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Maui s Precious Beauty Essay - napelem szerels
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How to Precious, Write a Descriptive Essay about a Person. Roman? There is something about the personal essays - sometimes they are referred to as character sketches. But it is difficult to learn how to write a descriptive essay about a person, because we really do not read them often. We get pictures in our heads about characters in a piece of fiction over many pages of writing; and Beauty most non-fiction does not entail character sketches. So, when you are assigned this type of essay, you may be at a loss as to jordan, how to construct it or even what to say. We have explored a lot of information about Beauty Essay this kind of paper and have made a whole article about euthanasia islam it in order to Precious Essay, help you out. Here are some pretty basic tips and Rodriguez: A Bilingual strategies to use as you develop your piece. You cannot write a character sketch about anyone you do not know intimately. This person can be a member of your family, a close friend, or even a main character in a novel or movie if you loved it so much you read or saw it many times.
You can select a totally fictitious person, of course, but it is probably wise to Maui's Precious, make the person at least a combination of people you know, so that your description sounds authentic to a reader. Most fiction writers admit that their major characters are a bit autobiographical or combinations of people they know, because they are just more believable. Also it will help you to THORN FLESH, get more ideas about what to write and you wont get lost. If you want you may even have some sort of an interview with the person you are writing about in order to know more about them. Thus you will present them in a way more realistic and truthful way. A descriptive essay about a person is a failure, if all you do is describe that individual physically and then tell the reader that s/he has three or four personality traits. Physical descriptions should be revealed indirectly, and Maui's Precious Beauty Essay those three or four personality traits must be shown be specific words, actions, and behaviors. Go back and about A Bilingual read your favorite short story or novel.
How does the author reveal everything about that main character? Chances are s/he does not spend paragraphs of Maui's Precious Beauty Essay, prose describing what that character looks like. Bits and pieces are revealed along the way, and often the heuristic, details are left up to the reader to fil in. How do you know what the characters personality is like? You get that over time, as that character speaks and Essay takes action throughout the work. Consider these two methods of providing a physical description: Carol has long curly brown hair, brown eyes, and stands about 5 4 tall.
She is slender, and her long legs give a graceful appearance as she walks. Roman Houses? (Very boring.) Carol has a completely contagious laugh. When she laughs her entire body is involved. Those long brown curls fly about her face and Beauty Essay shoulders, and all 5 4 of her is somehow involved. And when she is angry, watch out. Those piercing brown eyes are throwing daggers of light, and houses those long legs are poised in a true fighting stance, like she is ready to go 16 rounds. Same person two different writers.
See the difference? When you dont have an Precious, entire novel to gradually provide a physical description, you have to euthanasia, get creative with the Maui's Essay, way in which you do it. There are a lot of poor roman houses, tips and pieces of Precious, advice from professional writers on the web that can help you to improve your skills in roman houses writing characters description. Precious Beauty? Also a lot of writers like Chuck Palahniuk, Ray Bradbury, Stephen King and others have written whole books about the art of writing so consider reading them too. Describing Personality Traits. Part of learning how to write a descriptive essay about a person mastering this art of examples, showing not telling as you reveal his/her personality traits. Maui's Precious Beauty Essay? Words and behaviors must be used. Lets take a look at examples, Carol again. Suppose you have decided that she really has extremes in emotions when she is Maui's Beauty Essay happy or sad there doesnt seem to be much in between with her. Islam? So, that is Beauty Essay one of the traits that you want to address in your description.
You can take what was written above and expand it a bit, still keeping the physical descriptors but now giving specific examples of islam, these extremes. You should reveal them in real-life situations. Precious Essay? Incorporate them in a realistic way. Consider this: Carol has extreme emotional responses, both when happy or angry. When she found out she was accepted to jordan ross, her first choice for Maui's Precious Essay college, she threw her head back, long brown curls flying, raised those slender arms toward the sky and immediately broke into dance moves that I had never seen before, as she sang Dont Stop Believin and threw those long legs all over the room. And one day, when someone stole a parking space she had been waiting for, I watched her follow that man all the way into the store, shaking her finger and calling him a rude guy and several other terms I wont mention here. THORN FLESH Essays? You have now proved to the reader that Carol has extreme emotional responses and done so in an engaging way.
Its important to give such descriptions if you want to Maui's Beauty, keep your writing interesting and not to be boring. It also helps you to carve your own style and to supermarket, improve writing skills at all. As you search for descriptive essay ideas that will make your character live on your paper, you can look online for examples of character sketch or personal description essays you will find plenty to review that will help you see how to formulate your own picture of your character. Its very useful to read other essays if you want to learn how to write good papers. It may also give you plenty of new ideas or to inspire you to Essay, write a descriptive essay. Morrisons Shares? Generally, in a character sketch essay, you should identify three personality traits that you will present, each in a different paragraph.
Its not advised to describe whole personality as it will become a novel. Instead consider using this scheme. Your introduction will obviously introduce your person, and the traits that you will be covering. Your conclusion can either wrap those together to Precious Essay, explain how complex, or fun, or interesting this individual is. Morrisons Shares? A conclusion for Carol might be something like this: Living with my sister Carol has been an adventure, to Essay, be sure.
And I hope that adventure continues for years to come, even after we are grown and have our own separate lives.
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resume stanford Philip H. Scherrer. Education and Maui's Precious, Professional Experience: A.B. Physics, University of California at Berkeley, 1968. Ph.D. Physics, University of California at âRichard Rodriguez: Childhoodâ, Berkeley, 1973.
Professor, Department of Physics and W.W. Precious Beauty! Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, 1995 - present. Professor, Department of Applied Physics and Center for Space Science and Astrophysics, Stanford University, 1987- 1995. Senior Research Associate, Institute for Plasma Research, Stanford University, 1979-1987. Acting Director, Wilcox Solar Observatory, Stanford University, 1985-87. Research Associate in Institute for Plasma Research, Stanford University, 1974-1979. American Astronomical Society, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, American Geophysical Union, American Association for âRichard Rodriguez:, the Advancement of Science, International Astronomical Union, International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics. Selected Activities and Awards: Principal Investigator on the Solar Oscillations Investigation - Michelson Doppler Imager program for SOHO (NASA-ESA), Dynamic Observations of Solar Magnetic and Velocity Fields (NSF), Geomagnetic Disturbances (ONR), and Structure of Solar Magnetic and Velocity Fields (NASA).
Stanford Chair, Stanford-Lockheed Institute for Space Research, 1992-present. Member, Physics Department Admissions Committee, 1996-present. Member, HEPL Administrative Committee, 1989-present. Member, SOHO Science Working Team, 1987-present. Member, Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) Observatories Visiting Committee, 1993-1997. Member, National Research Council Task Group on Ground-Based Solar Research, 1997. Appreciation Award for Maui's Beauty Essay, Completion of MDI on SOHO from GSFC and FLESH, ISTP, 1994. Member, Applied Physics Admissions Committee, 1990-1994.
Member, Office of Naval Research Space Science Committee, 1992-1993. Chair, SOHO Helioseismology Working Group. Member, STSP Science Working Team. Member, National Research Council Board on Atmospheric Sciences, Committee on Solar Terrestrial Research, 1987-1990. Member, Task Force on Scientific Computing, Internet Activities Board, 1986-1989. Member NASA Helioseismology Steering Committee, 1984-1986.
Member NASA Solar Oscillations Science Working Group, 1983-1984. Instructor for Astronomy 104, Fall 1980, Winter 1983 (converted to independent study). Reporter for Division IV topic 4 of International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, 1981-1983. Guest of Maui's Precious U.S.S.R. Academy of Science, June 1979. U.S. - U.S.S.R. exchange scientist June-August, 1975. Guest Observer at Hale Observatories, 1970-1975. Author or co-author of over 100 papers in astronomical and geophysical journals; has presented over 80 contributed and invited papers at conferences and symposia and departmental seminars.
Taeil Bai was born in Korea on July 16, 1945. Bai received his B.S. degree with honors in physics from Kyung Hee University in February 1967. He served in the Korean army as a lieutenant from 1967 through 1969, and worked as a Teaching Assistant at euthanasia, Kyung Hee University from Precious Beauty, 1970 to 1972. Bai came to the United States in PAUL'S FLESH 1972 to do graduate work at the University of Maryland, where he received his Ph.D. in May 1977. His thesis research, performed under the joint supervision of Professor Frank B. Maui's Beauty Essay! McDonald and Dr. Reuven Ramaty, was on high-energy phenomena of solar flares. From 1977 to 1978, Dr. Bai worked at Goddard Space Flight Center, primarily with Dr. Ramaty.
In March 1978, he went to âRichard A Bilingual, the University of California at San Diego as a Post-Graduate Research Physicist, and in September 1980, he became an Maui's Beauty Essay, Assistant Research Physicist. At UCSD, he worked mainly with Dr. Hugh S. Hudson on high-energy solar phenomena (hard X-ray emission, gamma-ray emission, and particle acceleration), and also carried out research on poor houses X-ray binaries. Beauty! Dr. Bai received the first Donald E. Billings Award of the University of Colorado in 1978. In September 1982, Dr.
Bai joined the Center for supermarket shares, Space Science and Astrophysics at Stanford University, where he is currently a Senior Research Scientist. Analyzing MDI data, he has been studying plasma flows in active regions. Dr. Bai is a member of the American Astronomical Society and the American Geophysical Union. Ph.D. in Astronomy, University of Maui's Beauty California, Los Angeles. 1997.
M.S. in Physics, California State University, Northridge. 1991. B.S. in Physics, University of jordan ross belfort California, Los Angeles. 1988. Research Associate, May 1997 to Present, Solar Oscillations Investigation, Stanford University, California. Research Associate, July 1993 to August 1996, National Solar Observatory, Tucson, Arizona. Research Assistant, June 1992 to June 1993, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California. Teaching Associate, September 1991 to June 1992, Department of Essay Physics and euthanasia islam, Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California. Part-time Instructor, September 1991 to June 1993, Department of Maui's Beauty Essay Earth and Space Science, Santa Monica College, Santa Monica, California.
Part-time Instructor, February 1991 to December 1991, Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, Northridge, California. Research Associate, December 1988 to August 1991, Department of Occupational Medicine, University of examples heuristic California, Los Angeles, California. SOI Graduate Student Fellowship July 1993 to August 1996. Beck, J.G., Duvall, T.D., Jr., Scherrer, P.H. Long-lived Giant Cells Detected at the Solar Surface. Maui's Precious! Nature (accepted), 1998. Beck, J.G.
Large Scale Solar Velocities on THORN FLESH Time Scales up to Maui's, Thirty Days. About ÂRichard Rodriguez: Childhoodâ! Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, 1997. Beck, J.G., Hill, F., Ulrich, R.K. A Study of the Background Solar Velocity Spectrum Using GONG Data.
Proceedings from the fourth SOHO Workshop on Helioseismology ESA SP-376, 401-406, 1995. Beck, J.G., Ulrich, R.K., Hill, F. A Study of the Magnetic-Darkening Velocity Using GONG Modulation Images. Proceedings from GONG `94: Helio- and Maui's Beauty, Astero-Seismology from the Earth and Space ASP Conference Series, 76, 296-302, 1994. Beck, J.G., Chapman, G.A. A Study of the Contrast of Sunspots from Photometric Images.
Solar Physics 146, 49-60, 1993. Reports and Posters: Beck, J.G., Hill, F. Persistent Convective features on Essay âRichard Rodriguez: A Bilingual The Solar Surface. Solar Physics Division Meeting, AAS, 1997. Beck, J.G., Hill, F. Modeling Non-Linearities of the GONG Instrument. Maui's Precious! GONG 96 Workshop, 1996. Beck, J.G., Ulrich, R.K., Hill, F. Merging GONG and IRIS Solar Oscillation Observations.
IRIS Workshop, 1996. Born Nov. 25, 1948. B.S. Poor Roman! Physics, Stanford University, Apr. 1971. Ph.D. Astronomy, Cornell University, Jun. 1978. Thesis Title: Dynamics of the Solar Convective Envelope. American Astronomical Society, plus Solar Physics Division.
Astronomical Society of the Pacific. American Geophysical Union. NASA Space Science Data System, Technical Working Group, 1997--present. NASA Space Physics Data System, Coordination Working Group (Solar Physics Discipline Coordinator), 1993--1997. Research Physicist, Center for Space Science and Astrophysics, Stanford University 1982--present (on staff of Wilcox Solar Observatory, 1985--present)
N.R.C. Postdoctoral Research Fellow, NASA-Ames Research Center, 1979--81. Visiting Lecturer, Dept. of Astrogeophysics, University of Colorado, 1979. Fellow, Advanced Study Program, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 1978--79. Research Interests and Activities: Dynamics of Solar and Stellar Convection Zones; Large-Scale Solar Velocities and Rotation; Organization of Solar Activity; Computer Applications (Numerical Methods, Data Management, Communications) in Astrophysics. Data Scientist for the SOI-MDI investigation on the ESA/NASA SOHO mission.
Solar Discipline Coordinator, NASA Space Physics Data System. Organizer of SolarMail, SolarNews, and Maui's, SolarData. (senior author unless otherwise noted *) Flows and euthanasia islam, Horizontal Displacements from Ring Diagrams, (with J. Schou*) Ap. J. Beauty Essay! Letters, 1998, in press. Automated Recognition and Characterization of Solar Active Regions Based on the SOHO/MDI Images, (with J.M. Pap*, M. Turmon, S. Mukhtar, R. Ulrich, C. Frohlich and Ch.
Wehrli) 31st ESLAB Symposium, ed. B. Fleck A. Wilson, ESA-SP-415, 1998, in press. Plane-Wave Analysis of SOI Data, (with L.A. Discher de Sá, I. González Hernández, J. Supermarket! Patrón Recio, D.A. Maui's! Haber, J. Toomre, F. Poor Roman! Hill, E.J. Rhodes, Y Xue, and the SOI Ring Diagrams Team) Sounding Solar and Stellar Interiors, IAU Symposium 181, ed.
J. Provost F.-X. Maui's Essay! Schmider, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 111--118, 1997. Ph.D. in Physics 1983 University of California at Berkeley. M.A. in Physics 1976 University of Essay Rodriguez: Childhoodâ California at Berkeley. B.S. in Physics 1974 University of Wyoming. 1991 - present Senior Research Scientist, SOI Program Manager, Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA. 1989 - 1991 Research Associate, Center for Space Science and Astrophysics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
1985 - 1988 Research Associate, STAR Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA. 1984 Postdoctoral Affiliate, STAR Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA. 1983 Research Assistant, Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA. 1982 Research Stipendiary, Max-Planck-Institut für Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau, West Germany. Professional and Honor Societies. American Geophysical Union, Phi Beta Kappa. Time-Distance Helioseismology with the MDI Instrument: Initial Results, T. L. Duvall, Jr., A. G. Kosovichev, P. H. Precious Beauty! Scherrer, R. S. Bogart, R. I. Bush, C. DeForest, J. Shares! T. Hoeksema, J. Schou, J. L. Maui's Precious Beauty! R. Saba, T. D. Tarbell, A. Jordan Ross Belfort! M. Precious Essay! Title, C. J. Wolfson, and P. N. Milford, Solar Physics , 170 , pp. Supermarket! 63-73, 1997.
Structure and Rotation of the Solar Interior: Initial Results form the MDI Medium-l Program, A. G. Kosovichev, J. Schou, P. H. Scherrer, R. S. Bogart, R. I. Bush, J. T. Hoeksema, J. Aloise, L. Bacon, A. Burnette, C. DeForest, P. Maui's! M. Giles, K. Supermarket Shares! Leibrand, R. Nigam, M. Beauty Essay! Rubin, K. Scott, S. Islam! D. Williams, S. Maui's Precious! Basu, J. Christensen-Dalsgaard, W. Dappen, E. Euthanasia! J. Rhodes, Jr., T. L. Duvall, Jr., R. Howe, M.J. Thompson, D. O. Gough, T. Sekii, J. Toomre, T. D. Tarbell, A. M. Title, D. Mathur, M. Beauty! Morrison, J. L. R. Heuristic! Saba, C. J. Wolfson, I. Zayer, and P. N. Milford, Solar Physics , 170 , pp. 43-61, 1997. The Solar Oscillations Investigation - Michelson Doppler Imager, P. H. Scherrer, R. Beauty Essay! S. Bogart, R. I. Bush, J. T. Hoeksema, A. G. Kosovichev, J. Poor! Schou, W. Rosenberg, L. Springer, T. D. Tarbell, A. Title, C. J. Wolfson, I. Zayer, and the MDI Engineering Team, Solar Physics , 162 , pp. Maui's Precious Essay! 129-188, 1995. Christensen-Dalsgaard received his M.Sc. degree from examples heuristic, Aarhus University, Denmark, in 1975, and Maui's Precious Essay, his Ph.D. in astrophysics from Cambridge University in 1978. After postdoctoral periods at Institut d'Astrophysique, Liege, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, and NORDITA, Copenhagen, he returned to the Institute of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, where he has been since 1984, from 1996 as Research Professor in PAUL'S THORN in the Essays Helio- and Asteroseismology. Since 1994 he has in Maui's Precious addition been associate director of the Theoretical Astrophysics Center under the Danish National Research Foundation. In The Essays! From 1988 he has been an Affiliate Scientist at Essay, the National Center for Atmospheric Research.
Main areas of research: Christensen-Dalsgaard's research activities have been concerned with various aspects of the in the FLESH Essays structure of solar and stellar interiors, and of helioseismic and asteroseismic investigations of the properties of the Sun and other stars. This has involved extensive calculations of stellar models, testing their sensitivity to Maui's Essay, the underlying physical assumptions, and attempting to obtain precise models of the present Sun with the best possible physics. Furthermore, Christensen-Dalsgaard has taken part in the development and belfort, testing of Beauty Essay methods for helioseismic inversion and has applied these methods to infer the structure and rotation of the solar interior. Other professional activities: Christensen-Dalsgaard is a member of the Danish Natural Science Research Council, vice chairman of the Danish Space Board, and member of the Board of the Nordic Optical Telescope. Poor Roman Houses! He was a member of the NASA Science Working Group on the Measurement of Solar Oscillations from Space (1984 - 1986), and the European Space Agency SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) Phase A Study Team (1984 - 1986). He was a member of the European Southern Observatory Scientific and Technical Committee (1988 - 1992). Essay! Since 1997 he has been vice president of Commission 27 (variable stars) of the International Astronomical Union. Selected relevant publications: Differential asymptotic sound-speed inversions (with D. O. Gough M. J. Thompson), Mon.
Not. R. Shares! astr. Soc., 238, 481 - 502 (1989). Some aspects of the Precious Essay theory of poor roman houses solar oscillations Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dynamics, 62, 123 - 152 (1991). Solar oscillations and the equation of Maui's Beauty state (with W. Dappen), Astron. Astrophys. Rev., 4, 267 - 361 (1992). The effectiveness of oscillation frequencies in constraining stellar model parameters (with T. M. Brown, B. Mihalas R. L. Gilliland), Astrophys. J., 427, 1013 - 1034 (1994).
The phase function for stellar acoustic oscillations - III. The solar case (with F. Perez Hernandez), Mon. Of Representative! Not. R. astr. Soc., 269, 475 - 492 (1994). Testing a solar model: the forward problem in: Proc. VI IAC Winter School The structure of the Maui's Precious Sun, eds.
T. Poor Roman Houses! Roca Cortes F. Sanchez, Cambridge University Press, 47 - 139 (1996). The current state of solar modeling (with W. Dappen, S. V. Maui's Precious Essay! Ajukov, et al.), Science, 272, 1286 - 1292 (1996). Equation of state and helioseismic inversions (with S. Basu), Astron. Astrophys., 322, L5 - L8 (1997). Solar internal sound speed as inferred from combined BiSON and LOWL oscillation frequencies (with S. Basu, W. J. Chaplin, Y. Elsworth, G. About ÂRichard A Bilingual! R. Isaak, R. New, J. Schou, M. J. Maui's Precious Essay! Thompson S. Tomczyk), Mon.
Not. R. astr. Examples Of Representative! Soc., 291, 243 - 251 (1997). Turbulence in astrophysics. Stars (with V. M. Canuto), Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 30, 167 - 198 (1998). Education: Institution Degree Year Confirmed. Johns Hopkins University B.A.
1972. Stanford University M.A. 1975. Stanford University Ph.D. 1978. 1977-1979 Kitt Peak National Observatory. Position: Postdoctoral Fellow. 1979-present Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics. NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. NSF Antarctic Service Medal, 1982. NASA/NSO/Bartol Antarctic expeditions (1981-82, 1987, 1988, 1990, 1994-5)
NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal, 1990. Mount Duvall named by US Board on Geographic Names at 78S22,162E31, 1996. Long-lived Giant Cells Detected at the Solar Surface, J.G. Beck, T.L. Duvall Jr., P.H.
Scherrer, Nature , in press, 1998. A Subsurface Flow of Material from the Sun's Equator to its Poles, P.M. Giles, T.L. Duvall Jr., P.H. Scherrer, Nature 390, 52-54, 1997. Downflows under sunspots detected by helioseismic tomography, T.L. Maui's Beauty! Duvall Jr., S. Morrisons Supermarket! D'Silva, S.M. Jefferies, J.W. Harvey, J. Schou, Nature 379, 235-237, 1996.
Time-Distance Helioseismology, T.L. Duvall Jr., S.M. Jefferies, J.W. Harvey, M.A. Pomerantz, Nature 362, 430-432, 1993. Asymmetries of Solar Oscillation Line Profiles, T.L. Duvall Jr., S.M. Jefferies, J.W.
Harvey, Y. Maui's Precious Essay! Osaki, M.A. Pomerantz, Astrophys. J. 410, 829-836, 1993. Latitude and âRichard Childhoodâ, Depth Variation of Solar Rotation, T. L. Duvall, Jr., J. Beauty Essay! W. Harvey and M. A. Pomerantz, Nature 321, 500, 1986. A Dispersion Law for Solar Oscillations, T. L. Duvall, Jr., Nature 300, 242-243, 1982.
Douglas Gough, FRS. Condensed Curriculum Vitae. Born: 8 February 1941, Stourport, Worcestershire, England. Education: University of Cambridge, England; B.A. 1962, M.A. 1966, Ph.D. 1966. Professor of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Cambridge. Deputy Director, Institute of Astronomy, University of supermarket shares Cambridge. Honorary Professor of Astronomy, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London.
Fellow Adjoint, JILA, University of Colorado at Maui's Precious Beauty Essay, Boulder. Fellowships, associate appointments. 1965 NSF Summer Fellow, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. 1967--69 Visiting Member, Courant Institute of shares Mathematical Sciences, New York University. 1977--78 Astronome Titulaire Associe des Observatoires de France. 1978--83 Science Research Council Senior Fellow. 1984--85 Professeur Associe de l'Universite de Toulouse. 1990 Scientific Coordinator, ITP, Univ.
California at Santa Barbara. 1994 Visiting Scholar, School of Mathematics and Beauty Essay, Statistics, University of Sydney. 1996, 97 Visiting Professor, Department of Physics, Stanford University. Prizes, Lectureships, etc. Gravity Research Foundation Prize (shared with F.W.W.
Dilke, 1973); James Arthur Prize Lecturer (Harvard, 1982); William Hopkins Prize (Camb. Euthanasia Islam! Phil. Precious Beauty Essay! Soc., 1984); Sir Joseph Larmor Lecturer (Camb. Phil. Soc., 1988);
Morris Loeb Lecturer, (Harvard, 1993); George Ellery Hale Prize (AAS, 1994); Bishop Lecturer (Columbia Univ., 1996); Halley Lecturer (Univ. PAUL'S THORN In The FLESH! Oxford, 1996) Royal Astronomical Society: Junior Member (1963--66), Fellow (1966--) American Astronomical Society: Member (1964--73), Member of Solar Physics Division (1990--) International Astronomical Union: Member (1970--) Astronomical Society of Precious Beauty Essay India: Member (1993--) Royal Society: Fellow (1997--)
Institute of Physics: Fellow (1997--) Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and ross belfort, Letters: Foreign Member (1998--) Solar Physics (1983--); Fundamentals of Cosmic Physics (1985--93); Inverse Problems (1997--);
Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Precious Beauty Physics (1997--) Space Science Committees: ESA Consultant (DISCO: 1981--83, SOHO: 1983--85, PRISMA: 1991--93, STARS: 1993--96); NASA Mission Consultant (1983--86); SERC Space Science Programme Board (1986--89); SERC Astronomy and Planetary Science Grants Committee (1987--90) International conferences organized. 1975 IBM Conference on Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics, Cambridge. 1981 IAU Colloquium 66 on Solar and jordan ross, Stellar Oscillations (with A.B. Severny), Crimea.
1985 NATO ASW on Seismology of the Sun and the distant Stars, Cambridge. 1990 Challenges to Theories of the Structure of moderate-mass Stars (with J. Toomre), Santa Barbara. 1993 Sixth IRIS Workshop, Cambridge. 1997 Local Helioseismology, Cambridge. DATE AND PLACE OF BIRTH: 1951 August 29, Bangor, Maine, USA. MARITAL STATUS: Married 1973 June 2; wife Janet, children Adam (18) and Kimberly (13). Ph.D., Astrophysics, University of Colorado, 1979. M.S., Physics, University of Colorado, 1975. B.S., Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 1973. Awards and Honors: NASA/MSFC Outstanding Performance Awards, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1994, 1995, 1996.
NASA Certificates of Appreciation, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995. NASA Group Achievement Award, 1992, 1996, 1997. NSF Fellowships, Honorable Mention, 1973. Massachusetts Senatorial Honor Scholarships, 1969-1973. Phi Beta Kappa Membership, 1973. University of Massachusetts Freshman Physics Award, 1970. American Astronomical Society (1976-Present) Solar Physics Division, AAS (1987-Present) SPD Committee (1992-1994) Media Liaison (1990-1996)
Nominating Committee Chair (1992) Division for Planetary Sciences, AAS (1981-present) American Geophysical Union (1997-Present) International Astronomical Union (1984-Present) Sigma Xi (1984-Present) Group Leader: Solar Physics Group, Physics and Beauty, Astronomy Division, Space Sciences Laboratory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Marshall Space Flight Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama 35812. Direct research of, and provide support for, members of the Solar Physics Group (15 scientists and engineers.) History, Education, and Professional Experience. Born Rochester, Minnesota, September 14, 1956. Calvin College, Grand Rapids, MI, B.A. with Honors in Physics and Mathematics, 1978.
Stanford University, Dept. of Applied Physics, M.S., 1980; Ph.D., 1984. Research Associate, Center for Essay âRichard, Space Science and Maui's Beauty Essay, Astrophysics, Stanford University, 1984-1989. Assistant a l'Observatoire, Observatoire de Nice, France, Spring, 1985. Senior Research Scientist, W.W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory /Center for Space Science and Astrophysics, Stanford University, 1989-present. American Astronomical Society, Solar Physics Division. American Geophysical Union, Space Physics and Aeronomy Division. International Astronomical Union, Commission 10. Astronomical Society of the Pacific.
American Scientific Affiliation. Selected Activities and examples heuristic, Awards. Editor's Citation for Excellence in Refereeing, JGR-Space Physics, 1997. Associate Editor, JGR-Space Physics, 1997-1999. Chairman, NSO's SOLIS Advisory Group, 1997-1999.
Scientific Director, Stanford SOLAR Center, 1996 - present. Chairman, Scientific and Local Organizing Committees, 4th SOHO Workshop: Helioseismology, (a.k.a. GONG '95); Hero of the GONG Citation, 1995. Project Astro Visiting Astronomer, J.L. Stanford Middle School 1994-6; Hoover Elementary, 1997-8. Co-chair, IACG Workshop Splinter Group on Coronal and Solar Wind Structure and Evolution, 1994.
Group Appreciation Award for Completion of MDI on SOHO from GSFC ISTP, 1994. Chairman, Solar Physics Working Group, ONR Space Sciences Workshop, 1993. Convenor/Co-convenor of Sessions at Precious Essay, Solar Wind 9, 1998; COSPAR, 1998; IAGA, 1997; 1st SOHO Workshop, 1992; Solar Wind 7, 1991. Member, Editor Search Committee for JGR-Space Physics, 1991 - 1992. Chairman, Organizing Committee, 4th IRIS Workshop SOI Team Meeting, 1991. Member IRIS, since 1985. Member, NASA's Solar Physics MOWG, 1990-1992. NASA Peer Review Panels: Solar Observations SRT 1991, 1992, 1995 (chair); SMEX, 1993; SEC GIP, 1998 (chair). Chairman, GONG Low-Frequency Team since 1990; member GONG since 1987. Member, Solar Physics Planning Group at the Future Missions Strategy-Implementation Study, 1990. Member, COSPAR ISC Sub-commissions D.1 and poor roman, E.2; Vice-chair E.2, 1998-2002.
Publications and Papers Presented. Author or co-author of more than 100 papers published in astronomical and geophysical journals and of more than 200 contributed and invited lectures at Maui's Precious, conferences, symposia, and seminars. Primary interests include the large-scale solar and coronal magnetic fields, solar velocity fields and rotation, helioseismology, the physics of the Sun and the interplanetary medium, and solar-terrestrial relations. SOHO/SOI-MDI Stanford Instrument Scientist, 1988-present; Operation and maintenance of the Wilcox Solar Observatory at PAUL'S THORN FLESH Essays, Stanford, 1978-present; programming of laboratory mini computers and PCs; scientific analysis and Essay, UNIX system programming; design and about âRichard A Bilingual, construction of equipment to Beauty, measure solar magnetic and Essay âRichard, velocity fields. 1990 Ph.D. in Astronomy, Department of Astronomy, U.C.L.A. Seismic Analysis of the Sun from Intermediate and Beauty, High Degree p-Modes. Euthanasia Islam! Advisor: R.K. Ulrich. 1982 Engineering, Applied Physics (Ingenieur Civil Physicien), Universite Libre de Bruxelles (U.L.B.), Ecole Polytechnique, Faculte des Sciences Appliquees, Brussels, Belgium.
Master thesis at the Plasma Physics Laboratory (U.L.B.): Study of a magnetic configuration realizing a theta-pinch. 1977 High school degree: Humanites Superieures, section Latin-Mathematiques Athenee R. Catteau, Brussels, Belgium. 1990 - Astrophysicist, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. 1994 - Member, GONG Data Management and Analysis Center's Users' Committee. 1983 - 85 Research Fellow, European Space Agency, Space Science Department, Solar Heliospheric Division, ESTEC, The Netherlands. Professional Society Memberships:
American Astronomical Society, European Physical Society. 1. J., Schou, H.M., Antia, S., Basu, R.S., Bogart, R.I., Bush, S.M., Chitre, J., Christensen- Dalsgaard, M.P., Di Mauro, W.A., Dziembowski, A., Eff-Darwich, D.O., Gough, D.A., Haber, J.T., Hoeksema, R., Howe, S.G., Korzennik, A.G., Kosovichev, R.M., Larsen, F.P., Pijpers, P.H., Scherrer, T., Sekii, T.D., Tarbell, A.M., Title, M.J., Thompson, and J., Toomre, 1998, Helioseismic studies with SOI-MDI of differential rotation in Maui's Precious Beauty Essay the solar envelope, 1998, ApJ, in press. 2. S. Islam! Korzennik, M.J. Essay! Thompson, J. Morrisons Supermarket! Toomre the GONG Internal Rotation Team, Internal Rotation and Dynamics of the Sun from GONG Data, 1997, proceeding of the IAU Symposium 181, 211. 3. F. Hill, P.B. Maui's Precious Beauty! Stark, R.T. Stebbins, E.R. Anderson, H.M. Antia, T.M.
Brown, T.L. Euthanasia! Duvall, Jr., D.A. Haber, J.W. Harvey, D.H. Hathaway, R. Howe, R.P. Maui's Essay! Hubbard, H.P. Jones, J.R. Kennedy, S.G. Korzennik, A.G. Kosovichev, J.W. Leibacher, K.G. Libbrecht, J.A. Poor Roman Houses! Pintar, E.J. Rhodes, Jr., J. Schou, M.J.
Thompson, S. Beauty! Tomczyk, C.G. Morrisons! Toner, R. Toussaint, W.E. Williams, 1996, Science , 272, 1292: The Solar Acoustic Spectrum and Eigenmode Parameters. 4. M.J. Thompson, J Toomre, E.R. Anderson, H.M. Antia, G. Berthomieu, D. Burtonclay, S.M. Chitre, J. Christensen-Dalsgaard, T. Corbard, M. DeRosa, C.R. Genovese, D.O.
Gough, D.A. Haber, J.W. Maui's! Harvey, F. Hill, R. Howe, S.G. Korzennik, A.G. Kosovichev, J.W. Leibacher, F.P. Pijpers, J. Provost, E.J. Rhodes, Jr., J. Heuristic! Schou, T. Sekii, P.B. Stark, P.R. Wilson, 1996, Science , 272, 1300: Differential Rotation and Dynamics of the Solar Interior.
5. Maui's Precious! Korzennik, S.G., Noyes, R.W., Brown, T.M, Nisenson, P., Horner, S., Nightly Variations of Non-Radial Oscillations in the Delta Scuti Star AE UMa, 1995 Ap. J. Letters, in press. 6. Korzennik, S.G., Rhodes, E.J., Jr., and Johnson, N.M., Rose, P., Cacinni, A., On the Deter- mination of the about Rodriguez: Solar Rotation, 1995, in GONG 1994: Helio- and Astero-Seismology from Earth and Essay, Space, in press. 7. Korzennik, S. G., Noyes, R. W., Ziskin, V., 1995, in houses GONG 1994: Helio- and Beauty Essay, Astero- Seismology from heuristic, Earth and Maui's, Space, Local Helioseismology: Analysis of Localized Time-Distance Diagrams from Quiet and Active Regions, eds.: Ulrich, Rhodes Däppen, ASP Conf Series, Vol. Examples Heuristic! 76, 268. 8. Rhodes, E.J., Jr., Cacciani, A., Korzennik, S.G., Ulrich R.K., 1993, Astrophys. J., 406, 714: Confirmation of Solar Cycle Dependent Intermediate Degree p-mode Frequency Shifts. 9. Maui's Beauty! Goode, P.R., W. A. Dziembowski, S.G.
Korzennik, and E.J. Rhodes, Jr., What We Know About the Sun's Internal Rotation from Solar Oscillations, Ap.J., 367, 649-657, 1991. 10. Korzennik, S.G., R.K. Jordan! Ulrich, Seismic Analysis of the Solar Interior I.: Can Opacity Changes Improve the Theoretical Frequencies? Ap.J., 339, 1144-1155, 1989. Alexander G. Maui's Beauty Essay! Kosovichev.
Degrees: D. Euthanasia! Sc., Physics and Mathematics, (Astrophysics), 1990, Leningrad State University. Ph. D., Physics and Mathematics, 1980, Moscow State University. M.S., Physics, 1975, Novosibirsk State University. 1994 -- present: Senior Research Scientist, W.W. Hansen Experimental Physics Lab, Stanford Univ. 1990-1994: Senior Research Associate, Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge. 1979-1990: member of the scientific staff of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory:
Scientific Organizing Committee of the SOHO-IV/GONG'98 Workshop (Boston, 1998) Scientific Organizing Committee of the GONG'94 Conference (Los Angeles, 1994) Scientific Organizing Committee of the Beauty SOHO-IV Workshop Helioseismology (Pacific Grove, 1995) Associate Investigator, European Space Agency (ESA) (PRISMA: 1991-93; STARS: 1993-94) Associate Investigator on SOI (Solar Oscillations Investigation) on examples of representative heuristic ESA-NASA mission SOHO. Member of the International Global Oscillations Network Group (GONG) Coordinator of Structure Inversions Research Teams for GONG and SOI.
Referee for Astrophys. Journal, Astrophys. J. Lett., Monthly Not. Roy. Astron. Precious Beauty! Soc., Solar Physics, and Journal of Plasma Physics. Member of the American Astronomical Society. Member of the International Astronomical Union.
Recent invited talks and lectures: Time-Distance Helioseismology, COSPAR General Assembly, Nagoya, 1998. Flows in the Convection Zone: SOHO SOI/MDI Results, Chapman Conference on Magnetic Helicity in houses Space and Beauty, Laboratory Plasmas, Boulder, 1998. Seismic Investigations of the Sun's Interior Structure, AGU Meeting, Boston, 1998. Oscillations in Essay âRichard A Bilingual Childhoodâ Active Regions - Diagnostics and Seismology, Third ASP - Euroconference: 'Magnetic Fields and Oscillations', at Potsdam, Germany, 1998. X-RAY FLARE SPARKS QUAKE INSIDE THE SUN, A. G. Kosovichev and V.V. Zharkova, Nature , v. 393, p.317 (1998) RANDOM DAMPING AND FREQUENCY REDUCTION OF THE SOLAR F MODE. T. L. Duvall Jr., A. G. Kosovichev, and K. Murawski, Astrophys. J. Lett. (1998) in Essay press.
MEASURING SUN'S EIGENFREQUENCIES FROM VELOCITY AND INTENSITY HELIOSEISMIC SPECTRA. R. Nigam and A. G. Kosovichev, Astrophys. J. Lett. (1998) in press. SOLAR CYCLE ONSET SEEN IN SOHO/MDI SEISMIC DATA. Essay About ÂRichard! W. A. Dziembowski, P. R. Goode, M. P. DiMauro, A. G. Kosovichev, and J. Schou, Astrophys. J. (1998) in press.
ASYMMETRY AND FREQUENCIES OF LOW-DEGREE P-MODES AND THE STRUCTURE OF THE SUN'S CORE. T.Toutain, T. Appourchaux, C. Frohlich, A. G. Maui's Precious Beauty! Kosovichev, R. Nigam, and Essay âRichard Rodriguez:, P. H. Scherrer, Astrophys. J. Lett., in press (1998). LATITUDINAL VARIATION OF SOLAR SUBSURFACE ROTATION INFERRED FROM P-MODE FREQUENCY SPLITTINGS MEASURED WITH SOI-MDI AND GONG. A. Essay! C. Birch and A. Euthanasia Islam! G. Precious Beauty! Kosovichev, Astrophys. Jordan Belfort! J. Lett., v.503, L187 (1998)
THE ADIABATIC EXPONENT IN THE SOLAR CORE. J. R. Elliott and Precious Beauty Essay, A. G. Jordan! Kosovichev Astrophys. J. Lett., v.500, L199 (1998) ASYMMETRY IN VELOCITY AND INTENSITY HELIOSEISMIC SPECTRA FROM SOHO/MDI. R. Nigam, A. G. Precious Beauty! Kosovichev, P. H. Scherrer, and J. Schou, Astrophys. J. Lett., v.495, L115 (1998) Born: 1 Nov. 1957: Columbus, Ohio. Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI, 96822.
Ph.D. (Physics) Princeton - January 1981. M.S. Examples Of Representative! (Physics) Princeton - June 1979. B.A. (Physics and Maui's Essay, Mathematics) Kalamazoo College - June 1977. Awards and Honors: Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship (1986)
Shenstone Prize (1980, from Princeton for outstanding work in experimental physics) Hornbeck Prize (1977, from Kalamazoo for outstanding Senior Thesis) Professor, Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii (Aug 1998 - ) Astronomer, NOAO/National Solar Observatory, (Jan. 1993 - July 1998) Professor, Physics and Astronomy, Mich. State Univ. (Sept. 1992 - ) Summer Faculty Research Fellow, AFGL/National Solar Observatory (Fall 1990)
Visiting Research Assoc., Inst. Theor. Physics, Santa Barbara (Spring 1990) Associate Professor, Physics and Astronomy, Mich. State Univ. (Sept. 1986 - 92) Assistant Professor, Physics, Princeton University (Sept. 1982 - Aug. 1986)
Instructor, Physics, Princeton University (Sept. 1981 - Sept. 1982) Lecturer, Physics, Princeton University (Jan. 1981 - Sept. Morrisons Supermarket! 1981) Research and Teaching Assistant, Physics, Princeton University (Sept. 1977 - Jan. 1981) Professional Society Memberships: International Astronomical Union.
American Astronomical Society. American Physical Society. 1983 - Astronomer, National Solar Observatory. 1988 - 1993 Director, National Solar Observatory. 1976 - 1982 Research Scientist, Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory. 1973 - 1975 Visiting Scientist, Laboratoire de Physique Stellaire et Planètaire. 1971 - 1972 Post-Doctoral Fellow, Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics. 1971 Ph.D., Astronomy, Harvard University. Other Professional Experience:
1996 Parker Lecture, American Geophysical Union. 1995 James Arthur Lecture, Harvard University. 1995 - Chair, Member, Hale Prize Nominating Committee, AAS/SPD. 1995 - Chair, Member, Space Sciences Visiting Committee, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. 1993 - 1998 Member, Space Science Advisory Committee, Office of Space Sciences, NASA. 1990 - 1996 Member, Editorial Board, Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 1988 - 1991 Member, NASA Advisory Council, Space Physics Sub-committee. 1987 - Co-Investigator, Michelson Doppler Imager on the Solar and Precious Essay, Heliospheric Observatory. 1986 - 1990 Member, Space Science (Studies) Board, National Academy of Sciences. 1984 - Project Director/Scientist, Global Oscillation Network Group ( GONG ) 1984 - 1986 Chair, Management and Ops. Working Group, NASA Solar Heliospheric Physics Office.
1983 - Co-Investigator, Solar Optical Universal Polarimater, on Spacelab II. 1982 - Member, Editorial Board, Solar Physics. 1980 - Co-Investigator, Coordinated Filtergraph Spectrograph, on the Solar Optical Telescope. 1976 - Co-Investigator, Soft X-Ray Polychromator, on the Solar Maximum Mission. 1974 - Co-Investigator, Multi-Channel Ultra-Violet Spectrometer, on the Orbiting Solar Obs.
Recent Relevant Publications: Gough, D., Leibacher, J., Scherrer, P., and Toomre, J. 1996, Science , 272, 1281-1283: Perspectives in Helioseismology Harvey, J.W., and co-authors including Leibacher, 1996, Science , 272, 1284-1286: The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) Project Christensen-Dalsgaard, J., and co-authors including Leibacher, 1996, Science , 272, 1286-1292: The Current State of Solar Modeling Hill, F., and co-authors including Leibacher, 1996, Science , 272, 1292-195: The Solar Acoustic Spectrum and Eigenmode Parameters Gough, D.O., and co-authors including Leibacher, 1996, Science , 272, 1296-1300: The Seismic Structure of the Essay âRichard Rodriguez: A Bilingual Childhoodâ Sun Thompson, M.J., and co-authors including Leibacher, 1996, Science , 272, 1300-1305: Differential Rotation and Essay, Dynamics of the Solar Interior Hathaway, D., and co-authors including Leibacher, 1996, Science , 272, 1306-1309: GONG Observations of Surface Flows Leibacher, J.W. 1997, in Sounding Solar and Stellar Interiors, IAU Symp.
181, eds. F.-X. Schmider and J. ÂRichard A Bilingual Childhoodâ! Provost, 1-11: Helioseismology Anderson, E. and Beauty, co-authors including Leibacher, J. W., 1997, in Sounding Solar and Stellar Interiors, IAU Symp. 181, eds. F.-X. Schmider and J. Provost, 151: The Seismic Structure of the Sun from GONG Harvey, J. W., Hill, F., Komm, R., Leibacher, J. W., Pohl, B., and the GONG 1998, in New Eyes to See Inside the Sun and Essays, Stars, IAU Symp. 185, ed.
F.-L. Maui's Precious Essay! Deubner, in examples of representative heuristic press: GONG Spectra in Three Observables: What is a p-mode frequency? 1957 Haverford College, B.A., Physics. 1963 California Institute of Technology, Ph.D., Physics. 1962 - Physicist, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. 1973 - Professor of Astronomy, Harvard University. 1986 - Member, Science Advisory Committee, Global Oscillations Network Group (GONG) 1989 Member, Editorial Board, Solar Physics. Past Positions: (Partial List) 1968-69 Member, Solar Physics Working Group, Astronomy Missions Board, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
1970-72 Member, Solar Physics Panel of the Astronomy Survey Committee, National Academy of Essay Sciences (NAS) 1973-76 Member, Physical Sciences Committee of NASA. 1973-80 Associate Director, Solar and Stellar Physics Division Center for Astrophysics. 1975-76 Chairman, Solar Physics Division, AAS. 1975-78 Member, Board of morrisons supermarket Trustees, UCAR. 1982-85 President, Commission 12 (Radiation and Structure of the Solar Atmosphere), International Astronomical Union.
1986-89 Chairman, AURA Board of Trustees. 1988-92 Member, NAS Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee (Bahcall Committee) and Vice-chair, Solar Panel. Professional Society Memberships: American Astronomical Society, International Astronomical Union, International Academy of Precious Astronautics, American Association for the Advancement of Science (elected Fellow, 1988) 1995 Nightly Variations of Nonradial Oscillations in in the FLESH Essays the Delta Scuti Star AE Ursae Majoris. S.G. Maui's Beauty! Korzennik, R.W. Noyes, T. Brown, P. Nisenson, and S. Examples Of Representative Heuristic! Horner, Ap.J.
Letters, 443, L25-28. 1995 Vorticity and Maui's Precious Essay, Divergence in the Solar Photosphere. Yi Wang, R.W. Noyes, T.D. Euthanasia! Tarbell, and A.M. Title, Ap.J., 447, p. 419-427. 1997 A Radial Velocity Search for p-mode Pulsations in eta Bootis, T. Brown, T. Kennelly, S. Maui's Beauty! Korzennik, P. Nisenson, R. Noyes, S. Horner, Ap. J., 475, 322. 1997 Radii and Distances of Cepheids: I. Method and Measurement Errors, M. Krockenberger, D. Sasselov, R. Noyes, Ap. J., 479, 875.
1997 The AFOE Program of Extra-Solar Planet Research, R. Noyes, S. Jha, S. Korzennik, M. Krockenberger, P. Nisenson, T. Euthanasia! Brown, E. Kennelly, S. Horner, Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Series, 119, 119. 1997 A Planet Orbiting the Star Rho Coronae Borealis, R. Noyes, S. Jha, S. Korzennik, M. Krock- enberger, P. Maui's Precious Beauty! Nisenson, T. Brown, T. Kennelly, S. Horner, Ap. J., 483, L111. 1997 Exoplanet Research with the AFOE, S. Korzennik, P. Nisenson, R. Noyes, S. Jha, M Krock- enberger, T. Brown, E. Kennelly, S. Horner, Astron. Soc.
Pac. Conf. Heuristic! Series, In Press. N.S.F. Beauty Essay! Post-Doctoral Fellow, Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, 1977-1978. Ph.D., Sept. 1977, Department of Astronomy, University of roman houses California at Los Angeles. M.A., June 1971, Department of Astronomy, University of Maui's Precious Beauty California at Los Angeles.
Graduate Study, Earth and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1968-1969. B.S., June 1968, Magna Cum Laude, Department of Physics, University of California at Los Angeles. NASA Certificate of Essay Rodriguez: Childhoodâ Recognition for the Creative Development of a Technical Innovation, April 1983. Mortar Board Honor Society Teaching Excellence Award, USC, March 1983. Honor Society Memberships: Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi, (President of USC Chapter, 1988-present), Sigma Pi Sigma. Professional Society Memberships: International Astronomical Union, American Astronomical Society, American Geophysical Union. Spacecraft Instrument Team Membership: Co-Investigator on Michelson Doppler Imager Experiment for SOHO Mission, March 1988 to Maui's Precious, present. Professor of Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Sept.
1993 to date; previously Assistant and Associate Professor, Sept. 1979 to Aug. 1993. Astronomer, Space Physics Research Element, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, October 1983 to present. Recent Relevant Papers: Rhodes, E.J., Jr.: 1996, Helioseismology: A Probe of the Solar Interior, Atmosphere, and Activity Cycle, refereed invited review, in Solar Wind Eight , AIP Conference Proceedings 382, AIP Press, 3-8. Kosovichev, A. G., and co-authors including Rhodes: 1997, Structure and Rotation of Solar Interior: Initial Results from the PAUL'S FLESH MDI Medium-l Program, Solar Phys., 170, 43-61. Rhodes, E.J., Jr., et al .: 1997, Measurements of Frequencies of Solar Oscillations from the MDI Medium-l Program, Solar Physics , 175, 287-310. Rhodes, E. Maui's Precious Essay! J., Jr., et al : 1997, Measurements of Frequencies of islam Solar Oscillations from the MDI Medium-l Program, in The First Results from Beauty, SOHO , B. Fleck and of representative, Z. Svestka, eds., 287-310.
Kosovichev, A. G., and co-authors including Rhodes: 1998, Spherical and Aspherical Structure of the Sun: First Year of Maui's Precious Beauty SOHO/MDI Observations, in New Eyes to See Inside the roman Sun and Maui's Precious Beauty, Stars, IAU Symposium 185 , F.-L. Deubner, J. Christensen-Dalsgaard, and jordan ross, D. Kurtz, eds., 157-164. Rhodes, E. J., Jr., et al. : 1998, Initial SOI/MDI High-Degree Frequencies and Frequency Splittings, to appear in Precious Essay Proceedings of Essay Rodriguez: A Bilingual SOHO 6/ GONG 98 Workshop , A. Wilson, ed., (ESA Publications: Noordwijk, The Netherlands), in Maui's Precious Beauty press. Rhodes, E. J. Jr., et al. : 1998, The Comparison of Simultaneous SOI/MDI and Mt. Wilson 60-Foot Tower Power Spectra and P-Mode Parameters, to âRichard A Bilingual Childhoodâ, appear in Proceedings of SOHO 6/ GONG 98 Workshop , A. Precious Essay! Wilson, ed., (ESA Publications: Noordwijk, The Netherlands), in press. Rosenthal, C. S., and co-authors including Rhodes: 1998, Tests of Convective Frequency Effects with SOI/MDI High-Degree Data, to appear in Proceedings of SOHO 6/ GONG 98 Workshop, in press. Roca Cortes, T., and E. J. Rhodes, Jr.: 1998, Report from Working Group Session 1: Resonant Mode characterization, to appear in Proceedings of SOHO 6/ GONG 98 Workshop, in press. BSc. (Equivalent) in PAUL'S THORN in the FLESH Essays Mathematics and Physics, University of Aarhus, June 1987. Masters degree (Equivalent) in Astronomy, University of Aarhus, November 1989. PhD. in Astronomy, University of Maui's Precious Beauty Essay Aarhus, May 1993. Visitor Caltech January 1990 - February 1990.
Workshop Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, March 1990 - June 1990. Graduate Research Assistantship, High Altitude Observatory July 1990 - December 1992. Postdoctoral Scholar, Center for Space Science and jordan ross, Astrophysics, Stanford University, January 1993 - December 1993. Research Associate, Center for Space Science and Astrophysics, Stanford University, January 1994 - present. American Astronomical Society. American Geophysical Union. GONG Data Management and Analysis Center Users Committee, 1995-present. Carolus Josephus Schrijver. Personal: Born August 19, 1958 in Baarn, The Netherlands; Dutch nationality, Permanent resident of the U.S.A.
Current Position: since January 1995, Astrophysicist, Lockheed-Martin Advanced Technology Center, Palo Alto, Ca. 1991- 1994 Fellow Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, at the Astronomical Institute of the Univ. of Utrecht, The Netherlands. 1989- 1991 Research Fellow, European Space Agency, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands. 1986-1988 Research Associate, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado. 1987 Visiting Scientist, Sac. Maui's Precious Beauty! Peak Observatory, New Mexico. 1987 Visiting Scientist, Lockheed Palo Alto Res. Lab., California. 1982-1986 Ph.D. student, University of jordan Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Sep. 1986 Ph.D.
Astrophysics (summa cum laude), University of Utrecht. Thesis title Stellar Magnetic Activity: Complementing Conclusions based on Solar and Stellar Observations; Supervisor: Prof. C. Zwaan. Sep. Maui's Precious Beauty Essay! 1982 Final university examination (summa cum laude), University of Utrecht. Sep. 1978 Intermediate university examination (summa cum laude), University of Utrecht. Solar/stellar physics: solar atmospheric (magnetic) activity, stellar (magnetic) activity, patterns in and dynamics of photospheric magnetic fields, helio-asteroseismology, coronal X--ray spectroscopy, stellar evolution and PAUL'S in the Essays, rotation, acoustic heating.
Publications (published or in Precious press): 47 research articles in refereed journals; 1 conference proceedings (editor); monograph on stellar activity, in preparation with C. Zwaan; 14 invited reviews in in the FLESH Essays conference proceedings; 29 published contributed papers to conference proceedings; 4 popular astronomy articles. Memberships/Co-Investigator on major proposals. Co--Investigator on NASA Small Explorer Mission TRACE. Member of the Task Group on Ground-based Solar Research of the National Academy of Maui's Beauty Essay Sciences. Member of the Editorial Board of PAUL'S Solar Physics 1994--.
Member of the Advisory Board of Astronomische Nachrichten 1996--. Co--organizer of Maui's Precious Essay a 1993 workshop entitled 'Solar Surface Magnetism' and co--editor of the PAUL'S THORN in the proceedings. Member of the Maui's Precious Beauty Scientific Organizing Committee of the morrisons supermarket shares 9th Workshop on Cool Stars, Stellar Systems, and the Sun, held in Precious Essay Florence 1995. Member of the Essay A Bilingual Childhoodâ Activity Working Team for Maui's Beauty, ESA's PRISMA Phase A Study and member of the study team for the subsequent STARS Assessment Study. Member of Commission 10 (Solar Activity) of the International Astronomical Union, and of its Working Group on Solar Irradiance Variations.
Theodore D. Tarbell. Senior Staff Scientist, Lockheed Martin Solar Astrophysics Lab. Ph.D., Physics, 1976, California Institute of Technology. A. B. Physics, 1971, Harvard University. 1976-present Lockheed Missiles Space Company, Inc. Solar Astrophysics Laboratory. Performs research in solar physics and image processing, specializing in high resolution observations of magnetic and heuristic, velocity fields in the solar atmosphere.
Performs theoretical analysis, testing calibration of optical imaging and tracking systems. Principal Investigator for the Max '91 Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) Investigation. Co-Investigator on the Orbiting Solar Laboratory (OSL) Coordinated Filtergraph and Spectrograph, the Spacelab 2 Flight of Maui's Precious SOUP (July, 1985), the jordan belfort Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) for SoHO, and the TRACE Small Explorer. 1971-76 Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Maui's Precious Technology. Graduate study in physics, specializing in stellar structure and evolution. Principal Investigator, Lockheed Independent Research Projects in Adaptive Optics, Image Analysis and Solar Physics, 1980-95. Principal Investigator, NASA Studies of the Photosphere and Chromosphere at High Resolution, 1991-98. Member, NSF Global Oscillations Network Group, 1987- Member, NASA Solar Physics Management Operations Working Group, 1986-92. Member, Committee on poor Solar and Space Physics of the Space Studies Board, 1987-90.
Member, National Solar Observatory Users Committee, 1988-90. Member, Advisory Committee of AAS Solar Physics Division, 1992-94. Some Recent Publications. The Solar Oscillations Investigation - Michelson Doppler Imager (with P. Scherrer et al. ), Solar Physics, Vol. 162, 1995, p. Maui's Precious Beauty! 129. Michelson Doppler Imager Performance Characteristics (with I. Zayer et al. ), in GONG `94: Helio- and Asteroseismology From the Earth and Space, ed. R. Ulrich, 1994. The Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) (with A. Title et al .), in SoHO III Workshop Proceedings, ed.
M. Dreyer, 1994. The Magnetic and Velocity Geometry of Simple Sunspots (with A. Title et al. ), Astrophys. J., Vol. 403, 1993, p. 780. Patterns in the Photospheric Magnetic Field and Percolation Theory (with C. Ross Belfort! Schrijver et al. ), Astron. Astrophys., Vol. 253, 1992, p. L1. Michael J. Thompson. Thompson received his B.A. degree in mathematics from the University of Cambridge, UK, in 1981, and his Ph.D. in astrophysics (also from Maui's Beauty Essay, Cambridge) in 1988.
Between 1987 and 1990 he held postdoctoral positions at Aarhus University, Denmark, at of representative, the High Altitude Observatory, Boulder CO, and at the Institute for Theoretical Physics, Santa Barbara CA. Since 1990 he has been in the Astronomy Unit, Queen Mary Westfield College, University of London, UK, as a Lecturer and more recently as Reader in Mathematics and Astronomy. Main areas of research. Thompson's main research interests are in the structure and dynamics of the interior of the Sun and other stars, and in helio- and asteroseismology. Essay! His early work was on the effect of rotation and magnetic fields on stellar oscillations, and this continues to be a major interest, together with using oscillation data to constrain the rotation and magnetic fields of ross stellar interiors. Maui's Beauty Essay! Thompson has worked extensively on the development, application and interpretation of inverse techniques in helioseismology. Major applications have been to examples of representative, studying the hydrostatic structure of the Sun and its internal rotation. Other professional activities.
Thompson is an Associate Investigator on SOI-MDI on the SOHO satellite, and co-leader with J. Toomre of the Internal Rotation team in that project. He has served on the Data Users Committee of the Global Oscillations Network Group (GONG), of which he is a member. He is on the editorial board of Precious Essay Astronomical Astrophysical Transactions; a member of the International Astronomical Union and of the European Astronomical Society; and jordan ross, a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society. He is currently, with D. Maui's Precious! Gough, writing a book on PAUL'S THORN FLESH helioseismology for Cambridge University Press. The effect of rotation and a buried magnetic field on stellar oscillations (with D. O. Gough), Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 242, 25 - 55 (1990).
A comparison of methods for inverting helioseismic data (with J. Christensen-Dalsgaard J. Maui's Essay! Schou), Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 242, 353 - 369 (1990). The effect of an inclined magnetic field on solar oscillation frequencies (with P. R. Goode), Astrophys. J. 395, 307 - 315 (1992).
Faster formulations of the optimally localized averages method for helioseismic inversion (with F. P. Pijpers), Astron. Morrisons Supermarket Shares! Astrophys. Precious Beauty Essay! 262, L33 - L36 (1992). On comparing helioseismic two-dimensional inversion methods (with J. Schou J. Christensen-Dalsgaard), Astrophys. J., 433, 389 - 416 (1994). Helioseismic estimation of convective overshoot in the Sun (with M. J. P. F. G. Monteiro J. THORN In The! Christensen-Dalsgaard), Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 276, 283 - 292 (1995).
Linear inversions for the Sun's internal rotation Inverse Problems, 11, 709 - 730 (1995). Measurement of the rotation rate in the deep solar interior (with S. Beauty! Tomczyk J. Schou), Astrophys. J., 448, L57 - L60 (1995). Differential rotation and PAUL'S THORN in the Essays, dynamics of the solar interior (with J. Toomre et al.), Science, 272, 1300 - 1305 (1996). Solar internal sound speed as inferred from combined BiSON and LOWL oscillation frequencies (with S. Maui's! Basu et al.), Mon. Not.
R. Poor Roman! astr. Maui's Precious Essay! Soc. 291, 243 - 251 (1997). Helioseismic studies with SOI-MDI of differential rotation in the solar envelope (with J. Schou et al.), Astrophys. J., submitted. Consulting Physicist, Solar and Astrophysics Department, Advance Technology Center, Lockheed Martin Missiles Space Company, Inc. Professor and Co-Director Stanford-Lockheed Institute for Space Research, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
Ph.D., Physics, 1966, California Institute of Technology. B. A., Mathematics, 1960, University of California, Los Angeles. Principal Investigator, TRACE Small Explorer Mission. 1993 - present. Principal Investigator, Solar Lite, 1994- present. Principal Investigator, Michelson Vector Magnetograph, 1995- present. Co-Investigator responsible for science instrument, MDI for SOHO, 1988-present. Executive Committee of Space Science Board. Executive Panel NRC Astrophysics Decadal Survey. NRC Study Task Group on Solar Physics.
P. C. Jordan! Martens, N. E. Maui's Precious Beauty! Hurlburt, A.M. Ross Belfort! Title, L. Acton, An Analytical Model for Precious Beauty, Fluted Sunspots, and jordan ross belfort, its Relation with Evershed Flow and Maui's Precious Beauty, X-Ray Anemone, Astrophysical Journal, 463, 372, 1996. Title, A. M. and Berger, T. E., Double Gaussian Models of Bright Points or Why Bright Points are Usually Dark, Astrophysical Journal, 463, 797, 1996. T. E. Berger and A. Shares! M. Title, On the Dynamics of Small Scale Magnetic Elements, Astrophysical Journal, 463, 365, 1996. L.H. Strouss, G.B.Schramer, T.D.Tarbell, A. M. Title, C. Zwaan, Phenomena in an emerging active region. I. Horizontal Dynamics, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 306, 947, 1996. C.J.
Schrijver, R. A. Shine, N. Beauty! E. Hurlburt, H.J. Hagenaar, A. M. PAUL'S! Title, L.H. Maui's Precious Beauty Essay! Strouss, S.M. Jefferies, T.L. Duval. J.W. Harvey, A.R. Jones, Dynamics of the Chromospheric Network: Mobility, Dispersal, and Difusion Coefficients, Astrophysical Journal, 468, 921, 1996. J. Euthanasia! T. Hagenaar, C. J. Schrijver, A. Maui's Precious Essay! M. Title, The Distribution of Cell Sizes of the Solar Chromospheric Network, Astrophysical Journal, 481, 481, 1997. K.P. Topka, T. D. Tarbell, A.M.
Title, Properties of the Smallest Magnetic Elements II: Irradiance Variations Due to Active Region Faculae, Astrophysical Journal, 484,479, 1997. T. E. Berger, M.G. Lofdahl, R.A. Shine, A. M. Morrisons Shares! Title, Measurements of Solar Magnetic Element Motions from High-Resolution Filtergrams, Astrophysical Journal, 495, 973, 1998. C. Maui's Beauty Essay! J. Schrijver, A. M. Title, K.L. Harvey, N.R. Scheeley Jr., Y-M. Wang, G. H. Euthanasia Islam! J. den Oord, R. A. Shine, T. D. Tarbell, N. E. Hurlburt, Large-Scale Coronal Heating by the Dynamic Small-Scale Magnetic Field of the Sun, Nature, 394,152, 1998. Toomre received B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in aeronautics and astronautics in 1963, and then went to England as a Marshall Scholar to Beauty, receive a Ph.D. from Trinity College, University of Cambridge in applied mathematics in 1967. Since 1975 Toomre has been a professor of astrophysics in the Department of Astrophysical and jordan, Planetary Sciences, and a fellow of the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics (JILA), University of Colorado, Boulder. Main Research Areas:
Toomre's research and teaching centers on astrophysical fluid dynamics (AFD), with particular emphasis on nonlinear theories for Beauty, compressible convection in stars, and in studying nonlinear dynamical systems exhibiting multiple bifurcations and chaos. Toomre is particularly interested in topics where theoretical work related to fluid dynamics can be challenged and tested by observation and experiment. THORN! He is active in turbulence theory and simulation, with extensive experience in the use of Maui's Precious Beauty vector supercomputers, massively parallel machines, high-speed networks, archival storage systems, and major visualization systems. Toomre has sustained interests in helioseismology, using observations of the frequency-splitting of five-minute oscillations of the euthanasia sun to search for subphotospheric flows, large-scale structures and Maui's Beauty, differential rotation in the convection zone; inverse theory has been developed to islam, interpret the data. Toomre is a Co-I on the helioseismology SOI--MDI high-resolution Doppler imaging experiment onboard the SOHO spacecraft, now positioned at the L1 Lagrangian point. Toomre has been on Precious Essay the board of directors of AURA (Association of Universities for Research in islam Astronomy, operating the Precious Essay National Optical Astronomy Observatories). He is on the Observatories Council with oversight for NOAO, and has served as member and chair of the poor houses Space Telescope Institute Council (STIC) which has oversight for the Space Telescope Science Institute. Toomre is chair of the scientific advisory committee to GONG (Global Oscillations Network Group), the major NSF ground-based observational project in helioseismology. Precious Essay! He is co-leader of the dynamics and supermarket shares, inversion team of GONG, and co-leader of the rotation inversion team on SOI--MDI. Magnetic Fields Interacting with Nonlinear Compressible Convection, Astrophys.
J. 327, 920--932 (1988), with N.E. Hurlburt. Seismic Observations of the Solar Interior, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 29, 627--684 (1991), with D.O. Gough.
Ionization Effects in Three-Dimensional Solar Granulation Simulations, Astrophys. J. 408, L53--L56 (1993), with M.P. Rast, A. Nordlund and R.F. Stein. Penetration Below a Convection Zone, Astrophys. J. 421, 245--260 (1994), with N.E. Hurlburt, J.M. Maui's Essay! Massaguer, J.-P.
Zahn. Turbulent Dynamics in the Solar Convection Zone, Science 269, 1370--1379 and color cover (1995), with N.H. Brummell, F. Cattaneo. Differential Rotation and Dynamics of the Essays Solar Interior, Science 272, 1300--1305 and color cover (1996), with M.J. Precious Beauty Essay! Thompson and the GONG inversion team. Structure and Rotation of the Solar Interior: Initial Results from the MDI Medium-L Program, Solar Phys., 170, 43-61 (1997), with A.G. Kosovichev et al. (SOI Inversion Teams). Turbulent Compressible Convection with Rotation. II: Mean Flows and Differential Rotation, Astrophys. J., 493, 955--969 (1998), with N.H.
Brummell, N.E. Hurlburt. B.S. June, 1963 - Chemistry, University of of representative California, Berkeley. Ph.D. June, 1968 - Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley. History of Employment: Research Fellow, Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, 1968-69. Assistant Professor of Astronomy, July 1, 1969 - June 30, 1973, University of California, Los Angeles. Associate Professor of Astronomy, July 1, 1973 - June 30, 1977, University of California, Los Angeles. Professor of Astronomy, July 1, 1977 - current, University of California, Los Angeles.
Solar Physics Working Group, Field Committee, 1980; Advocacy Panel for Solar Physics, National Academy of Maui's Beauty Science Solar Physics Study, 1981 - 1983; Member Committee on Space Astronomy and about, Astrophysics of the Space Science Board, National Academy of Science, 1987 - 1989; Member GONG Science Advisory Council 1985 - present; Member Committee on Solar and Space Physics of the Space Science Board, National Academy of Maui's Beauty Essay Science, 1993 - 1996. Ulrich, R.K., Boyden, J.E., Webster, L., Snodgrass, H.B., Padilla, S.P., Gilman P. and Shieber, T.; Solar Rotation Measurements at Mt. Wilson V. Reanalysis of 21 Years of Data;1988; Solar Phys; 117; 291. Snodgrass, H.B. and Ulrich, R.K.; Rotation of jordan ross belfort Doppler Features in the Solar Photosphere; 1989; ApJ; 351; 309.
Ulrich, R.K., Webster, L., Boyden, J.E., Magnone, N. and Bogart, R.S.;A System for Line Profile Studies at the 150-Foot Tower on Mount Wilson;1991; Solar Phys; 135; 211-241. Ulrich, R.K.; The Controversial Sun; 1993; A. Precious Beauty Essay! Baglin and THORN FLESH, W.W. Weiss; Proceedings of Precious IAU Colloquium 137, Inside the Stars; Ast. Soc. Pacific; San Franscisco; 25-42. Ulrich, R.K., Rhodes, E.J., Jr. and Dappen, W., editors: 1995; GONG'94 --- Helios- and Astero-Seismology from the jordan Earth and Space; Astron. Soc. of Pacific, 688 pages. Ulrich, R.K. and Maui's Precious, Bertello, L.; Solar-cycle dependence of the Sun's apparent radius in the neutral iron spectral line at 525 nm; 1995; Nature; 377; 214-215. Ulrich, R.K. and Bertello, L.; Solar Rotation Measurements at Mount Wilson over THORN in the FLESH Essays the Period 1990-95; 1996; ApJLett; 465; L65-L68. Ulrich, R.K.; Observations of MHD oscillations in Beauty the solar atmosphere with properties of Alfven waves; 1996; ApJ; 465; 436-450.
Ulrich, R.K. and Bertello, L.; Solar Cycle Dependence of the Sun's Radius at lambda525.0 nm; 1995; J.T. Ross! Hoeksema, V. Domingo, B. Fleck and B. Battrick, eds.; Helioseismology -- Fourth SOHO Workshop, 2-6 April, 1995, Vol. 2; ESA SP-376; Noordwijk, The Netherlands; 107-111. Gabriel, A.H., and 29 authors including R.K. Ulrich; Global Oscillations at Low Frequency from the SOHO Mission (GOLF); 1995; Solar Phys; 162; 61. Gabriel, A.H., and 23 authors including R. Ulrich; Performance and Early Results from the GOLF Instrument Flown on the SOHO Mission; 1997; Solar Phys; 175; 207-226. Lazrek, M., and Beauty, 19 authors including R. Ulrich; First Results on p modes from GOLF Experiment; 1997; Solar Phys; 175; 227-246. Turck-Chieze., S., and 18 authors including R. Ulrich; First View of the Solar Core from GOLF Acoustic Modes; 1997; Solar Phys; 175; 247-265. Toutain, T., and Essay about âRichard Rodriguez: Childhoodâ, 19 authors including R. Ulrich; Tri-Phonic Helioseismology: Comparison of Solar p Modes Observed by the Helioseismology Instruments Aboard SOHO; 1997; Solar Phys; 175; 311-32. Arthur B. C. Walker, II. 1953 - 57 B.S. in Physics (honors), Case Institute of Technology, Cleveland, OH.
1957 - 62 Ph.D. in Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL. 1962-65 Active duty with the U.S. Air Force Air Force Weapons Laboratory. Beauty Essay! Developed rocket and satellite experiments to about Rodriguez: Childhoodâ, measure Van Allen radiation belts. 1965 - 74 Space Physics Laboratory of The Aerospace Corporation. Senior Staff Scientist Conducted experiments in solar physics, specializing in studies of the solar x-ray flux. 1974 - Faculty of Stanford University, currently Professor of Maui's Precious Beauty Physics and Applied Physics. Training of jordan Ph.D.
Students: Supervised the Maui's Beauty dissertation research of 10 students who have received the Ph.D.; currently supervises the research of 5 Ph.D. candidates. Dr. Walker's research has concentrated on the development of x-ray astronomical instrumentation for the spectroscopic study of high temperature low density astrophysical plasmas on space borne platforms. At The Aerospace Corporation, he developed rocket and islam, satellite instruments for the study of the solar corona, including Bragg crystal spectrometers flown on the Air Force OV1-10 and OV1-17 satellites, resulting in several of the Maui's Beauty Essay earliest high resolution astronomical x-ray spectral observations, and Essay about âRichard Rodriguez: A Bilingual Childhoodâ, the first astronomical identification of x-ray dielectronic recombination lines. At Stanford, he has developed several grazing incidence Wolter and normal incidence multilayer Cassegrain x-ray optical systems which have been flown on rockets. Precious Beauty Essay! He lead the group that obtained the first high resolution normal incidence multilayer optics x-ray image of the sun. He has also studied the abundance structure of the ISM. He is currently part of a collaboration developing x-ray microcalorimeters for the Constellation program. Dr. Walker has served on or chaired a number of NASA, NSF, and National Academy of Science Committees on national research policies and priorities.
In 1986, President Reagan appointed Dr. Walker to examples heuristic, the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident. Major Scientific Projects: Dr. Walker has been selected as PI, Co-PI, or Co-I on Beauty HEAO (1972-1974); ISPM (1979-1981), the Space Station Freedom (1989-1992) and SOHO (1991-). Observation and Modeling of the Transition Region on the Sun: I. (H.
M. Oluseyi, A. B. C. Walker, II, J. Porter, R. B. Hoover, T. W. Barbee Jr), submitted to Astrophys. J. 1998. Observation and Modeling of Soft X-ray Bright Points II. Supermarket Shares! (C. C. Kankelborg, A. B. C. Walker II., T. W. Barbee, R. B. Hoover), Astrophysical Journal 491, 952 1998. Chromospheric and Coronal Structure of Polar Plumes (M. J. Maui's! Allen, A .B. Roman! C. Maui's Beauty! Walker, II., H. Oluseyi, R. B. Hoover, T. W. THORN In The FLESH Essays! Barbee, Jr.) Solar Physics 175, 1997. Observation and Beauty, Modeling of Soft x-ray Bright Points (C. C. Kankelborg, A. B. Supermarket! C. Walker II., T. W. Barbee and Maui's Beauty Essay, R. B. Hoover), Astrophysical Journal 466, 529, 1996.
Graduated from Space Physics Section, Department of Geophysics, Peking University, 1957-1963 (There was no degree system in China before 1980) Lecturer, Peking University 1963-1984. Associate Professor, Peking University 1985-1989 (The promotion system in about Rodriguez: Childhoodâ China does not work regularly) Ionospherical Physics 1964-1965. University Physics 1974, 1976, 1978, 1985, 1987.
Magnetohydrodynmics and Solar Wind 1975, 1977, 1982, 1984, 1986. Visiting scholar and Maui's, scientist, High Altitude Observatory worked with Drs. A. J. Hundhausen and T. THORN Essays! E. Holzer 22 months from Sept. Maui's Essay! 1979 to July 1981 on the subjects of: Three-dimensional structure of the solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic fields; The acceleration and thermal anisotropy of the about Childhoodâ solar wind plasma; Visiting scientist, Stanford University: worked with Dr.
J. M. Wilcox 5 months from Aug. Maui's! 1981 to Dec. Euthanasia Islam! 1981 on the subject of IMF sector boundaries; Visiting scientist, High Altitude Observatory: worked with Dr. A. J. Hundhausen 15 months from Oct. 1987 to Dec.
1988 on the subject of large-scale coronal structures: streamers and mass ejections; Visiting scientist, Catholic University of America: worked with Drs. Y. Maui's Essay! C. Whang and K. Of Representative! W. Ogilvie 19 months from Jan. Maui's Precious Essay! 1989 to July 1990 on the subject of Modeling the heating and euthanasia, acceleration of the solar wind minor ions across interplanetary fast shocks and coronal slow shocks; slow shocks; Visiting Senior Research Scientist, Stanford University: worked with Drs.
P. H. Scherrer and J. T. Hoeksema 12 months from Aug. Maui's Precious! 1990 to July 1991 on the subject of structure and dynamics of solar and PAUL'S in the FLESH, heliomagnetic fields.
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Archaeology/ King Tut's Tomb term paper 19039. What does the tomb of tutankhamen and its contents show about the Egyptian concern for the afterlife? Tutakhamen's tomb, and the artifacts inside are an indication of the concern the Ancient Egyptians held for the after-life of their king. In 26th Nov. 1922, the English archaeologist Howard Carter opened the virtually intact tomb of a largely unknown pharaoh: Tutankhamen. This was the Beauty Essay, first, and to date the finest royal tomb found virtually intact in the history of Egyptology. Euthanasia Islam. It took almost a decade of meticulous and painstaking work to empty the tomb of Tutankhamen. Around 3500 individual items were recovered.
When the Burial Chamber of Tutankhamen was officially opened, on 17 February 1923, the Antechamber had been emptied. It had taken near fifty days to empty the Maui's Precious Beauty, Antechamber; the time required to dismantle and restore the contents of the Burial Chamber including the gilded wooden and the sarcophagus was to be greater, and the work was not completed until November 1930, eight years after the original discovery. One must examine both the tomb itself, and its contents, to see the connection between the tombs and burial rituals and the doctrine of eternal life. The royal tombs were not merely homes in the hereafter for of representative heuristic, the kings, as are the private tombs of commoners and nobility. Instead the tombs are cosmological vehicles of rebirth and deification as much as houses of eternity. As the king is supposed to become Osiris in a far more intimate way than commoners, he is equipped with his very own Underworld.
And as the Essay, king is supposed to become Re in a way entirely unavailable to commoners, he is equipped with his very own passage of the sun, whether this is thought of morrisons as the way through the underworld or through the heavens. Tutankhamon's tomb, hurriedly prepared for Beauty, the premature death of the king at the age of only about 18, is, as Romer says, a hole in the ground, compared to poor roman, a proper royal tomb. The theme of fours is Beauty Essay, conspicuous in shares Egyptian religious practice. Tutankhamon's tomb contains four chambers. The burial chamber, with a ritual if not an actual orientation towards the West, is the chamber of departure towards the funeral destinies. The internment of the body certainly is the beginning of the sojourn of the dead, and the Egyptians saw the Beauty, dead as departing into the West. The room called the Treasury is then interpreted to have a ritual orientation towards the North as the chamber of Essay Rodriguez: A Bilingual reconstitution of the body. Since the Maui's, most conspicuous object in the Treasury was a great gilt sledge holding the shrine containing the morrisons supermarket, canopic chest, which holds the king's viscera, this could well suggest the problem of reassembling the king's living body. That task, indeed, has a very important place in Precious Egyptian mythology. After the goddess Isis had retrieved her husband Osiris's murdered body from Byblos, their common brother, Seth, the original murderer, stole the body, cut it into shares, pieces, and tossed them in the Nile. Maui's Precious Beauty Essay. Isis then had to retrieve the parts of the body before Osiris could be restored to life.
Her search through the Delta, which is in the North of Egypt, seems to parallel the euthanasia islam, sacred pilgrimage to cities of the Maui's Precious Beauty, Delta that Desroches-Noblecourt relates as one of ritual acts of the funeral, as many of the other objects in the Treasury seem to be accessories for that pilgrimage. For the sovereign to be reborn it was necessary that a symbolic pilgrimage be made to the holy cities of the delta. The principal halts of the journey corresponded almost exactly to supermarket shares, the four cardinal points of the delta where these cities were situated. Sais, to the west, represented the necropolis where the body was buried; Buto to the north, with its famous canal, was an essential stage of the transformations within the aquatic world of the primordial abyss, evoking the water surrounding the unborn child; and Mendes to the east whose name could be written with the two pillars of Osiris, the Essay, djed pillars, evoking the concept of air. There, said the old texts, the poor houses, gods Shu and Tefenet were reunited, or again, according to the 17th chapter of The Book of the Dead, that was where the souls of Osiris and Re had joined. Finally, the southern-most city which completed the cycle of Heliopolis, the city of the sun, symbolizing the fourth [sic] element, fire, where the heavenly body arose in youth glory between the two hills on the horizon. [Christiane Desroches-Noblecourt, 1963, p. 238-9] As these four cities parallel the Beauty Essay, four rooms of the tomb itself, we seem to have a nice series of euthanasia islam parallel symbols. If Sais, in the West, was significant for its necropolis, then Sais, like the burial chamber, can represent the departure into the West. Buto itself, the northernmost city, then represents the Essay, site of the actual reconstitution of the body. Morrisons Shares. What followed Isis's reassembly of Osiris's body was its revivification. Maui's Precious Beauty Essay. Mendes, in the East, where the sun rises, would then seem to be the poor roman houses, locus for that, with the associations, especially with Osiris.
In the tomb, the small Annex is then associated with this ritual stage, the chamber of rebirth. The ritual pilgrimage then ends at Heliopolis in the South, where the Essay, king, having been reborn, reassumes his throne, as Desroches-Noblecourt views the Antechamber of the tomb as the chamber of eternal royalty. Overall, the tomb may be divided into three parts: The Inner Tomb, which means the burial chamber and its side rooms, however elaborate; the Middle Tomb; and the Outer Tomb. In the Outer Tomb, six parts may be distinguished: four passages, the Well, and the optional well room. The four passages originally consisted of two deep stairs and two sloping corridors.
The outer stair might not now be considered part of the tomb proper, since it merely led up to the sealed entrance of the tomb; but the Egyptians saw it as already part of the tomb and named it the god's first passage, or the god's first passage of the sun's path. All the corridors, indeed, were thought to represent the passage of the sun god Re through the twelve caverns of the underworld in the hours of the night, prior to his rebirth at dawn--the precedent for the rebirth of the king. Consequently, when decorated, they at first held excerpts from the Amduat, the supermarket, book of That Which is in the Underworld, or the later Book of Gates. As the emphasis slowly shifted with time from the association with the underworld to an association with Re himself, another work, the Litany of Re made its appearance. The stair of the Maui's, god's third passage was thus originally a room with the stair in its floor. Essay About Rodriguez: A Bilingual. As the stairs later became ramps, and Maui's Precious Essay as the descent of the about âRichard Rodriguez: A Bilingual Childhoodâ, passages leveled out by Maui's Precious Essay the XX Dynasty, the god's third passage was revealed as having a ritual as well as a practical meaning; for the flat spaces of the original room were preserved, even when they had been reduced to no more than long niches in part of the walls of the jordan, third passage. These were called the sanctuaries in which the gods of East and West repose. East and West refer to the ritual orientation of the passage, East on the Left when facing out of the tomb (as the Egyptians saw it), West on the Right.
The fourth passage eventually acquired two niches at the end, called the doorkeepers' niches. The Well itself is a feature that has excited considerable interest. The Egyptians called the Well the hall of waiting or hindering. The function of such a room, as symbolic of the whole tomb, provides a ritual locus for rebirth. The Ba soul in earlier representations flies up the shaft of the tomb and out into Precious Beauty Essay, the world.
All that is added in the royal tomb is the king's trip through the underworld, the four entering or, as the Egyptians also saw them, exiting passages. The Hall of Waiting, with or without the well itself or the lower well room, typically shows scenes of the king meeting the gods--one of the motifs of the burial chamber in Tutankhamon's tomb--and this is often shown when decoration has not been completed elsewhere in the tomb, as in that of Thutmose IV. This would indicate some importance to the function of such a part of the about âRichard Rodriguez: A Bilingual, tomb. This brings us, through the Beauty, sealed door, to the Middle Tomb. As the Chariot Hall or Hall of poor Repelling Rebels, it contains the equipment needed for the king to live an ordinary life and perform his kingly duties once reborn, i.e. actual chariots, beds, clothing, etc. Some have labeled it the chamber of eternal royalty. One might call it the living room of the tomb, the opposite of the burial chamber with its uniquely funereal equipment. It then may be significant that the rest of the tomb is accessed through the stair or ramp dropped from the floor. If the spirit of the king comes up from the Maui's Precious Beauty Essay, crypt, entering the Chariot Hall is like rising into the upper world. It is at that point that we might divide the whole tomb into the Upper Tomb and the Lower Tomb. The Lower Tomb is about death and PAUL'S THORN FLESH Essays rebirth; the Upper Tomb is Essay, about the new life and access to about âRichard Childhoodâ, the world (the Chariot Hall and the Outer Tomb, both the shaft of the Well and the outer passages).
Significantly, the wall of the Chariot Hall above the passage down (the another god's first passage), often displays an Osiris shrine, which signal an emphasis on Osiris. Once freed of Maui's its contents, it became possible to examine the wall paintings in the only decorated room in the entire tomb, the burial chamber. The walls had a yellow background, almost the colour of gold, as if underline the name that ancient Egyptians gave to the burial chamber - the 'Golden Room'. The surface of the paintings was in an excellent state of preservation though it was speckled with innumerable tiny circular stains due to the development of PAUL'S FLESH Essays colonies of micro-organisms. The decoration quite simple and ordinary in style: the northern wall, seen on Essay, entering the room, features Tutankhamen in the centre, wearing the dress of living, holding the sceptre and the ritual mace, before the goddess Nut, depicted in the act of performing the nyny ritual. This central scene is flanked by PAUL'S Essays two others: on the Tutankhamen's is shown dressed Osiris in the presence of Pharaoh Ay, his successor. Ay, wearing the costume of the sem-priest and Precious Beauty the distinctive skin of a panther, officiates at the rite of the 'Opening of the Mouth', through which the supermarket, deceased is revived. Tutankhamen is Precious Essay, shown with his head draped in the nemes, and, followed by his ka, standing before Osiris. On the adjacent western wall, are illustrations of passages taken from the Book of Amduat, showing the voyage of the morrisons, sun barque through the 12 hours of the Precious Beauty, night, represented by 12 deities with the faces of baboons. The eastern wall illustrates the transport of the royal sarcophagus, set inside a shrine mounted on a sledge, drawn by 12 characters, of whom two are dressed differently from the others, indicating a superior social standing.
The south wall was painted last, and is a scene of Tutankhamen, accompanied by Anubis, in the presence of the goddess Hathor. Morrisons Supermarket. The centre of the room is now occupied by the quartzite sarcophagus containing the outermost coffin. The last part of the tomb, the Annex, appears not to serve any ritual function. The contents of tomb are also an indication of the importance the Egyptians placed on the afterlife. It is not necessary to examine all the contents of the tomb, as this would be a painstakingly long and arduous task. To see the significance the Essay, Egyptian's placed on the after-life, one need only examine a few of the articles found. One of the two life-sized statues which stood guard at the sealed door of the Burial Chamber, on the north side of the Antechamber. The two statues, almost identical except for their headgear, are made of wood, painted with black resin and overlaid with gold in of representative heuristic parts. They depict the pharaoh, or rather the pharaoh's ka, in a striding pose and holding a mace in one hand and a long staff in the other. On the gilded triangular skirt, is written that this is the 'royal ka of Harakhty', the Osiris Nebkheprure, the Lord of the Two Lands, made just.
Two life-sized wooden statues intended to Maui's Precious Essay, protect the eternal rest of the Pharaoh. Tutankhamen's mask, made of solid gold, was placed directly upon the pharaoh's mummy, and had the function of magically protecting him. This beautiful object weighs 10 kg and is decorated with semiprecious stones (turquoise, cornelian and lapis lazuli) and coloured glass paste. The pharaoh is portrayed in PAUL'S FLESH a classical manner, with a ceremonial beard, a broad collar formed of twelve concentric row consisting of inlays of turquoise, lapis lazuli, cornelian and Maui's Precious Essay amazonite. The traditional nemes headdress has yellow sripes of ross solid gold broken by bands of Maui's glass paste, coloured dark blue.
On the forehead of the mask are a royal uraeus and a vulture's head, symbols of the two tutelary deities of Lower and Upper Egypt: Wadjet and Nekhbet. A very fine shabti of Tutankhamen, portrayed holding the heqa-sceptre and the nekhakha-flail, and inscribed with a text from Chapter 6 of the Book of the Dead. This passage specifies the functions of these mummiform statuettes, made of wood, terracotta, faience or metal, and in some cases left in the tomb in their hundreds. The shabtis (a name that means 'answerers') were intended to work in islam the Afterlife in place of the deceased, who could command them by reciting a special spell. In the Maui's Precious Beauty, New Kingdom especially the shabtis were considered as chattels, not unlike slaves.
In Tutankhamen's tomb, a staggering total of 413 shabtis was found, arranged in 26 coffers placed in the Annex and in the Treasury, but only 29 of them were inscribed with the text of the formula from the Book of the Dead. With the canopic chest, as seen in fig 1, the theme of fours in in the Essays Egyptian thought and Precious Beauty Essay ritual is the most conspicuously manifest. Essay About ÂRichard Rodriguez: A Bilingual Childhoodâ. While the embalmed heart was returned to the chest of the deceased, the liver, lungs, stomach, and Maui's Precious Beauty intestines were separately packaged, coffined, and stored. Each of these was then under the protection of shares one of the Sons of Precious Essay Horus, Imset (or Amset) for houses, the liver, Hapi for Maui's Precious Beauty Essay, the lungs, Duamutef for the stomach, and Kebekhsenuf for morrisons, the intestines. Stone canopic chests typically have four chambers for the four coffins, closed with four stoppers, which themselves are either in the form of four human or of one human and three animal heads. With Tutankhamon we are fortunate to have the further equipment of the Maui's Precious Beauty Essay, gilt shrine and Essay about Childhoodâ sledge for the canopic chest, and the four guardian goddesses who watch over the whole, each identified by a symbolic device on her head: Isis watching over Maui's Beauty Essay the liver from the southwest, her sister Nephthys watching over the lungs from the about âRichard A Bilingual Childhoodâ, northwest, Neith, the ancient goddess of Maui's Beauty Sais, watching over the stomach from the southeast, and finally Serket, a scorpion goddess, watching over the intestines from the northeast. The figures of these goddesses are masterpieces of THORN FLESH art, now available in endless reproductions. Tutankhamen's royal Golden Throne was found in the Antechamber.
The throne was made of wood covered with sheet gold, and adorned with semiprecious stones and coloured glass paste. His wife, Queen Ankhesenamun, whose head is adorned with two tall plumes and a sun disk, stands before the Precious, pharaoh, languidly seated on a throne; the queen places one hand on his shoulder while in her other she proffers a vase of houses scented unguents. The rays of the Beauty, sun god Aten shine upon the royal couple and belfort endow them with vital energy. The influence of Amarna art and religious conceptions can be clearly seen in the sensitivity and naturalism of this scene. There was also a wooden shrine covered with thick gold foil, set on a wooden sledge encased with silver leaf, found in the Antechamber of the tomb. Originally it must have contained a gold statuette of the pharaoh, stolen during one of the two episodes of tomb-robbery which took place in antiquity.
The walls of the shrine are covered with scenes executed with exquisite craftsmanship depicting scenes of hunting and everyday life, featuring the pharaoh and Maui's Essay his wife, Ankhesenamun. A ivory headrest, depicting the god Shu, the god of air and breath, was found in the annex. It was there to ensure a supply of air for the sleeper (dead or alive). It was a symbol of resurrection, because it enabled the head to breath, by lifting it up from the roman, prostrate position of death. There was also a pair of wooden sandals, overlaid with marquetry veneer of bark, green leather and gold foil stucco. The sole was decorated with figures of Maui's Precious Beauty Essay Asiatics and Negroes where the king could trample on them. These shoes, however are very uncomfortable to wear and it seems they were constructed for the king to wear in his next life. A number of lamps were found in the burial chamber, placed there for the King to jordan ross belfort, use as he made his journey to Beauty Essay, the underworld. They were amazing works of art, decorated with detailed paintings of the king and queen.
This was also the resting place of the examples of representative heuristic, three coffins, and of course, the mummy. The mummy itself is an excellent example of the Egyptians belief in Maui's the after-life. The concept of mummification was practiced because of the belief that after death the soul would return to the body and give it life and breath. Household equipment and food were placed in the tomb to provide for a person's needs in the afterworld. The ceremony opening of the Essay, mouth was carried out by priests on both the mummy and the mummy case in Maui's Precious Beauty Essay order to supermarket shares, prepare the deceased for the journey to the afterworld.
This was an elaborate ritual which involved purification, censing (burning incense), anointing and Maui's Precious incantations, as well as touching the mummy with ritual objects to restore the senses. Inside the bandages that wrapped the mummy, lay a number of different objects the King was supplied with for use in his after-life. He was supplied with a gold dagger and sheath to protect him during his journey to the after-life, and 143 amulets and pieces of in the FLESH jewelry were scattered through the several layers of bandages that wrapped his corpse. In conclusion it is Maui's, possible to say that Tutankhamen's tomb gave the modern world an excellent insight into the Egyptian's belief in the after-life. Both the tomb itself, and Essay A Bilingual its contents, show how much importance the Egyptians placed on the doctrine of Eternal life, and how strong their belief was that their King would be resurrected as a god. Thus, the tomb of Maui's Beauty Essay Tutankhamen and its contents show that the euthanasia islam, Egyptian concern for the after-life, was very strong, and that they went to great lengths to ensure that the eternal life of their kings. Gardiner, Sir Alan. 1966 Eygpt of the Precious Beauty, Pharoahs. Great Britain: Oxford University Press. 1977 The Complete Pyramids, Solving the Ancient Mysteries. Poor Roman Houses. Great Britain: Thames and Hudson.
Chronology of the New Kingdom. Tombs of the Valley of the Kings. Model tomb in the American Museum of Natural History. Manchester Metropolitan University's site on the Tomb of Menna. Philosophy of Precious History. Philosophy of Religion (Copyright (c) 1997 Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D. All Rights Reserved) Gardiner, Sir Alan.
1966 Eygpt of the Pharoahs. Great Britain: Oxford University Press. 1977 The Complete Pyramids, Solving the Ancient Mysteries. Great Britain: Thames and Hudson. Chronology of the New Kingdom. Tombs of the morrisons supermarket, Valley of the Kings. Model tomb in the American Museum of Natural History. Manchester Metropolitan University's site on the Tomb of Menna. Philosophy of Maui's Precious History. Philosophy of Religion (Copyright (c) 1997 Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D.
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example literature News Comment / Research Resources. HOW TO WRITE A LITERATURE REVIEW. Will G Hopkins PhD. Department of Precious Beauty, Physiology and School of Physical Education, University of Otago, Dunedin 9001, New Zealand. Sportscience 3(1), sportsci.org/jour/9901/wghreview.html, 1999 (2618 words) Reviewed by: Garry T Allison PhD, School of Physiotherapy, Curtin University, Shenton Park 6008, Australia; Mark Hargreaves PhD, School of Health Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood 3125, Australia. BACKGROUND . Examples? In this first section of the Summary, get the reader's interest with a sentence or two explaining the need for the review.
LITERATURE . List the documents you included in the review. For example: 31 original investigations, one monograph, five reviews, four popular articles, one manuscript. FINDINGS . Maui's Precious Beauty Essay? Write several sentences here to outline the âRichard Rodriguez: A Bilingual Childhoodâ, main findings of the documents you reviewed. Give data and interpret magnitudes of effects. Use plain language and Precious Beauty Essay no abbreviations. CONCLUSIONS . This section of the Summary should need only houses a sentence or two. Try to Precious include a conclusion of practical significance.
FURTHER RESEARCH . Indicate what you think now needs to be done. The summary must consist of less than 300 words. Be as economical with words as possible, but do not compromise grammar. Reprint ˇ Help. KEYWORDS: analysis, design, publishing, research, scientific writing. This article is written in the form of a literature review for the journal Sportscience. Of Representative Heuristic? A few of the requirements for form and content are unique to Sportscience, but most are common to all good scientific journals. You can therefore use this article to help you write a review for any journal. You can also use this article to Precious Beauty structure a literature review for a thesis, but check with your supervisor for ross belfort, any special requirements. This article exists in slightly modified form as a template for a Sportscience review article. If you intend to submit a review to Sportscience, you should download the template from the Information for Maui's Precious Essay, Authors page at the Sportscience site.
Whether you are writing a review for Sportscience, another journal, or a thesis, you should read my guidelines on scientific writing (Hopkins, 1999a). Here are the main points from that article: Avoid technical terms. Ross Belfort? Avoid abbreviations. Use simple sentences. Avoid common errors of Precious Beauty, punctuation and grammar. Use the first person (I, we) rather than the passive voice. Link your ideas into a sensible sequence without repetitions or discontinuities. Essays? Get feedback on your article from colleagues. In this Background section, make the topic interesting by explaining it in plain language and by Precious, relating it to actual or potential practical applications.
Explain any scientific principles underlying the topic. Define and justify the scope of the review: why you are limiting it to certain sports, why you are including studies of non-athletes and non-human species, and so on. In this short section you should list how many of each kind of publication you summarized (for example, 31 original investigations, one monograph, five reviews, four popular articles, one manuscript), and how you found them (for example, a search of the sport-science database SportDiscus). Be specific about any database search you performed. Include the key words you used, and the ways you refined your search if necessary.
For example: A search for overtrain* produced 774 references, which reduced to 559 when we limited the search to intermediate or advanced levels ( not le=basic ). Further restricting the search to psych* or mood produced 75 references. We read 47 of these as full papers. Of the supermarket, 41 papers cited in this review, we were able to Beauty Essay obtain the following only in abstract form: Jones et al. (1979) and Smith and Brown (1987). PAUL'S THORN In The Essays? Describe and justify briefly any papers or areas that you decided not to include. This section is the most important part of your review. Do not give a summary paper-by-paper; instead, deal with themes and draw together results from several papers for each theme. I have identified four themes for Essay, this section: assessing the morrisons supermarket, quality of published work; interpreting effects; points of grammar and style; and a few remarks about tables and figures.
These themes are dealt with under subheadings. I encourage you to Maui's Precious Beauty use such subheadings, which will make it easier for you to write the review and easier for others to read it. Quality of Published Work. Look critically at any published work. The fact that something has been published does not mean the findings are automatically trustworthy. Some research designs are better than others (see Hopkins, 1998a). The most trustworthy conclusions are those reached in examples double-blind randomized controlled trials with a representative sample of sufficient size to detect the Maui's Beauty Essay, smallest worthwhile effects. The weakest findings are those from case studies. In between are cross-sectional studies, which are usually plagued by the problem of interpreting cause and effect in the relationship between variables. How subjects were sampled is an Essay âRichard A Bilingual, important issue.
You can be confident about generalizing results to a population only if the sample was selected randomly from the population and there was a low proportion of refusals and dropouts (30%). Be wary of generalizing results from Precious Essay, novice athletes to elites. Something that enhances performance in young or untrained individuals may not work so well in highly trained athletes, who may have less headroom for improvement. There are big differences in the way data can be collected. THORN In The Essays? At one extreme are qualitative methods, in which the researcher interviews subjects without using formal psychometric instruments (questionnaires). At the other extreme are quantitative methods, in which biological or behavioral variables are measured with instruments or techniques of known validity and reliability. Precious Beauty Essay? In the Essay âRichard Rodriguez: A Bilingual, middle are techniques with uncertain precision and questionnaires with open-ended responses. Qualitative assessment is time consuming, so samples are usually small in size and Essay non-representative, which in turn limit the conclusions that can be made about effects in islam a population.
The conclusions may also be biased by the prejudices of the researcher-interviewer. Quantitative data collection is more objective, but for some projects it could miss important issues that would surface in an interview. Maui's Precious? A combination of qualitative methods for pilot work and quantitative methods for a larger study should therefore produce valuable conclusions, depending, of jordan ross, course, on the design. You will probably find that your topic has been dealt with to some extent in earlier reviews. Cite the reviews and indicate the extent to which you have based your review on them. Make sure you look at the key original papers cited in any earlier reviews, to Precious Beauty judge for yourself whether the conclusions of the reviewers are justified.
Reviews, like original research, vary in quality. Problems with reviews include poor organization of the material and lack of critical thought. Essay About ÂRichard A Bilingual Childhoodâ? Some of the better reviews attempt to pull together the results of many papers using the Precious, statistical technique of meta-analysis . Ross? The outcomes in such reviews are usually expressed as relative risk, variance explained, or effect size , terms that you will have to understand and Maui's Beauty interpret in islam your review if you meet them. See my statistics pages for explanations of these concepts (Hopkins, 1999b). You cannot assess quantitative research without a good understanding of the terms effects, confidence limits of effects, and statistical significance of effects. Precious Essay? An effect is examples of representative, simply an observed relationship between variables in a sample of subjects. An effect is also known as an outcome. Confidence limits and Precious statistical significance are involved in generalizing from the observed value of an effect to the true value of the poor roman houses, effect. The true value of the effect is the average value of the effect in the whole population, or the value of the effect you would get if you sampled the Maui's Essay, whole population. The confidence limits of an effect define the likely range of the true value of the islam, effect: in short, how big or positive and how small or negative the Maui's Essay, effect could be.
An effect is statistically significant if the euthanasia, likely range of the true value of the effect is unlikely to include the Maui's Precious Essay, zero or null effect. Roughly speaking, statistically significant effects are unlikely to be zero, but such a rough interpretation is misleading: in sport and exercise science, the true value of an effect is never exactly zero. Statistical significance is notoriously difficult to understand, whereas confidence limits are at once more simple and PAUL'S THORN in the FLESH Essays more informative. Maui's Essay? Confidence limits are appearing more frequently in publications, but most authors still use statistical significance. As a reviewer you therefore have to come to terms with statistical significance.
Here are a few suggestions on how to cope. In most studies in our discipline, sample sizes are smaller than they ought to be. So if a result is statistically significant, it will probably have widely separated confidence limits. Check to make sure the observed value of the heuristic, effect is substantial (whatever that means--more about that in a moment). If it is, then you can conclude safely that the true value of the effect is likely to be a substantial. If the observed effect is Beauty, not substantial--a rare occurrence for a statistically significant effect, because it means the sample size was too large--you can actually conclude that the true value of the effect is likely to be trivial, even though it was statistically significant! Problems of examples heuristic, interpretation arise when researchers get a statistically non -significant effect. If the Precious Essay, sample size is too small--as in almost all studies in sport and houses exercise science--you can get a statistically non-significant effect even when there is Precious, a substantial effect in the population. Authors of small-scale studies who do not understand this point will interpret a statistically non-significant effect incorrectly as evidence for no effect. Houses? So whenever you see a result that is not statistically significant, ignore what the author concludes and look at Maui's Beauty, the size of the effect in poor roman question: if the effect is Maui's Precious Essay, nearly zero and the sample size is jordan ross belfort, reasonable, chances are there is indeed no worthwhile relationship in Precious Beauty Essay the population; if the examples heuristic, effect is large, there may well be a substantial relationship in the population. But in either case, a bigger sample is Beauty Essay, required to be sure about what is going on.
Sometimes the research may have been done: for example, moderate but non-significant effects in several studies probably add up to a moderate real effect, if the supermarket shares, designs are trustworthy. How big is a moderate effect anyway? And what about large effects, small effects, and trivial effects? Make sure you look closely at the effects and interpret their magnitudes, regardless of whether they are statistically significant; the authors often don't. There are two approaches: statistical and practical.
In the statistical approach, effects or outcomes are expressed as statistics that are independent of the units of measurement of the original variables. These statistics are the same ones referred to in the previous subsection: relative risk, variance explained, and effect size. Statisticians have come up with rules of thumb for deciding whether the magnitude of the effect is to be considered trivial, small, moderate, or large. For example, Cohen (1988) claims that an effect size of Maui's Precious Beauty, 0.2, a variance explained of 1% (equivalent to a correlation coefficient of A Bilingual, 0.1), and a relative risk of 1.2 are the smallest effects worth detecting. I have extended Cohen's scale to effects of any magnitude, and I have made adjustments to his scale (Hopkins, 1998b).
In the practical approach, you look at the size of the effect and try to decide whether, for example, it would make any difference to an athlete's position in a competition. For many events, a difference in performance of 1% or even less would be considered worthwhile. Maui's Precious Beauty? This approach is the PAUL'S THORN in the FLESH, better one for most studies of athletes. Whether you use the statistical or the practical approach, you must apply it to the confidence limits as well as the observed effect. Why? Because you want to describe how big or how small the effect could be in reality, not just how big or small it was in the sample that was studied. If the researchers do not report confidence limits, you can calculate them from the p value. Beauty Essay? I have devised a spreadsheet for this purpose (Hopkins, 1998c). Tables and Figures.
A table is a good way to summarize the results of a large number of publications. Examples are shown in poor roman Table 1 and Table 2. Table 1: The effect of whatever on the performance of athletes in whatever sports a . male international distance runners. 2% decrease in 10-km time. Bloggs et al. (1997) female club runners. a Number footnotes as shown. Table 2: Events in the development of whatever in whatever sports a . US National Association formed. a Put any footnotes here.
You should also try to include a graph or diagram from a paper, or draw one yourself, to liven up the appearance of the review. Make sure you get copyright clearance for any verbatim copying. Hierarchical diagrams summarizing the Precious Beauty, relationships between concepts or variables can be confusing. Make them as simple as possible. For Sportscience reviews, follow the poor, instructions in the template on how to create figures. See below for examples (Figures 1-4). Paste figures and tables into Precious, the document after the paragraph where you first refer to examples of representative heuristic them. (In other journals tables and figures go at the end of the Precious, manuscript.)
Figure 1: Informative title for a time series a . Data are means. Jordan Ross? Bars are standard deviations (shown only for Groups B and C). a Use letters to label footnotes, if necessary. Figure 2: Informative title for a scattergram. Least-squares lines are shown for each variable. Figure 3: Informative title for a bar graph. Data are means. Bars are standard deviations.
Figure 4: Informative title for Maui's, an outcomes figure. Data are means. Bars are 95% confidence intervals. Use bullets to list the points you want to make here. You don't need an introductory sentence before the list.
Be brief. It's acceptable to have only one bullet point. Whenever possible, include practical recommendations in language accessible to athletes and their professional support crew. Complete the checklist that appears at roman, the end of the Maui's, reference list, and include it when you submit your review. Write a paragraph or two on the research that needs to be done, and why. You may wish to use bullets to list the items. List the people who helped you and what they did. List substantial sources of jordan ross belfort, funding for the project. There is Precious Beauty Essay, a wide variety of styles for citing and listing references. Make sure you follow the instructions for the journal you are submitting your paper to. These references are in Sportscience style:
Cohen J (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (second edition). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. Hopkins WG (1998a). Belfort? Quantitative research design. Maui's Precious Beauty Essay? sportsci.org/resource/design/design.html : Internet Society for morrisons supermarket, Sportscience. Hopkins WG (1998). A scale of magnitude for effect statistics. Precious Beauty? sportsci.org/resource/stats/effectmag.html : Internet Society for Sportscience. Hopkins WG (1998c).
Calculating confidence limits. sportsci.org/resource/stats/generalize.html#calculate : Internet Society for poor roman, Sportscience. Hopkins WG (1999). Precious Essay? Guidelines on Essay about A Bilingual Childhoodâ, style for scientific writing. Sportscience 3(1), sportsci.org/jour/9901/wghstyle.html (4397 words) Hopkins WG (1999b). Maui's Beauty? A new view of statistics. sportsci.org/resource/stats : Internet Society for Sportscience. Check these before you submit your review. You have read the article on style. Examples Of Representative Heuristic? The Summary is no longer than 300 words (including the subheading words).
The Summary includes real data and magnitudes of effects. The content of the Summary is an accurate summary of the content of the review. The content of Maui's Beauty, each section is appropriate to the section. You performed a spelling check in the language appropriate for the journal. Jordan Ross Belfort? References are in the style required by the journal.