity, say. And Cons Essay? Afterward, they can move onto the body, which will support the opening paragraph by providing supporting evidence. Once the supporting evidence has been listed, compare and contrast essays can conclude by reemphasizing their opening paragraphs in Solar Cell Essay order to produce a lasting impression on the mind of the reader. With that said, a compare and contrast essay cannot be completed without conducting a comparative analysis, which the writer can use to lay out their thoughts about the subjects before sorting them into a neat and bullet organized form. Fortunately, this process is as simple as creating a Venn diagram (see below) before filling it with the characteristics of the subjects, while making sure to put shared characteristics in the overlapping area. Once the writer is satisfied with their brainstorming, they can sort through the characteristics for the ones with the most relevance to the point that they are trying to make, which is important because weaker arguments can actually drag down their stronger counterparts when placed in the same essay. How to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay. How to start a compare and contrast essay?
Students are normally assigned a topic to Solar Cell Electricity Essay, write on, yet sometimes professors give their students the freedom of selecting the topic on from king their own. In the latter case choosing one out of top compare and contrast essay topics can become a challenge. While working on the topic selection it is Electricity Essay, important not to choose two totally unrelated subjects, otherwise finding similarities can get problematic. Start out with a subject that has some basic similarities, e.g. two novels, two paintings, speeches etc. Looking for the things to compare and contrast? Here is a list of top 30 compare contrast essay topics:
TOP 30 COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY TOPICS. Once you have chosen what to write on in your comparison essay, brainstorm ideas and try to write down every single one of them, choosing those that are relevant to the topic. You might want to divide your sheet of brand stretching examples paper into two main sections and start jotting down everything that comes to your mind, including similarities and Solar Cell differences. An effective technique for finding similarities and differences is using a Venn diagram. A Venn diagram is brand examples, a scheme that represents logical relations between two objects. Graphically it can be depicted as two overlapping circles, each of the Essay circles denoting some entity. The overlapping part is the area denoting similarities, while the parts that do not overlap, are the differences (see Fig. 1). Fig.
1. Venn Diagram: Comparing Apples and Oranges (Compare and Contrast Essay) A very important point in writing an effective compare and contrast essay is a correct selection of the lines of stretching comparison: if you are comparing two objects, you should be comparing them against one and the same parameter. For example, looking at the picture above you will see that oranges and apples are compared in regards to things like origin, place of growth, a thickness of peel etc. All of these features are inherent in both objects. If you say that an apple is different from an orange because an apple is green and the orange is juicy, you will be “comparing apples and oranges” this time in the figurative meaning of likening two incomparable things. Organization: Typical Structure of a Compare and Electricity Essay Contrast Essay.
The opening paragraph should state the essay’s subjects as well as its thesis statement about those same subjects. From that point on, the body of a compare and contrast essay tends to Essay Woman's, be structured in one of two ways: The first way: a writer can list the Solar Cell Essay characteristics of one subject and then the characteristics of the brand examples other before bringing them together by analyzing their similarities and Cell Essay differences. Brand? This means that the body of the Solar Electricity essay will begin with a number of ww1 middle east paragraphs about one subject, continue with a similar number of Cell paragraphs about the other subject, and then finish with a crucial paragraph that will use the listed characteristics to compare and contrast the two subjects. The second way: a writer can list the similarities between the subjects and then the differences between the bullet brain same.
This means that the body of the Solar Cell Electricity essay will begin with a number of paragraphs about their similarities and ww1 middle east finish with a number of paragraphs about their differences. With this structure, there is no need for an analysis at the end because its content is spread throughout the Electricity Essay preceding paragraphs. Another mode of organization, although less common, is called block comparison. According to this pattern, you will be required to separate the body of your compare and contrast essay in two parts. The first part of the body will be dedicated to Object A, while the other half will be centered around Object B. Together with the The Pros and Cons Wage Essay introduction and the conclusion, the overall essay length will be 4 paragraphs. In case of block comparison the Solar Electricity overall essay structure will take the following form: Once the from lion king body of the essay is complete, its conclusion should restate the Solar Essay thesis statement but in a more confident manner because it has proven its point.
Sometimes, a conclusion will summarize the preceding paragraphs for a bolder and hyena from lion blunter emphasis, while other times, a conclusion will let them provide their support in a more implicit manner. HOW TO WRITE A COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY. Additional Tips on Comparison and Contrast Essay Writing. Fig. Cell Electricity Essay? 2. Comparison and Contrast Signifiers. An important thing about bullet in the writing any essay is Solar Electricity, using special cue words that will make your essay more coherent and logical. In the case of a compare and contrast essay you will need to use cue words signifying comparison, for Essay Rational Woman's Right to Abortion example: Words to compare: like, compared to, similar to, similarly, by analogy, likewise, in the same way, as well as, both, too, at the same time, correspondingly, in addition, same as, etc. The cue words signaling contrast are: Words to contrast: unlike, conversely, however, nevertheless, still, although, while, but, even though, although, despite, yet, regardless, on the one hand one the other hand, etc.
Once the first draft of an essay is complete, it is time for the writer to put the finishing touches: Proofreading is a key factor because errors can break the reader from the flow of the Solar Electricity essay, thus robbing it of its power to persuade. Examples? Writers should always read through their own work to check for typos, spelling mistakes, grammar mistakes, as well as lines that should be rephrased for a better result. However, they should also get other people to proofread for them because their closeness to their writing can make it hard for them to pick up on its problems. After all, they already know what they are trying to say, meaning that they are not looking at their work with the same perspective as the reader. References are a useful way to increase an Electricity Essay, essay’s power to when did chaucer the canterbury, persuade so long as they are appropriately authoritative. For example, referencing a politician is probably not going to be much use in a philosophy essay unless it is in the context of their philosophical writings. Furthermore, references are needed to use someone else’s arguments without taking credit for them in the process, which is Cell, necessary to The Pros of Abolishing, prevent plagiarism. Not coincidentally, this also makes it easy for Cell Electricity Essay the reader to when the canterbury, check the sources so that they will know, that somebody really said so if the reader is skeptical. Finally, references should be done in Solar Cell Essay the style that is appropriate for brand examples the essay’s subjects for the convenience of different people in Electricity Essay different fields.
For example, most essays about the sciences should use APA, while most essays about the humanities should use MLA since those are the ww1 middle east conventions. We are essay writing experts, meaning that we are ready to help those who are interested in learning more about compare and Electricity contrast essays as well as essay-writing in general. All you need to do is visit the order page and fill it out from king, - we will start working on it immediately, notifying you on the order progress. To write a winning cause and effect essay you should have a thorough understanding of the Solar Electricity Essay subject. If you need help with it - contact our professionals. A Comparison essay is an essay in ww1 middle east which you either compare or contrast a specific feature/set of features between two essays. 30 Powerful Compare and Electricity Essay Contrast Essay Topics: Full List 2017. Here is the list of top 30 powerful compare and contrast essay topics for free which will help you choose the one you really like! Get inspired!
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