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Bernie Sanders#8217;s 1972 Essay, #8216;man—and woman#8217; The Vermonter#8217;s creative meditation on gender roles via rape fantasies has set the Internet aflame. What#8217;s your take? Last Tuesday, Mother Jones published a profile of 2016 presidential hopeful Bernie Sanders as #8220;a restless political activist and armchair psychologist#8230;struggling to square his revolutionary zeal with his overwhelming rejection at the polls.#8221; The article describes a time when Sanders, a long-time Vermonter who was elected to the U.S. Senate in in Radio Essay 2006, was trying to make it work as a divorced, #8220;aimless#8221; freelance journalist and carpenter who lived in csis officer an #8220;A-frame farmhouse outside the Vermont town of A Career Broadcasting Essay Stannard, a tiny hamlet with no paved roads in The Consequences Democracy in West African Essay the buckle of the commune belt,#8221; in A Career in Radio Broadcasting the late 1960s. In 1972, Sanders, then 30 years old, published a creative essay in the Vermont Freeman , called #8220;man—and a woman,#8221; which #8220;reflected [Sanders#8217;s] affinity for Sigmund Freud,#8221; reported Mother Jones . Here#8217;s the piece: A man goes home and masturbates his typical fantasy. A woman on csis intelligence, her knees, a woman tied up, a woman abused. A woman enjoys intercourse with her man #8212; as she fantasizes being raped by 3 men simultaneously. A Career Broadcasting Essay? The man and woman get dressed up on Sunday #8212; and go to Church, or maybe to airasia booking, their “revolutionary” political meeting.

Have you ever looked at the Stag , Man , Hero , Tough magazines on the shelf of Broadcasting Essay your local bookstore? Do you know why the newspapers with the articles like “Girl 12 raped by 14 men” sell so well? To what in us are they appealing? Women, for how to write, their own preservation, are trying to pull themselves for all of humanity that they do so. A Career In Radio? Slavishness on on male rape porn, one hand breeds pigness on the other hand. Pigness on one hand hand breeds slavishness on A Career in Radio Essay, the other, Men and Will Gun Violence Essay women #8212; both are losers. Women adapt themselves to full the needs of men, and men adapt themselves to fill the needs of women.

In the Essay beginning there were strong men who killed the The Consequences Essay animals and brought home the food #8212; and the dependent women who cooked it. No more! Only the roles remain waiting to be shaken off. There are no “human” oppressors. Oppressors have lost their humanity. On one hand “slavishness,” one the other hand “pigness.” Six of one, half dozen of the other, Who wins? Many women seem to be walking a tightrope now. Their qualities of love, openness and gentleness were too deeply enmeshed with qualities of Essay dependency, subservience, and masochism. How do you love #8212; with-out being dependent?

How do you be gentle #8212; without being subservient? How do you maintain a relationship without giving up your identity and getting strung out? How do you reach out and give your heart to your lover, but maintain the soul which is you? And Men. Men are in pain too. They are thinking, wondering. The Consequences Democracy Essay Example? What is it they want from a woman? Are they at A Career in Radio fault? Are they perpetrating this man-woman situation?

Are they oppressors? The man is Pharmacy Technicians: A Specialized Discourse Community, bitter. “You lied to in Radio Essay, me,” he said. (She did). “You said that you loved me, that you wanted me, that you needed me. Those are your words.” (They are). “But in reality,” he said, “If you ever love me, or wanted me, or needed me (all of csis intelligence which I’m not certain was ever true), you also hated me. Essay? You hated me #8212; just as you have hated every man in female rape your entire life, but you didn’t have the guts to tell me that. You hated me before you ever saw me, even though I was not your father, or your teacher, or your sex friend when you were 13 years old, or your husband. You hated me not because of who I am, or what I was to you, but because I am a man.

You did not deal with me as a person #8212; as me. You lived a lie with me, used me and played games with me #8212; and that’s a piggy thing to Broadcasting, do.” And she said, “You wanted me not as a woman, or as a lover, or a friend, but as a submissive woman, or submissive friend , or submissive lover; and right now where my head is Pharmacy Discourse Community, I balk at even the slightest suspicion of in Radio Essay that kind of demand. And he said, “You’re full of _______.” And they never again made love together (which they had each liked to Gun Control Will NOT Stop Essay, do more than anything) or never ever saw each other one more time. Broadcasting? So there you have it. Here#8217;s a decent round-up (and another) of some of the NOT Stop reaction#8217;s to Sander#8217;s 43-year-old article, which has put the U.S. Senator on A Career, a PR defensive. Monthly rate: $18. Yearly rate: $180. WAIT, WHY DO I HAVE TO PAY TO COMMENT? Tablet is committed to bringing you the best, smartest, most enlightening and entertaining reporting and writing on Jewish life, all free of Technicians: Discourse Essay charge.

We take pride in our community of readers, and A Career Broadcasting are thrilled that you choose to engage with us in a way that is both thoughtful and thought-provoking. But the Internet, for all of Technicians: A Specialized Discourse its wonders, poses challenges to civilized and constructive discussion, allowing vocal—and, often, anonymous—minorities to drag it down with invective (and worse). Starting today, then, we are asking people who'd like to post comments on the site to pay a nominal fee—less a paywall than a gesture of your own commitment to the cause of great conversation. All proceeds go to helping us bring you the ambitious journalism that brought you here in the first place. I NEED TO BE HEARD!

BUT I DONT WANT TO PAY. A Career Essay? Readers can still interact with us free of on male charge via Facebook, Twitter, and A Career in Radio our other social media channels, or write to us at letters@tabletmag.com. Democracy In West? Each week, we’ll select the best letters and publish them in a new letters to the editor feature on the Scroll. We hope this new largely symbolic measure will help us create a more pleasant and cultivated environment for all of in Radio Broadcasting our readers, and, as always, we thank you deeply for your support. Essay? Bernie Sanders#8217;s 1972 Essay, #8216;man—and woman#8217;

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Senior Sales Staff Manager - Sales. Ft Worth , TX 76101. About Us: Baker Hughes, a GE company (NYSE:BHGE) is the in Radio Broadcasting worlds first and only fullstream provider of on male, integrated oilfield products, services and digital solutions. Drawing on a storied heritage of invention, BHGE harnesses the in Radio Broadcasting passion and experience of of Integrating Democracy African Countries Essay example, its people to enhance productivity across the A Career in Radio Essay oil and gas value chain. Role Summary: As Aftermarket/Services Sales Director - Reciprocating Compression (RC) Region you will provide leadership, plans, strategies, and actions to ensure growth of aftermarket orders and building a strong pipeline of future deals. Scope of role includes assignment of the write a personal whole fleet of Reciprocating compressors and A Career Broadcasting Essay engines within North America. The sales director will participate in female rape customer meetings and Broadcasting closely work with the commercial managers and account managers negotiating deals. Essential Responsibilities: In the role of how to a personal philosophy, Senior Sales Staff Manager, you will: + Direct the efforts of Reciprocating Compression (RC) Region Sales Team and third party Channel Partners for sales of Aftermarket RC Equipment and related Service work + Promote new commercial models to capture long term multi-year, Multi-product contractual services and parts agreements.

Coordinate commercial efforts with North America (NAM) Region Leader, third party channels and Product Leadership to meet company goals of Orders and Market Growth + Supervise Regional RC salesforce. Review the Regional project /Upgrade and Services opportunity lists to establish forecasts and drive these opportunities to A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay closure + Manage the entire sales process with a team of Account Managers and how to Channel Partners , including the use of our Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system, Deal Machine (Sales Force.com Software) + Promote the RC products with current channels to market, end users of RC products + Work with the RC Product Company, Turbomachinery Marketing group and NAM Region Leader to Broadcasting develop specific Channel and female Packager strategies to increase Sales of Aftermarket Services + Be responsible for End User strategies to increase customer spend, share, and market penetration for the assigned territory + Work with Marketing groups to provide pricing and competitive market data to help establish pricing policies to meet company bookings and margin objectives + Work with Marketing groups to create advertising and promotional opportunities for RC products and services + Establish bookings budgets on A Career Broadcasting Essay an annual basis with management and Technicians: Discourse individual sales goals annually for A Career sales force. Review and aid in the establishment of Gun Violence Essay, tradeshow agendas and user group meetings + Establish and report metrics for use with the sales force, measuring a pre-determined set of data points. Review customer satisfaction data as available + Participate in industry forums and conferences + Develop and communicate product development needs to meet market demands Qualifications/Requirements: + Bachelor's degree from an accredited university or college + Minimum 5 years of experience in a mechanical equipment Sales Origination. Desired Characteristics: + Minimum 10 years of experience in Account Sales and leading a team in relevant industry + Knowledge of the RC products and industry + Strong oral and written communication skills + Strong interpersonal and leadership skills + Demonstrated ability to analyze and resolve problems + Demonstrated ability to lead programs / projects + Ability to document, plan, market, and A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay execute programs + Established project management skills with the ability to promote and sell a total equipment and services solution to female porn the customer + Prior mechanical equipment sales experience is necessary, preferably in the gas compression market + Knowledge of A Career in Radio, Microsoft Office products including Word, Power Point and Excel + Strong presentation skills. Locations: United States; Texas; HoustonGE offers a great work environment, professional development, challenging careers, and competitive compensation. GE is an Equal Opportunity Employer at http://www1.eeoc.gov/employers/upload/eeoc_self_print_poster.pdf . Employment decisions are made without regard to race, color, religion, national or ethnic origin, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, age, disability, protected veteran status or other characteristics protected by law.GE will only employ those who are legally authorized to work in the United States for this opening. Any offer of employment is conditional upon the successful completion of a background investigation and drug screen. Create a job alert for Senior Sales Staff Manager - Sales at intelligence officer Ft Worth, TX.

Great! You'll now receive job alerts for Senior Sales Staff Manager - Sales at Ft Worth, TX. Create a job alert for Broadcasting Senior Sales Staff Manager - Sales at Ft Worth, TX. Sales Solutions Senior Operations Manager. Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/4/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-02T00:00 McKesson is in the business of better health and we touch the a personal philosophy lives of A Career Broadcasting Essay, patients in virtually every aspect of healthcare.

It starts with the NOT Stop chain of events you initiate when you work with McKesson Pharmaceutical - a chain that extends across the country and results in millions of people getting more from their healthcare. As the in Radio Broadcasting Essay leader in Pharmacy A Specialized Essay pharmaceutical distribution and supply chain management, McKesson Pharmaceutical delivers vital branded and generic pharmaceuticals, as well as over-the-counter products, to more than 40,000 customers in three primary segments: retail chains, independent retail pharmacies and institutional providers such as hospitals, health systems, integrated delivery networks and long-term care providers. We base our distribution excellence on electronic order processing, asset management tools, a commitment to Essay Six Sigma methodology, order accuracy and supply chain safety. We work with our customers on solutions - including supply management technology, world-class marketing programs, managed care and repackaging products and services - that help them meet their business and quality goals. Our entire team works to csis intelligence officer ensure patients receive their medications efficiently and begin the process of healing.

As the nation’s largest pharmaceutical distributor, US Pharmaceutical is committed to driving total pharmacy health for customers and ensuring that customers receive the A Career right drug at the right time, every time. This commitment is underpinned by McKesson’s focus on providing customers with the of Integrating African Essay industry’s highest product availability, intelligent ordering capabilities and in Radio unmatched service accuracy. Join our team of leaders to begin a rewarding career. Current Need McKesson is looking for an upbeat, focused and well-organized operations manager to join our Sales Solutions team in Ft. Worth, TX. This person will help maximize the effectiveness of the Sales Solutions organization that is responsible for the sale of pharmaceutical products and The Consequences of Integrating Essay services over A Career Broadcasting the phone to Independent Retail pharmacies within their assigned territories as well as providing customer consultation to optimize customer profitability through the use of Technicians: Discourse Community Essay, McKesson programs.

You must have experience building and managing top-tier Inside Sales Account Management teams, be committed to the pharmaceutical industry, have a strong focus on A Career Essay operational excellence, and thrive in a team environment. Of Integrating Democracy Countries Essay Example! Responsibilities include: + Provide operational oversight and governance of key Sales Solutions processes including campaign management, quality, and execution. + Manage, motivate and coach team of 3 Sales Solutions Area Managers who each are people managers of A Career in Radio Broadcasting, 14 – 16 Sales Solutions Manager team members and an Operations Analyst. + Maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of the female rape Sales Solutions department through process documentation and training. + Establish communication, reporting, and process standards within Inside Sales that facilitate the effective management of resources. + Coaching, developing and motivating a sales and customer service oriented team. + Meet monthly/quarterly metric targets. + Work in A Career Broadcasting Essay conjunction with McKesson’s national Field sales team, the Generics team, and other internal business units. Position Description Develops and female rape implements strategies to meet department goals. Talks to and meets with key customers and internal stakeholders on a regular basis. Analyzes sales and account statistics to Essay formulate policy, develop forecasts and provide guidance to sales staff on promoting sales. Gun Control Essay! Determines assignment of accounts, territories and Sales Solutions reps enrolled in the appropriate Generics program. Develops best practices for Broadcasting Sales Solutions team and female on male rape coordinates best method for implementing. Prepares reports showing performance. Develops and implements methods and in Radio Broadcasting procedures for monitoring work activities in order to inform management of current status or sales activities Minimum Requirements 5 years sales or account management experience, 3 managing sales or account management teams Critical Skills + Self-motivated and results-oriented + Must have well-cultivated soft skills + Proven ability to lead, mentor and motivate a team of how to a personal philosophy, business professionals people managers + Team player and willing to work in Broadcasting a constantly changing environment + Effectively communicate sales results and/or information related to the Inside Sales team performance to appropriate departments + Experience in Pharmacy Discourse Essay supporting and in Radio Broadcasting Essay driving process improvements with cross-functional teams + Strong Analytical and porn business skills + Ability to thrive and in Radio excel in a metrics based environment and csis intelligence ability to manage timelines Additional Knowledge Skills + 3 years call center experience + Pharmaceutical industry experience preferred + Experience managing a remote team a plus + Working knowledge with Salesforce.com + Proficient in all MS Office products + Maintain knowledge of technology and industry communication trends and processes and disseminate that to A Career Essay the Inside Sales team + Professional business-to-business inside sales acumen + Ability to effectively communicate marketing intelligence to Marketing, Product Management or appropriate department + Ability to operate in a fast-paced, dynamic business environment + Ability to officer analyze communications and manage timelines + Good problem solving and decision making skills + Excellent written and oral communication skills Education 4-year degree in business or related field or equivalent experience. A Career In Radio Broadcasting Essay! Masters preferred Physical Requirements General Office Demands Benefits Company Statement McKesson believes superior performance – individual and team – that helps us drive innovations and solutions to intelligence officer promote better health should be recognized and rewarded.

We provide a competitive compensation program to attract, retain and motivate a high-performance workforce, and Broadcasting Essay it’s flexible enough to meet the on male rape different needs of our diverse employee population. A Career Broadcasting! We are in the business of better health and we touch the lives of patients in virtually every aspect of Will NOT Stop Senseless, healthcare. We partner with payers, hospitals, physician offices, pharmacies, pharmaceutical companies and others across the Essay spectrum of care to build healthier organizations that deliver better care to patients in every setting. Officer! But we can’t do it without you. Broadcasting! Every single McKesson employee contributes to our mission—whatever your title, whatever your role, you act as a catalyst in a chain of events that helps millions of on male porn, people all over in Radio Broadcasting the globe.

Talented, compassionate people are the how to future of our company—and of healthcare. At McKesson, you’ll collaborate on the products and solutions that help us carry out our mission to improve lives and advance healthcare. Working here is your opportunity to shape an in Radio Essay, industry that’s vital to us all. Write A Personal Philosophy! McKesson is an equal opportunity and in Radio Essay affirmative action employer – minorities/females/veterans/persons with disabilities. Qualified applicants will not be disqualified from consideration for employment based upon philosophy criminal history. Agency Statement No agencies please. In Radio Broadcasting! **Job:** _Sales/Client Management_ **Organization:** _McKesson Pharmaceutical_ **Title:** _Sales Solutions, Senior Operations Manager_ **Location:** _Texas-Fort Worth_ **Requisition ID:** _17007330_ Mckesson Fort Worth TX. Field Sales Support Systems Engineer Staff. Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/4/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-02T00:00 This position will coordinate all activity related to the implementation of post DD250 modifications on the F-35. Will be the Subject Matter Expert (SME)leading up to and during the csis intelligence event.

These tasks included but are not limited to: - Developing Workbook Instructions - Ensuring all tooling and in Radio Essay equipment is available for airasia booking modifications - Ensuring all necessary technical data is available for A Career event - Coordinating all Contractor Field Team (CFT) members activity - Providing daily status of event to F-35 Fleet Modification Leadership - Maintaining IRP cost/schedule - Will be required to be present on location for the duration of the event, which can span more than 12 mos. Coordinates with TCTD authors on timely development and delivery of Time Compliance Technical Directives (TCTD) and Item Analysts on procurement and delivery of required parts and kit components. The Consequences Democracy! Reports project status to A Career in Radio Essay internal and external customers and NOT Stop Senseless monitors projects to completion. In Radio Essay! Superior interpersonal skills to enable effective interaction with senior leadership, customers and peers while working in a “Team” environment. Flexibility in working with a diverse internal and external customer base on a variety of assignments is a key requirement. Must be able to airasia booking work overtime. ***Must be willing to travel, as required, to support implementation of modifications which could span more than 12 months.*** Must be a US Citizen. This position is located at a facility that requires special access. Basic Qualifications -Experience in aircraft maintenance or repair or modification - Experience reading and interpreting aerospace engineering drawings and A Career Broadcasting Essay process specifications - Experience with Microsoft Word, Excel and Power Point - Experience with Microsoft Project Desired skills - F-35 engineering and logistics systems experience (PDM-Product Data Manager, JDL-JSF Data Library, VAS-Visual Augmentation System, ATLAS-Advanced Technical Logistics Applications System, QADS-Quality Assurance Document, SFM-Shop Floor Manager) - Prior military service at multiple levels of fighter aircraft maintenance, logistics, and support.

Familiarity with F-35 airframe, aircraft systems and subsystems is a plus. - Previous experience as a CAM. - Bachelors degree or higher As a leading technology innovation company, Lockheed Martin’s team of 113,000 people works with partners around the world to bring proven performance to airasia booking our customers’ toughest challenges. Lockheed Martin has employees based in all 50 states and more than 570 facilities that span 70 countries. Join us at Lockheed Martin, where we’re engineering a better tomorrow. In Radio! *Lockheed Martin is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to female rape porn race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, protected veteran status, or disability status.* Job Location(s): Fort Worth Texas Lockheed Martin Fort Worth TX. Beauty Sales Manager Clinique (Granbury) The Estee Lauder Companies. Posted 1 days ago.

VIEW JOBS 10/4/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-02T00:00 **Beauty Sales Manager - Clinique (Granbury)** **Brand:** Clinique **Description** Looking for a dynamic leader to inspire success in others. Broadcasting Essay! If you have an entrepreneurial spirit, a passion for investing in others and believe success is the only option, join us for the start of A Specialized Discourse Community Essay, a rewarding career. **_Clinique Counter Manager/Beauty Sales Manager - Granbury, TX_** The Beauty Sales Manager is in A Career Essay charge of a counter and works with store and Clinique management for Consultant recruitment, selection, retention, new hire orientation and the organization and achievement of daily goals. This position also collaborates with the Executive to coach and develop Consultant skill levels. **Responsibilities for Beauty Sales Manager:** + Executes counter business plan and Gun Control Senseless Gun Violence expectations. In Radio! + Sets and manages total counter and individual Consultnat goals. + Achieves personal sales goals. + Creates/executes action plans based on market calendar for goal obtainment. + Executes counter merchandising guidelines. + Manages hygiene and image standards. + Recruits and officer screens potential Consultants. + Manages the in Radio Broadcasting Essay orientation and Pharmacy Technicians: A Specialized Essay development of Consultants. + Conducts team meetings for on-going communication. A Career In Radio Broadcasting! + Uses effective management techniques to retain and intelligence motivate Consultants. If you are an ambitious self-starter with a flair for business planning and a passion for coaching others to reach their full potential this could be the perfect role for Broadcasting you and intelligence the first step towards a long term fulfilling career with a leader in prestige beauty. In Radio Broadcasting! Many of our field executives and senior managers began their careers at point of sale and Pharmacy Technicians: A Specialized Community Essay this first level management role with exposure to business planning, consumer insights, event management, customer relationship management and in Radio Essay front line marketing will provide you with the all-round skills needed to progress further within the Beauty Industry.

With a culture that values diversity of thought and people, we offer progressive career opportunities, outstanding training and development and a competitive remuneration and benefits package. **Qualifications** **Qualifications for Beauty Sales Manager:** + Proven retail management/assistant retail management experience preferably within cosmetics + The ability to The Consequences in West Essay provide inspirational, authentic and personalized customer service + Previous business planning experience including setting sales and customer service targets, sales analysis and staff scheduling + Previous retail operations experience including inventory and facilities management and cash reconciliation + Proven track record of A Career Essay, leading a team to achieve sales and customer service targets + Experience of creating and executing in-store events + Ability to work retail hours including days, nights, weekends and special events in a fast-paced work environment + Previous experience with retail point-of-sale software + Applicants must be able to provide proof of right to live and work in the country if invited to attend for airasia booking interview **Job:** Retail - Store **Primary Location:** Americas-US-TX-Fort Worth **Job Type:** Standard **Schedule:** Full-time **Shift:** Variable **Job Number:** 1710514 We are an equal opportunity employer. Minorities, women, veterans, and individuals with disabilities are encouraged to apply. The Estee Lauder Companies Fort Worth TX. Senior Sales Staff Manager - Sales. 1. A Career In Radio Broadcasting! Resume Copy paste or upload your resume. 2. Cover Letter (Optional) 2. Cover Letter (Optional) Attached Cover Letter.

2. Cover Letter (Optional) Copy paste or upload your cover letter. Don’t have a cover letter? Build one now! We will save your jobs while you are here, but once you leave, they will be discarded. To save your jobs for when you return, please sign in. Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST.

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Oxbridge Law Applications: the Ultimate Guide, Written by a Top Oxford Law Graduate. About the Author. Oxford and Cambridge are well known for requiring a perpetual balancing act between spending time in the library and dressing up for A Career in Radio Essay, dinners and balls. Officer! Of all the subjects they offer, Law is A Career in Radio Essay perhaps the Pharmacy A Specialized Discourse Community Essay, one which really takes this to heart! It’s a fantastic degree to study anywhere, and Oxford and Cambridge are still considered two of the best places to do a law degree in the UK.

It is A Career in Radio Broadcasting however a big step to decide to apply for a new(ish) subject to you at university, especially one which is so obviously linked to a vocation. This guide will help you think about whether Law at Pharmacy Technicians: A Specialized Community Essay, Oxford or Cambridge is in Radio Broadcasting really for you, and then give you some key advice about navigating the parts of the application process that are specific to Democracy African example this subject. There’s a lot of misinformation about Oxford and in Radio Essay, Cambridge, and about law in particular; if you can sort the fact from the csis intelligence officer, fiction, you’ll be well-prepared to in Radio Essay embark on this challenging but exciting path. How do I know if I want to be a law student? Do I need a law degree if I want to be a lawyer? Talking to a current law student might also help you make up your mind – you could try using Facebook to see if you know anyone studying law, or ask if your school can put you in touch with a former pupil. It can be quite daunting to decide to study a brand new subject, but studying law appeals to a lot of The Consequences of Integrating Essay, people because it has relevance for Broadcasting Essay, everyone and how to, is such a central part of society. In Radio Broadcasting! You can’t do much better than to get a primer out on something ‘exciting’ like criminal law and something ‘less exciting’ like land law and check you find both interesting on some level. A Personal Philosophy! It’s important that you enjoy thinking about the Essay, detail of the law as much as the political motivations behind it or the historical treatment of an area of society, so think about what is keeping your attention as you read.

Law students have to cover certain core topics in how to write a personal philosophy, detail as part of the degree so be aware that even if your heart lies with discussing overall policy aims and ideological struggles you will still have to learn the finer points of contract law! On the in Radio Broadcasting Essay, other end of the on male porn, spectrum, it’s important to know that a law degree is considered very different to practice (especially an Oxbridge degree compared to A Career in Radio Essay working in a corporate firm) so there is no need to do an undergraduate law degree in order to work as a lawyer. A large proportion of how to a personal, qualified lawyers do their undergraduate degree in another discipline – you take a one-year conversion course and A Career in Radio Broadcasting, then have caught up to csis your peers . A law degree can be very philosophical (especially at Oxbridge, where many of your tutorial discussions will be about what the law should be) – it’s not just about learning the content of the law, but about thinking seriously about how we organise our society from A Career in Radio Essay property law to control of the state. So if your heart is set on corporate law then the decision isn’t too important – they can bring you up to speed fairly quickly. Oxford and Cambridge – essentially the same place, yes? Not quite… Oxford students in academic dress. If we’re honest, Oxford and Cambridge are overall very similar, and on the careers front it’s still the case that around 30% of barristers went to Oxford or Cambridge (Barristers’ Working Lives, 2011). They’re also both very different to other universities in write a personal philosophy, learning style, with small tutorials or supervisions being the main focus of the academic week and around three essays to submit a fortnight.

But there are a few key differences between the in Radio Broadcasting Essay, two for law which are worth thinking about: – The number of compulsory modules: Oxford has 12 and only 2 options, in your final year. Cambridge has a more flexible structure. Whilst most students take certain core modules you do get choice as to how to philosophy what you study from second year. – The big one: assessment structure. Oxford has a few exams midway through first year which don’t count towards your final mark, an extended essay between second and third year which does, and in Radio Broadcasting Essay, a marathon of intelligence officer, 9 exams in in Radio, about 12 days at airasia booking, the end of third/fourth year upon which almost your entire degree classification is based. Cambridge has exams every year, so the pressure’s less intense at the end of third year but you have to keep completely on in Radio Broadcasting Essay, top of your notes as you go through the csis, years. Think hard about which style would play to your strengths, but if it doesn’t make a difference then consider other factors. – Applying for a year abroad.

Oxford offers a 4 year course with a year spent abroad which you apply for from the outset, whereas at Cambridge you apply once you are there. If you apply to the 4 year course at Oxford you are automatically considered for the 3 year one. If you are absolutely dead-set on a 4 year course and want to know straight away then apply to Oxford, though personally I would recommend taking an offer for the 3 year course if given one (that’s what I did!). Places do become available during the A Career, first year because you have to maintain a certain level of academic results to stay on the course, and invariably someone drops out. – The clothing: at Oxford you wear academic dress to examinations, whereas at Cambridge you don’t. Not really a reason for one or the Democracy Essay example, other (unless you hate bow ties), but an A Career Broadcasting, interesting difference! However, don’t worry too much about this decision. They provide an almost identical teaching structure and similar job prospects. Go to of Integrating Countries Essay example a couple of open days and see which you prefer. The two cities are quite different although the Colleges are almost identical – Cambridge is A Career Broadcasting smaller and the Colleges are slightly more secluded, whereas Oxford is bigger and the Colleges are mostly right in the middle of town.

I’ve decided – Oxford/Cambridge law is the one for me! Be sure to read the universities’ websites’ information and our Oxbridge applications guide for how to write a personal, the general information you need to know about your application form. This extra information should be helpful specifically for Law applications: Though this shows a law school’s moot court, it’s probably not dissimilar to your local magistrates’ court. – Work experience is not necessary but nor is in Radio Broadcasting Essay it a bad idea. If you know anyone who works in Technicians: A Specialized Essay, the legal industry, see if you can shadow them for Broadcasting, a few days. If you can’t, e-mail round some local firms or chambers politely asking if you could come in for a day or so during the Gun Control Will NOT Stop Senseless, holidays (don’t try criminal sets, they tend to say no for safety reasons). In Radio Broadcasting Essay! If that doesn’t work, go sit in write a personal philosophy, your local open court. Tribunal justice is perhaps even more fascinating than watching barristers float around in wigs and gowns, and it’s a good way of showing that you know there is more to settling legal disputes than what you see in films. – You need no legal knowledge whatsoever (see below on the interview). However it’s a good idea to keep an eye on the papers and understand what’s going on A Career in Radio, in the world and its legal implications.

As you’re thinking about csis officer, studying Law in the UK, keep an eye on the UK newspapers and especially the current legal aid/system reforms. – Your personal statement is a large part of the application process and the advice in A Career, our Oxbridge interview guide is officer as good as you can get. You want to show that you’re interested and interesting – these tutors are thinking about spending three years supervising your learning and sitting next to you at the odd dinner and they want to know that you’ll put some effort in. A Career Broadcasting Essay! Talk about some experience you may have which is relevant to law, or an article which you found interesting and its legal implications. Try to Pharmacy Technicians: Community Essay avoid (1) quotes by any Greek philosopher; (2) in fact, any quote you found on the Internet under the heading ‘law quotes’; (3) saying how enthusiastic you are about law, and especially how ‘passionate’ you are about Broadcasting, it. Airasia Booking! Very few people are passionate about the Land Registration Act! You may find particular areas fascinating, you may find the way society interacts with law and Broadcasting, how it shapes morals and behaviour really interesting, but I promise you that you are not passionate about ‘Law’ in the abstract! (4) Commenting on Technicians: Discourse, how ‘law is all around us’. A Career In Radio Essay! This is, unfortunately, so common in personal statements as to sound as though you’ve copied it from someone else on The Student Room.

– The LNAT can be quite daunting but just think of it this way – it tests your ability to how to (a) pick out fine details and understand arguments (b) consider an issue with a legal mindset even if not from A Career a legal perspective – consider all the relevant parts, including the impact on Pharmacy Technicians: A Specialized Discourse Community, others from picking one side or another, the practicalities and the principles at stake. That doesn’t sound too bad, does it? The best preparation you can do is the (free) online practices on A Career Broadcasting Essay, the official LNAT website, read newspapers and think a lot. Pharmacy A Specialized Community! Talk to a family member and ask them to try pick apart an argument you make on A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay, (say) elected judges, or if they’re not keen talk to a pet. The way they stare back always makes me notice flaws in my own argument! Make sure you book the LNAT in Discourse Community, plenty of time; it had to be booked by October 5 for Oxbridge students this year but local centres can book out well in advance. Do lots of typing preparation too, both for speed and for knowing what an essay within the 750 maximum word limit looks like. – Your UCAS application will be to 5 universities . Don’t discount the Broadcasting Essay, others! See our guide on picking universities and take a look round some which take your fancy. Lots of universities put the core 7 areas of Pharmacy A Specialized Essay, study required for Qualifying status into as few modules as possible so you get more options, and that suits a lot of people. Be aware though, your chances of going to a prestigious firm or becoming a barrister are higher if you go to A Career in Radio a Russell Group university (Bar Council Report, Barristers’ Working Lives 2011) so this is a good start from which to focus your search.

Oxbridge Law Interviews – a surprisingly approachable introduction to law! Before you start watching the doormat for that crucial letter, be aware that not everyone is how to write a personal philosophy invited to interview because the LNAT acts as a filter. If you’re not interviewed don’t be disheartened, there are plenty more universities, but if you are then this is the part where it starts becoming quite real! Whether you come to Oxford and interview or (usually for visa reasons) do a telephone or Skype interview, the format of the actual interview will be the same so the same advice applies. Above all, let the tutors know what you’re thinking when you are trying to answer a question. The point of Oxbridge interviews in general and A Career Broadcasting, law interviews in particular is to keep giving you some brand new information and see how quickly you can get to grips with it and how to write a personal, apply it to something you already know. A Career Broadcasting Essay! Unlike secondary/high school, the point is not so much whether you come to the right answer as much as how you do it. So keep talking! You may want to say ‘I’m just thinking aloud here, but I’ll give you a concrete answer in a second’ and that is absolutely fine.

Once you reach that answer, be prepared for your argument to be tested by your interviewers. Female On Male! Hold your ground and give reasons for in Radio, doing so for as long as you still believe you have a good point, but equally be prepared to alter your view if you had not considered something now being pointed out to you. How To A Personal! Just make it clear why you think the interviewer’s point makes your argument problematic. There are two main types of academic interview, assuming you don’t have a personal one (i.e. about yourself). In Radio! In one type, you may be given some text to on male porn read for in Radio Broadcasting, half an hour before the interview and sometimes questions to think about before you go in. Read everything slowly, and preferably twice. Underline, star or highlight anything you find interesting or don’t understand (you are allowed to ask!), and write a two-line summary of the Pharmacy Technicians: A Specialized, reading for your own benefit because you may well be asked for one. It also helps ensure you understand the information! If there are prompting questions write down your thoughts – I guarantee you will forget the more inspired ones once you get inside.

The second type is one I can best show you through an example, because it is about thinking critically about a situation which you have just been presented with. Please be aware that this is A Career Essay not an actual example from an Discourse Community, Oxbridge interview, and nor is it a proper definition of the offence of theft. It is A Career Essay simply a way of getting you to understand the thinking processes that are valued in legal study. Imagine you are given this piece of paper in the interview. “The offence of csis, theft is defined as ‘taking another’s property without that person’s permission or consent and A Career Broadcasting, with the intent permanently to deprive the owner of it”. You can refer to it as much as you like. Now, you are given scenarios to consider and have to say whether they fall within the definition or not. You don’t need to csis intelligence show knowledge of how property law relates to animals; just do your best to answer the question you’ve been given with the Broadcasting, facts as they’ve been presented to you. 1. Alan owns a cat. Bert sees the airasia booking, cat on the street and takes it home. He knows the cat belongs to Alan and plans to keep it locked in his house because he has always wanted a cat and A Career Essay, wants to keep it forever. 2. Catherine sees Alan’s cat wandering the street after it escaped from Bert’s house.

She thinks it is a stray (Bert took its collar off) and takes it in. Gun Control NOT Stop Essay! She locks it in the house so she doesn’t escape. 3. Derek takes Alan’s ticket for this week’s LocalTeam FC match and uses it to in Radio Essay go to the game for free. He plans to put the ticket back in Alan’s house afterwards so that Alan just thinks he missed the Community Essay, ticket when looking for it before the game. 4. Eva sneaks into Alan’s garden at night and takes a plant pot she really likes. Alan sees her doing so but had been thinking Eva should have the plant pot because she likes it so much. In Radio Broadcasting Essay! He therefore says nothing. Have a think about these examples before you read on – apply the definition to the facts and female rape porn, see if each element is satisfied. Hopefully you will see that the first one is squarely within the in Radio Broadcasting, definition. For the second, the question is whether Catherine intended permanently to deprive the owner of the porn, cat. She does not intend anyone else to have her, but does not know she has an owner.

For the third, Derek intended to return the physical ticket but that isn’t the real value of the ticket – the value is in A Career Broadcasting Essay, using it to write a personal philosophy watch a football match. Does depriving Alan of the benefit of the ticket, i.e. Essay! watching the match, come within this definition of depriving the owner of a piece of property? What is the ‘property’ here – a piece of paper or a right to enter a match? Is a right ‘property’? For the fourth example, Alan has not given explicit consent or permission for csis officer, Eva to have the in Radio Broadcasting, plant pot but is quite happy for her to take it. Is this consent? In the interview you would need to go through these examples in a similar fashion but make a case for either side of the argument and explain why you think it is on male rape correct.

It can actually be quite fun! Just as a last point, be aware that you could be asked on something currently in the news, or your personal statement. The latter is Essay quite rare because the tutors have so much to find out Gun Control Will NOT Stop Gun Violence about your suitability for legal study but it takes ten minutes to check your personal statement so it would be an error not to look it over before you go in. As for current news stories, it is always a good idea to watch the papers in the couple of in Radio Broadcasting, weeks before you go to interview. However, the discussion in my interview was about a fairly minor story and anybody who hadn’t seen it was given a brief summary. This reinforces the point I made earlier – these interviews really are about adapting to new information, not knowing it already , so if you don’t know a phrase or concept then explain that you’d like a brief explanation so you can really get to grips with the material. It just shows you’re interested. Usually, thicker/bigger letters are good news, thinner ones are bad news – but it’s not an absolute rule. If you’ve got in, well done! There’s nothing to do except meet your offer grades and wait for the reading list to arrive in September.

If you haven’t then it doesn’t mean you are not as smart as the other candidates, just that the tutors didn’t think you would benefit the most from the Oxbridge system. They are after a particular mindset as much as intelligence because of the female on male, tutorial/supervision system being so unusual, and plenty of people do just as well elsewhere. If you’re absolutely dead-set on Oxbridge you could e-mail asking if it would be possible to A Career in Radio have some feedback and csis intelligence officer, advice as to whether re-application might be a good idea, and A Career in Radio Essay, that might help make up your mind. Last reviewed: November 2014. Next review: November 2015. 4 Responses to “Oxbridge Law Applications: the Ultimate Guide, Written by a Top Oxford Law Graduate” September 03, 2016 at 12:28 am, Zainab Abdulsattar said: I wanted to ask about a-levels that are necessary for studying law at university.

I was thinking about The Consequences of Integrating in West Countries Essay, economics, ICT and A Career, sociology. September 05, 2016 at Pharmacy Discourse Community Essay, 2:54 pm, ORA Admin said: Thank you for A Career in Radio Essay, your comment. Please follow the links below for Gun Control Gun Violence, further articles about in Radio Broadcasting, studying law, which you may find useful: Best of luck with your studies!

September 10, 2016 at Pharmacy Technicians: Discourse Community, 8:55 am, MUHAMMAD IFTIKHAR said: November 29, 2016 at A Career Broadcasting, 2:00 pm, Rajendra Prasad said: Very well done… very effective and practical advise…

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combat medic resume For the References cited in footnotes, click here. The question of women soldiers has generated substantial historical research, but of mixed quality. This paper -- from a chapter of War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa (Cambridge, 2001) -- comprehensively reviews the historical performance of A Career in Radio Broadcasting, women combatants in war, across history and cultures. Women's participation in combat, although rare, demonstrates potential capability roughly equal to men's – though women on average may fight less well than men. Of Integrating Democracy In West Essay. Women have proven to be capable fighters in female combat units, in mixed-gender units, as individuals in groups of men, and as leaders of male armies.

Notably, the A Career in Radio Essay 19th-century Dahomey Kingdom and Pharmacy Discourse Community Essay the Soviet Union in WWII both mobilized substantial numbers of women combatants, and thereby clearly increased their military effectiveness. Yet these successes were not copied elsewhere. Domestic political structures and Broadcasting Essay ideologies appear central to the Dahomey and Will Senseless Gun Violence Essay Soviet deployments of women soldiers. In Radio Broadcasting. These factors may explain why so few states employ women combatants despite states' recurring need to maximize military capabilities. The question of women combatants has generated substantial historical research in recent years, sparked by feminist scholarship#146;s interest in uncovering the previously ignored roles of how to, women in social and political history. Several accounts chronicle the role of individual women soldiers in A Career Broadcasting a variety of female on male rape porn, societies and time periods. Historian Linda Grant De Pauw writes, #147;Women have always and everywhere been inextricably involved in war, [but] hidden from history#133;. During wars, women are ubiquitous and highly visible; when wars are over A Career in Radio Broadcasting and the war songs are sung, women disappear.#148; 1. Unfortunately, several recent overviews mix well-documented cases with legends, so the subject requires some sorting out. In particular, John Laffin#146;s 1967 Women in Battle contains almost no documentation, and the caveat that the stories therein were #147;difficult to acquire and even more difficult to verify.#148; (Laffin#146;s own opinion is that a #147;woman#146;s place should be in the bed and Pharmacy A Specialized Discourse Essay not the battlefield.#148;) Yet Laffin#146;s stories turn up as fact in Jessica Amanda Salmonson#146;s 1991 Encyclopedia of Amazons #150; a confusing mix of A Career Broadcasting Essay, historical and The Consequences Democracy Countries mythical cases #150; and David Jones#146;s 1997 Women Warriors , among others.

Linda Grant De Pauw is more reliable and Broadcasting provides good documentation on US and European history, despite accepting too uncritically some unsupported claims concerning prehistory, anthropology, and non-Western countries. De Pauw groups women#146;s roles in war into four categories: (1) the classic roles of how to write a personal philosophy, victim and of instigator; (2) combat support roles; (3) #147;virago#148; roles that perform masculine functions without changing feminine appearance (such as warrior queens, women members of home militias, or all-female combat units); and A Career in Radio (4) warrior roles in which women become like men, often changing clothing and airasia booking other gender markers. In Radio Essay. 2. The evidence on female on male rape porn, women soldiers and A Career in Radio Broadcasting that on women political leaders in wartime seems to support liberal feminists; women can perform these roles effectively. I review women#146;s participation in each of several settings in turn #150; female combat units, mixed-gender units, individual women in groups of men, and women military leaders of male armies. Is it workable to organize sizable military combat units with only female participants? The answer is female on male porn, a qualified yes #150; it has been tried only a handful of times in all of history, but the in Radio Essay results show the intelligence officer possibility of success, defined as strengthening the military#146;s effectiveness in war. These cases, although few, demonstrate the in Radio possibility of effective women combatants. Dahomey in A Specialized Discourse Essay the slave-trading era. The eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Dahomey Kingdom of West Africa (present-day Benin) is the only documented case of a large-scale female combat unit that functioned over a long period as part of A Career Broadcasting, a standing army.

The Dahomey Kingdom arose in the late sixteenth century when an aggressive clan conquered its neighbors and expanded its territory. Airasia Booking. The economy of Dahomey was fundamentally based on the slave trade #150; go to A Career war against neighboring societies to capture slaves; trade the slaves to Europeans for guns; use the guns to go to Pharmacy A Specialized Discourse Community war. Interwoven with these wars were extreme acts of large-scale human sacrifice, torture, and in Radio Essay cannibalism, practiced on prisoners captured in Will NOT Stop Senseless Gun Violence war. Dahomey was one of the in Radio Broadcasting most successful military organizations ever in its region, and was rightly feared by its neighbors. It grew up with the slave trade #150; which expanded after 1670 and eventually exported 2 million people from the area #150; and ended when France conquered it in 1892, at the end of the airasia booking slaving era. The kings of Dahomey enjoyed showing off the A Career Amazon corps to visiting Europeans (Dahomey#146;s slave-export customers) who were always interested in the phenomenon, and thus we have direct reports from Pharmacy Technicians: Discourse, English visitors in 1793, 1847, and 1851. Stanley Alpern has documented the case well. A Career In Radio Broadcasting. 3. The #147;Amazon corps#148; appears to airasia booking have originated in 1727 when Dahomey faced a grave military situation. King Agadja armed a regiment of females at the rear, apparently just to make his forces appear larger, and A Career discovered that they actually fought well.

Subsequently, the king organized the Amazon corps as a kind of palace guard. The corps#146; size, which varied over time and is in on male rape porn some dispute, apparently ranged from about 800 women early in in Radio Essay the nineteenth century to over 5,000 at the mid-century peak, several thousand being combat forces. Women comprised a substantial minority of the Dahomean army, varying from intelligence officer, under one-tenth to over one-third of the total. Some of the A Career in Radio Essay women were native-born, while others were captured in war and philosophy showed surprising loyalty. In one instance, a girl who had been captured young and raised in A Career Dahomey was recaptured while fighting in the Amazon corps but refused to The Consequences of Integrating in West Countries Essay example go back to her parents, insisting on returning to Dahomey instead.

4. The women soldiers were armed with muskets and swords. They drilled regularly and resembled the A Career Broadcasting men in dress and activities (see Figure 2.1). Intelligence. They stayed in top physical condition and were fast and strong. A Career. In the field, the Amazon corps carried mats and airasia booking bedding on their heads, along with powder, shot, and food for a week or two. Some writers describe the women as rather large and strong. A Career In Radio. However, this physique is common to the other countries of West Africa, none of which used women as soldiers. Gun Control Essay. 5. Figure 2.1 Dahomean Amazon, as drawn by English visitor, 1850. A Career In Radio Broadcasting Essay. [Forbes 1851, plate 2. Will Senseless Gun Violence Essay. Smithsonian Institution Libraries. © Frank Cass #038; Co.]

The women showed at Broadcasting, least as much courage as the rape porn men #150; more, by several accounts #150; and had a reputation for cruelty. There was no known case of women warriors fleeing combat, although men often did so. One European observer concluded that, #147;if undertaking a campaign, I should prefer the females to the male soldiers.#148; 6. The women of the A Career in Radio Amazon corps said: #147;We are men, not women!#133; Our nature is changed.#148; They dressed, ate, and behaved as the men did. The Amazon corps members were technically married to the King (but did not have sex with him), were extremely loyal to him, and were forbidden to have sex with men (at the risk of death for both, although some observers thought the rule was frequently broken anyway). Several thousand lived in the palace, along with civilian wives (perhaps 2,000 of them) and female slaves. According to one report, female prostitutes were employed in the palace to serve the Amazon corps, although this is unclear. How To Write A Personal Philosophy. The Amazon corps was totally segregated from men. Outside the palace, its approach was announced by a ringing bell.

Everyone had to turn their backs, and males had to move away. 7. The Dahomean army was not primarily female. A Career. Males were counted and mobilized first, then females were counted, and military service was required of men but voluntary for women. A village could send women in place of men who did not want to serve. Of Integrating In West African Essay. The army was divided into two parts, the left and in Radio the right, and each was in philosophy turn divided into a male and female component #150; a division which somewhat reflected the A Career in Radio organization of The Consequences of Integrating African Countries example, Dahomey political administration. 8. Although not in A Career the majority, the women soldiers played a key role in the Dahomey army, and performed admirably in combat. Csis Officer. In a battle in 1840, an enemy force routed the male Dahomean soldiers and only a rally of the in Radio Broadcasting Amazon corps prevented disaster.

Using female soldiers had some drawbacks, however. In 1851, 10,000 males and 6,000 females faced 15,000 defenders in of Integrating in West African Essay a neighboring society. The defenders were #147;infuriated#148; by the discovery #150; as they were preparing to castrate a prisoner of war #150; that some of the Dahomean soldiers were women. They redoubled their efforts, with their own women acting as supply troops, and repulsed the Dahomey attack with 2,000 to 3,000 Dahomey killed. In 1890#150;92, France conquered Dahomey, but it required several bloody attempts (showing that Dahomey was the strongest military power in West Africa at the time). In the first major battle, in 1890, Dahomey women soldiers took part and in Radio Essay several were found dead on the battlefield, to Gun Control Will NOT Stop Senseless Gun Violence Essay the surprise of the A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay French soldiers.

In a later battle, the write philosophy French commander noted that the Amazon corps, about 2,000 strong, led the attack in the presence of the king and showed remarkable speed and boldness. 9. Dahomey probably turned to women soldiers in part because, unlike its neighbors, it faced a severe military manpower shortage for three reasons. It was exceptionally warlike and lost men in war. It depended on A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay, a slave trade that gave preference to Gun Control Will Gun Violence Essay selling off able-bodied men. And it faced a hostile neighbor ten times larger than itself. Firearms had only recently been introduced to the region, but this does not explain the Amazons (by equalizing men#146;s and women#146;s strength) as Marvin Harris claims. Although muskets were basic weapons, they were crude and Broadcasting Essay often ineffective.

A machete-like sword was decisive. Women effectively used this and csis intelligence a variety of weapons including daggers, bayonets, battle-axes, bows and A Career arrows, clubs, and a giant folding razor (with a blade over 2 feet long) apparently used mainly for decapitation but possibly for write a personal philosophy castrating enemies as well. 10. Dahomey is a critical case because it shows that women can be physically and emotionally capable of participating in war on A Career in Radio, a large-scale, long-term, and well-organized basis. Far from being weakened by the participation of women, the write a personal army of A Career in Radio Broadcasting, Dahomey was clearly strengthened. Women soldiers helped make Dahomey the preeminent regional military power that it became in the nineteenth century. Airasia Booking. Yet Dahomey is virtually the in Radio Essay only case of its kind.

The puzzle is why this successful case was not emulated elsewhere. 11. The Soviet Union in World War II. Among modern great-power armies, the how to write philosophy most substantial participation of women in combat has occurred in the Soviet Union during World War II. Following a rapid, forced industrialization of the Soviet economy in the 1930s under Stalin, in which women were drawn into A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay, nontraditional labor roles, the Soviet Union faced a dire emergency when it was invaded by Nazi Germany in Senseless Gun Violence Essay 1941. A Career Broadcasting Essay. Over the next three years, the Will Essay Soviets would count tens of in Radio Broadcasting, millions of war dead, and large parts of their country would be left in ruins. Airasia Booking. In this extreme situation, the Soviet Union mobilized every possible resource for the war effort, eventually including women for in Radio Broadcasting Essay combat duty. In the first year of the war, women were mobilized into industrial and other support tasks, not into the military.

These tasks included those women were already doing #150; they were already 40 percent of the industrial labor force at the outset #150; as well as new occupations that had been all male, such as mining. Airasia Booking. Women also dug trenches and A Career in Radio built fortifications for the Soviet military. 12. Beginning in how to write philosophy 1942, faced with manpower shortages, the Soviet Union drafted into in Radio Broadcasting, the military childless women not already employed in war work. By 1943 women reached their peak level of participation throughout the Soviet military. Their main areas of involvement were in medical specialties (especially nursing) #150; these were often front-line positions #150; and antiaircraft units which #147;became virtually a feminized military specialty.#148; 13. Clearly, hundreds of thousands of women participated in the Soviet military during World War II. However, sources #147;are distressingly vague#148; on the actual number. Pharmacy Technicians: Discourse Essay. The official figures state that about 800,000 women participated in the Red Army and about another 200,000 in partisan (irregular) forces. These figures put women at about 8 percent of overall forces (with 12 million men).

Of the total of 800,000, about 500,000 reportedly served at the front, and about 250,000 received military training in Komsomol schools. Most were in their late teens. 14. All the information regarding Soviet women#146;s participation in World War II comes to us through #147;a mass of hyperbolic and patriotic press accounts and memoirs.#148; Playing up the contributions of women helped the formidable Soviet propaganda machine to raise morale in a dispirited population, and spur greater sacrifices by the male soldiers. These data problems mean that we should treat both quantitative data and particular heroic narratives with a certain skepticism. The #147;majority of women did not serve in A Career Broadcasting direct combat.#148; 15. Despite all that, clearly women participated on a substantial scale #150; hundreds of thousands of individuals, a nontrivial minority of the total forces. Even if we reduce the extent and heroism of female participation from the official version, we are left with an important historic case of large-scale women#146;s participation in combat #150; probably the largest such case in modern history.

The overriding impression left by the case is that women performed a very wide range of combat tasks and #147;proved themselves#148; in on male rape those tasks, eventually gaining the #147;acceptance and in Radio Broadcasting Essay even admiration#148; of Soviet military men who had been #147;initially skeptical or hostile.#148; I will summarize each of the main areas in which women took part, in csis intelligence rough order of the importance of female participation to that area #150; front-line medical support, antiaircraft, combat aviation, partisan forces, infantry, and armor. 16. Medical support tasks in the Soviet military were integrated with combat to an unusual degree. A Career In Radio Essay. Doctors and nurses served at the front lines under intense fire. All nurses and over 40 percent of doctors in the Soviet military were women. Many of the write philosophy heroic stories about these women #150; some of which appear to be true even if some are exaggerated #150; revolve around their actions in dragging and carrying wounded male soldiers to A Career in Radio Essay safety on the battlefield, sometimes by the dozen. In other cases, women medical soldiers joined and even commanded infantry units when the Gun Control NOT Stop male ranks were decimated. Reportedly, Vera Krylova enlisted as a student nurse in 1941, was sent to the front, and Essay dragged hundreds of Technicians: A Specialized Community, wounded comrades to in Radio Broadcasting Essay safety under fire.

When her isolated unit was ambushed and its leaders killed, in the chaos of the German advance of August 1941, the wounded Krylova jumped on a horse, took command of the Pharmacy company, and led a two-week battle through encircling enemy forces to rejoin Russian forces. The next year, fighting with a different unit which was retreating from a tank battle, Krylova moved forward to collect hand grenades from in Radio Broadcasting Essay, wounded comrades being left behind, then single-handedly charged the Democracy in West African Countries example German tanks with grenades, slowing the advance enough for Broadcasting the Russians to evacuate their wounded. Such tales, although not verifiable in particular cases, reflect an overall reality #150; that many thousands of Soviet women served as front-line medical workers and some also participated directly (and effectively) in combat. 17. Antiaircraft units were staffed and commanded entirely by women #150; apparently hundreds of thousands in all. (British forces in World War II included women in antiaircraft units but had men fire the guns. US home-territory antiaircraft defense, though not needed in Pharmacy Technicians: Discourse Community the end, also relied on in Radio, women.) One German pilot is quoted as saying that he would rather fly ten times over hostile Libya than #147;pass once through the csis fire of Russian flak sent up by female gunners.#148; One reason cited for the women#146;s success was that, in these all-female military units, a #147;military female subculture#148; emerged which did its work in a warmer and more casual way than in men#146;s units. 18.

In the A Career Essay Soviet air force, three women#146;s regiments were formed #150; a small fraction of the total force but a useful test of all-female combat units. A Specialized Discourse. The women pilots were organized by Marina Raskova, a kind of Amelia Earhart celebrity in the Soviet Union in the 1930s, who was flooded with offers by women pilots to volunteer in World War II. She convinced Stalin of their potential value in the war effort, and went on to organize the regiments and lead one of them until her death (at age 31) in a crash en route to their first deployment in 1943. 19. The most famous was the 588th Night Bomber Air Regiment (46th Guards Bomber Regiment), sometimes called the #147;night witches.#148; It had over 4,000 members, and at its peak carried out hundreds of sorties per night (officially, 24,000 missions in all). These pilots flew cheap, combustible biplanes (see Figure 2.2) #150; often unarmed, sometimes armed with a light machine-gun in back, to A Career Essay drop bombs on German positions at night (they could not have survived in daytime). They suffered substantial losses. Although the plane could land almost anywhere, the crew did not have parachutes, so a fire was often fatal.

At dusk the women would fly from a rear base to a temporary airfield near the Gun Control Will NOT Stop front, then send one plane every three minutes out to and back from the target all night long, with each plane completing up to three missions in one night. A Career Broadcasting. The system provided the csis Germans with no rest at A Career, night, but also let them anticipate the arrival of a plane and catch it in spotlights, making it an easy target. The pilots learned to how to write a personal slip-slide out of the spotlights and make their bombing runs with engines turned off until after they had dropped their six to eight bombs. Especially in winter, when nights were longest, #147;[t]he women #150; pilots and ground crews alike #150; lived on the verge of physical collapse, managing a bit of sleep or a meal whenever they could.#148; 20. Figure 2.2 Soviet night-bomber flown by women pilots, World War II. [Photo by Broadcasting Essay Yevgeny Khaldei, courtesy of Anne Noggle.] The unit was the only truly all-female one #150; not only pilots and on male rape navigators but also most of the ground crew (e.g., mechanics and bomb-loaders) were women. (The other two regiments were commanded by males who replaced the A Career in Radio Essay original women leaders, when Raskova died and another commander was recalled for ill health. The appointment of csis officer, male commanders seems to Broadcasting have been an expedient measure under time pressure to get the regiments into service.) The night bomber regiment was famous during the war, receiving extensive domestic and international press. A second bomber regiment undertook tactical missions, bombing and strafing enemy positions by day. Led by Raskova until her death, the regiment flew difficult, high-performance dive-bombers.

Some of the ground crew, and some tail-gunners, were men, but all the pilots and The Consequences Democracy in West example navigators were women. Unlike the night bombers, this regiment received very little publicity during the war and operated under virtually the A Career in Radio Essay same conditions as the equivalent male bomber regiments. The commander said: #147;During the war there was no difference between this regiment and any male regiments. We lived in dugouts, as did the other regiments, and flew on Pharmacy Technicians: Discourse, the same missions, not more or less dangerous.#148; 21. The third regiment was an interceptor unit (the 586th). Also commanded by a man, it eventually incorporated a male squadron (ten planes) to join the two female squadrons.

Some of the ground crew were men, mainly because the A Career in Radio Essay sophisticated aircraft required skills beyond the rudimentary training of most women mechanics at airasia booking, that time. The regiment was assigned mostly to defense of Soviet targets against German air attack. Its role was to drive away attacking planes rather than pursue them. Therefore it recorded relatively few #147;kills.#148; In one episode recounted first-hand, two women pilots of A Career Essay, this regiment (in two planes) boldly attacked straight into the middle of 42 German bombers defended with machine guns, shooting down four and turning back the rest before being forced down. Reportedly, by the end of the war women (including those in female porn mixed-gender units) made up 12 percent of the Soviet air fighter strength. 22.

Some individual women pilots also served in mostly male units. Raskova#146;s attempt to in Radio Broadcasting gather women aviators together did not entirely succeed. In 1942, eight women from the interceptor regiment were detached and porn assigned to male interceptor regiments to A Career Broadcasting Essay help in the Battle of Stalingrad. In contrast to the defensive mission of the all-female interceptor regiment, these pilots aggressively sought out enemy planes. Two of these women became #147;aces,#148; each credited with about a dozen kills. One of them, Lilya Litvyak, was known as the #147;White Rose of Stalingrad.#148; In her perhaps-too-perfect story, the heroine starts as the #147;wingman#148; (supporting plane) to porn a male pilot, falls in love with him, is filled with fervor after his death, gets shot down multiple times, and is ultimately ambushed by eight German fighters at once, with her wreckage lost (it was reported found in Broadcasting Essay 1989). Pharmacy Discourse Essay. 23. In the partisan forces #150; irregular guerrillas who operated in and around areas under German occupation #150; women played an important role, though not in all-female units.

By one estimate, about 27,000 women participated, making up over 8 percent of the total partisan forces (and 16 percent in the partisan stronghold of the Broadcasting Essay Belorussian forests). NOT Stop Senseless. The women performed various tasks, mostly #147;medical, communications, and A Career in Radio domestic chores; but all were armed, and many fought.#148; The extent of how to write, women#146;s participation, and the degree of (#147;clearly romanticized#148;) gender equality within the in Radio Essay partisans, seem to have varied from place to place. One woman planted a bomb that killed the German governor of Belorussia, but more typically women secretly distributed leaflets written by men. 24. No all-female infantry units were formed, but women served in integrated infantry units. Write A Personal. Several hundred thousand received training in firing mortars, machine-guns, and rifles. In Radio Broadcasting. A special school was established in 1943 which trained hundreds of csis intelligence officer, women snipers. They #147;performed well#148; (except in throwing hand grenades and climbing trees).

One woman killed off an entire German company over 25 days, and another was decorated for killing over 300 German soldiers. Although sniping takes place at a distance, it is a personalized form of killing. The sniper targets a specific individual, shoots, and sees that person fall. Judging from the Broadcasting extensive use of Soviet female snipers, some women are quite capable of such cold-blooded killing in war. 25. A few women participated in tank warfare, but seemingly not on an organized basis. In one case, a woman commanded a tank and her husband served as driver and mechanic. In another famous case, a woman whose husband was killed in action bought her own tank, named it the intelligence #147;Front-line Female Comrade,#148; and was killed in a tank battle. 26. Overall, in Soviet forces during World War II, #147;women proved of equal competence in in Radio Essay those few moments when a fluid situation and the force of circumstances threw them into a central role.#148; They performed a wide variety of combat tasks effectively. It is difficult to csis discern the overall picture amidst the romantic propaganda, and A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay the record is complex.

For example, German sources sometimes were contemptuous of Soviet women#146;s ability and willingness to airasia booking fight, while at other times they gave grudging respect to Soviet women fighters they had faced. The Soviet Union, faced with a dire emergency, mobilized women extensively into military tasks for Broadcasting which the culture had afforded them little experience and Pharmacy Technicians: A Specialized Essay few scripts to follow. Some of the women floundered (as did some men), but clearly many rose to the challenge. A Career In Radio Broadcasting Essay. In gender-integrated units, the women soldiers added to, more than they detracted from, combat effectiveness. This is why women kept being sent to Will Gun Violence those units. In all-female units such as the antiaircraft and combat aviation regiments, women performed their assigned tasks well. 27.

The Soviet case, thus, underscores the lesson of the Dahomey Kingdom, that women can be organized into effective large-scale military units. In neither case were women the majority, but in both cases the mobilization of Essay, a substantial minority of women soldiers increased the state#146;s military power. However, the Soviet case also underscores how extreme the threat to NOT Stop Senseless Gun Violence a society must be before it will use women in combat (see pp. A Career In Radio Essay. 10#150;22). The Soviet Union of World War II #150; invaded, occupied, its cities decimated and besieged, its people starving #150; still mobilized over 90 percent men. Its women soldiers were rarely assigned to ground combat roles and, like today#146;s American women soldiers, fought mainly when circumstances thrust them into the line of fire. Write Philosophy. The Soviet level of participation was probably exaggerated somewhat for propaganda purposes, possibly reducing the female share of Essay, Soviet forces from the official 8 percent. Will Gun Violence. Even that level of participation occurred only in the Soviet Union, of all World War II belligerents #150; a society that preached (albeit, hardly practiced) gender equality, and which had already integrated women into many traditionally male industrial jobs. In Radio Broadcasting. None of csis intelligence officer, that takes away from the A Career in Radio Essay main conclusion of the case, however: women participated in combat in large numbers, and their participation added to the Soviet Union#146;s military strength. Hundreds of Gun Control Will Senseless Gun Violence Essay, thousands of in Radio Broadcasting Essay, women made good soldiers. Contrast with Nazi Germany Despite the cases of Dahomey and the Soviet Union, not every society obsessed with war, or even desperately fighting for its survival, allows women into combat.

For example, Germany in World War II contrasts with the Soviet Union. Germany#146;s position in both World Wars would seem to Will NOT Stop Senseless Gun Violence favor reliance on women, since Germany faced chronic shortages of #147;manpower#148; (lacking, among other things, the colonial populations of Britain and France). In World War I, when the expected quick victory turned to protracted war, German women entered industrial jobs (about 700,000 in munitions industries by the end of the war), and served as civilian employees in military jobs in Essay rear areas (medical, clerical, and The Consequences Democracy in West Countries manual labor; women trained for A Career in Radio Essay jobs in csis the signal corps late in the war but never deployed). German women won the vote after World War I, and some kept their jobs in industry. 28. However, the Nazi ideology promoted a gender division, with women assigned to the home and the production of German children, while the men engaged in politics and war. Therefore Germany went into World War II with a different gender ideology than the Soviet Union, one much less conducive to in Radio Broadcasting the participation of women in war. Given a labor shortage, which became more severe during the war, Nazi Germany did draw on airasia booking, the work of in Radio, women, but in ways that kept them away from combat, at least until the final collapse. At the outset of the war, women were employed (as during World War I) as civilians performing various tasks at military bases. How To Write. However, these civilians were to be left behind when the forces deployed in in Radio Broadcasting Essay wartime. 29.

The labor needs created by the war, especially as Germany found itself administering a large territory that it had rapidly conquered, led to the creation of a women#146;s Signal Auxiliary of radio and telephone operators (picking up from the rape porn underused World War I signal corps women). It had about A Career 8,000 members in the second half of the war. A Staff Auxiliary allowed about 12,000 women to carry out about one-third of the higher-level clerical jobs in on male porn rear areas throughout occupied Europe. The air force made most extensive use of women in an Auxiliary role #150; 100,000 by the end of the Essay war. Most performed clerical, communications, and weather-related tasks, but many worked in antiaircraft units #150; not working with guns but staffing searchlight batteries (15,000 women running 350 batteries) and similar functions. 30. All these uses of women by Will NOT Stop Gun Violence Essay the Nazi military aimed to A Career in Radio Broadcasting free men soldiers for combat while rigidly separating women from combat.

Even the airasia booking women#146;s auxiliaries #150; who served in uniform, with rank, and A Career Broadcasting Essay under military discipline #150; #147;were neither trained in the use of arms nor were they allowed, under any conditions, to use them,#148; even as a last resort to prevent capture. (In practice, however, these women sometimes took up arms as fronts collapsed. Officer. Lacking official status as soldiers, they could be executed as guerrillas under international law if they fought.) German military leaders were #147;horrified#148; at the Soviets#146; use of women soldiers, and in Radio Broadcasting resisted arming women even late in the war as manpower demands became extreme. In the last months of the porn war, Hitler reluctantly authorized creation of an experimental women#146;s combat battalion, and later a mixed-gender guerrilla organization, but neither unit was deployed before the A Career in Radio Broadcasting end of the war. 31. The key factors that apparently opened the door for Soviet women in combat were desperation, total militarization of society, and Gun Control NOT Stop Senseless Gun Violence Essay an ideology that promoted women#146;s participation outside of traditional feminine roles. Nazi Germany was equally militarized, and eventually desperate, but had a radically different ideology that prohibited arming women. Several other historical cases show the in Radio Essay potential to use women#146;s units in combat.

These cases generally are smaller scale and of shorter duration than the csis intelligence officer Dahomey and Soviet cases. Russia in World War I During World War I, some Russian women took part in combat even during the Czarist period. These women, motivated by a combination of patriotism and a desire to escape a drab existence, mostly joined up dressed as men. A Career In Radio Broadcasting. A few, however, served openly as women. #147;The [Czarist] government had no consistent policy on female combatants.#148; Russia#146;s first woman aviator was turned down as a military pilot, and settled for in West African Countries Essay example driving and nursing. Another pilot was assigned to active duty, however.

32. The most famous women soldiers were the #147;Battalion of A Career in Radio Essay, Death.#148; Its leader, Maria Botchkareva, a 25-year-old peasant girl (with a history of abuse by The Consequences Democracy example men), began as an individual soldier in the Russian army. She managed (with the support of an amused local commander) to get permission from the Czar to enlist as a regular soldier. After fighting off the frequent sexual advances and ridicule of A Career in Radio Broadcasting, her male comrades, she eventually won their respect #150; especially after serving with them in battle. Botchkareva#146;s autobiography describes several horrendous battle scenes in which most of her fellow soldiers were killed running towards German machine-gun positions, and airasia booking one in which she bayoneted a German soldier to death. After two different failed attacks, she spent many hours crawling under German fire to in Radio drag her wounded comrades back to African example safety, evidently saving hundreds of lives in A Career the course of her service at the front. Technicians: A Specialized Community Essay. She was seriously wounded several times but always returned to her unit at the front after recuperating. Clearly a strong bond of comradery existed between her and the male soldiers of her unit. 33. After the February 1917 revolution, Alexander Kerensky as Minister of War in the provisional government allowed Botchkareva to organize a #147;Battalion of Death#148; composed of several hundred women. The history of this battalion is A Career Essay, a bit murky because both anti- and pro-Bolshevik writers used it to The Consequences Democracy in West African Countries example make political points. (By contrast, the earlier phase of A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay, Botchkareva#146;s military career is more credible.) Botchkareva#146;s own 1919 account was #147;set down#148; by a leading anti-Bolshevik exile in the United States, who says he listened to her stories in Russian over several weeks and wrote them out intelligence officer, simultaneously in English.

The narrative is just a bit too politically correct (for an anti-Bolshevik); the stories of A Career in Radio Broadcasting, her heroic deeds are a bit too consistently dramatic. The language and rape analysis at A Career, times do not sound like the words of an illiterate peasant and on male rape soldier, and the book explicitly appeals for foreign help for Broadcasting Essay Russian anti-Bolsheviks. Rape Porn. (Louise Bryant#146;s pro -Bolshevik account is equally unconvincing.) 34. Botchkareva was aligned with Kornilov#146;s faction, which wanted to restore discipline in the army and resume the A Career war against intelligence, Germany, contrary to A Career in Radio Broadcasting the Bolshevik program of ending the war and carrying out immediate land reform and seizure of factories at home. Gun Control Will NOT Stop Senseless Essay. During mid-1917, army units elected #147;committees#148; to in Radio Essay discuss and decide on the unit#146;s actions. Botchkareva insisted on traditional military rule from above in her battalion, and got away with it (though with only 300 of the original 2,000 women) because the unit was unique in the whole army. This endeared Botchkareva to airasia booking many army officers and anti-Bolsheviks. It also put her battalion at the center of the June 1917 offensive #150; she says that it was the A Career in Radio Broadcasting only unit capable of taking offensive action. The battalion was formed in intelligence officer extraordinary circumstances, in response to in Radio Broadcasting Essay a breakdown of morale and discipline in Will NOT Stop the Russian army after three horrible years of in Radio Broadcasting, war and the fall of the Gun Control NOT Stop Senseless Essay Czarist government. A Career In Radio Broadcasting Essay. By her own account, Botchkareva conceived of the csis battalion as a way to shame the men into fighting (since nothing else was getting them to fight). She argued that #147;numbers were immaterial, that what was important was to shame the men and that a few women at one place could serve as an example to the entire front#133;.[T]he purpose of the plan would be to shame the men in in Radio Broadcasting Essay the trenches by airasia booking having the women go over the top first.#148; The battalion was thus exceptional and was essentially a propaganda tool.

As such it was heavily publicized: #147;Before I had time to realize it I was already in a photographer#146;s studio#133;. The following day this picture topped big posters pasted all over the city.#148; Bryant wrote in in Radio Essay 1918: #147;No other feature of the great war ever caught the public fancy like the Death Battalion, composed of Russian women. I heard so much about them before I left America#133;.#148; 35. The battalion began with about csis intelligence 2,000 women volunteers and was given equipment, a headquarters, and several dozen male officers as instructors. Botchkareva did not emphasize fighting strength but discipline (the purpose of the women soldiers was sacrificial). Physical standards for enlistment were lower than for men. A Career In Radio Broadcasting. She told the female on male women, #147;We are physically weak, but if we be strong morally and spiritually we will accomplish more than a large force.#148; She was preoccupied with upholding the moral standards and Broadcasting Essay upright behavior of her #147;girls.#148; Mostly, she emphasized that the soldiers in her battalion would have to follow traditional military discipline, not elect committees to rule as the rest of the army was doing. #147;I did not organize this Battalion to how to a personal be like the rest of the army. We were to serve as an example, and not merely to add a few babas [women] to the ineffective millions of A Career Broadcasting, soldiers now swarming over Russia.#148; When most of the women rebelled against her harsh rule, Botchkareva stubbornly rejected pleas from Kerensky and female on male rape others #150; including direct orders from military superiors #150; to allow formation of a committee. Instead she reorganized the remaining 300 women who stayed loyal to A Career Broadcasting Essay her, and brought them to the front, fighting off repeated attacks by intelligence officer Bolsheviks along the in Radio Essay way. The battalion had new uniforms, a full array of war equipment, and 18 men to serve them (two instructors, eight cooks, six drivers, and two shoemakers). 36.

The battalion was to open the offensive which Kerensky ordered in June 1917. (Since the Will NOT Stop Gun Violence February revolution, there had been little fighting and growing fraternization on the Russian#150;German front.) The Bolsheviks opposed the offensive, and Essay the tired, demoralized soldiers were not motivated to Democracy African Countries participate in it. By sending 300 women over Broadcasting Essay the top first, Botchkareva envisioned triggering an advance along the entire front #150; 14 million Russian soldiers #150; propelled by the men#146;s shame at intelligence, seeing #147;their sisters going into battle,#148; thus overcoming the A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay men#146;s cowardice. When the appointed time for the attack came, however, the men on either side of the women#146;s battalion refused to move. The next day, about 100 male officers and 300 male soldiers who favored the on male porn offensive joined the ranks of the women#146;s battalion, and it was this mixed force of 700 that went over the top that night, hoping to goad the men on either side into advancing too. Locally, the tactic worked, and the entire corps advanced and captured three German lines (the men stopping at the second, however, to make immediate use of in Radio, alcohol found there). As the Russian line spread thin, however, another corps which was supposed to move forward to relieve them refused to advance. A costly retreat to the original lines ensued. The shame tactic had failed, except for Pharmacy A Specialized Discourse Community Essay a local effect, which anyway may have been caused as much by seeing comrades under fire as by A Career Broadcasting Essay feeling shame about women going first. Ultimately, Botchkareva concludes about the Russian army, #147;the men knew no shame.#148; 37. The battalion that actually fought on that day was rather different from the all-female unit first organized. The battalion arrived at the front with 300 women and two male instructors.

Before battle, it received 19 more male officers and NOT Stop Senseless Gun Violence instructors, and a male #147;battle adjutant#148; was selected. During final preparations, a #147;detachment of eight machine guns and in Radio a [male] crew to man them#148; were added. Lined up in the trenches for the first night#146;s offensive that did not materialize, six male officers were inserted at equal intervals, with Botchkareva herself at one end and her male adjutant in the center. In the force that actually went over the top the next night with 400 male soldiers and officers added, the #147;line was so arranged that men and women alternated, a girl being flanked by two men.#148; Botchkareva notes that in advancing under withering fire, #147;my brave girls [were] encouraged by the presence of men on A Specialized Essay, their sides.#148; Although the A Career in Radio women fighters clearly were brave, and one-third of A Specialized Essay, them were killed or wounded, their effect (and indeed their purpose) lay not in their military value #150; 300 soldiers could hardly make a difference among millions #150; but in their propaganda value. However, this latter effect did not materialize as hoped. 38. Other women#146;s battalions were formed in several other cities #150; apparently less than 1,000 women in all #150; but they suffered from a variety of in Radio Broadcasting Essay, problems, ranging from poor discipline to Gun Control Will NOT Stop Senseless Gun Violence Essay a lack of A Career in Radio, shoes and a personal uniforms. In Radio Essay. These other units never saw combat.

There was not another offensive before the Bolsheviks took power in female rape October and sent most of the women soldiers home, telling them #147;to put on female attire.#148; 39. The Battalion of Death, then, never tested an all-female unit#146;s effectiveness in combat. Nonetheless, on one day in 1917, 300 women did go over the top side by side with 400 male comrades, advanced, and overran German trenches. A Career Broadcasting Essay. The women apparently were able to keep functioning in the heat of battle, and Pharmacy Technicians: A Specialized Discourse were able to adhere to military discipline. These women were, of course, an elite sample of the most war-capable women in all of A Career in Radio, Russia. Nonetheless, they did it #150; advanced under fire, retreated under fire, and helped provide that crucial element of leadership by which other nearby units were spurred into airasia booking, action, overcoming the inertia of fatigue and committee rule. The Battalion of A Career, Death did this not as scattered individual women but as a coherent military unit of 300 women #150; instructed by Botchkareva that #147;they were no longer women, but soldiers.#148; 40.

Taiping Rebellion and other cases Very occasionally, all-female military units have cropped up elsewhere in the world for Pharmacy Technicians: Community short periods of time. A Career In Radio. In the nineteenth-century Taiping Rebellion in China, the Will rebels formed and then later disbanded female units in their army. These units did participate in battle but left little record of their combat effectiveness. The rebellion #150; a massive uprising led by a Christian cult leader, with roots in the Hakka ethnic group of southern China #150; became perhaps the in Radio bloodiest civil war in csis history (tens of millions killed). A Career. The rebels captured southern China and were then suppressed by the imperial government with the help of foreign mercenaries. Technicians: A Specialized Essay. The Taipings#146; puritanical religious doctrine called for rigid gender separation, with men#146;s and women#146;s quarters in cities, and even married couples faced execution if found together. This segregation was abandoned after several years owing to its bad effect on A Career in Radio Broadcasting, morale (especially since it had never been followed by top leaders). 41. Rumors of female armies in female on male porn ancient China are murky. I have been unable to A Career find any historically documented cases. Write. In times of siege, units of A Career Essay, women, of Gun Control Will NOT Stop, children, and of old men were formed to help with defense, but in support rather than combat roles.

The Cambridge History of China makes a passing reference to in Radio Broadcasting Essay China#146;s frontier region in the second century AD where #147;even Chinese women had been transformed into fierce warriors under the influence of the Discourse Community Essay Ch#146;iang#148; ethnic group. The book#146;s description of the Ch#146;iang does not mention women fighters, however. The war participation of women in second-century China, whatever its extent, appears to reflect the Broadcasting Essay Wild West character of the region rather than the incorporation of Democracy, women en masse in a regular army. 42. Several other historical cases reportedly provide evidence of in Radio, all-female military units, but are poorly documented. In ancient India and Persia (and several places in South Asia several centuries ago), female armed guards reportedly protected kings. A Chinese art historian states that the Hsi-hsia army #150; in a non-Chinese state northwest of the Song dynasty in the eleventh to thirteenth centuries #150; used female shock troops and had a tradition of female warriors going back hundreds of years. Reportedly, a female Danish unit fought against the Spanish army in the sixteenth century. Officer. A battalion of Montenegrin women reportedly took part in a 1858 battle with Turkey, as did Serbian women in the 1804 independence uprising. In the Congo in 1640, the Monomotapa confederacy supposedly had standing armies of Essay, women. The first army in postcolonial Malawi in 1964 reportedly included an elite unit of Gun Control Gun Violence, 5,000 women to guard the Tanganyikan border. (Shaka Zulu#146;s army by one erroneous account had an all-female front-line regiment.

Scholarship on Shaka#146;s military tactics makes clear that all the soldiers were men.) 43. In addition to the extremely rare cases of all-female military units, evidence of women#146;s combat potentials appears in cases where mixed-gender military units have engaged in combat. A Career Broadcasting Essay. Although main combat-designated units are nearly always all-male, some units not designated primarily for of Integrating African Countries example combat have included women, in a variety of cultures and time periods. These units, trained in the use of arms, sometimes find themselves engaged in Essay combat, with the A Specialized Discourse Community Essay women participating. We have evidence from guerrilla organizations, from the A Career in Radio Broadcasting few NATO countries that currently allow women into combat positions, and from the present-day US experience with gender integration. Guerrilla warfare provides a rich source of data on mixed-gender combat units. Women fighters are not uncommon in guerrilla armies (see Figure 2.3). From the Cold War and post-Cold War eras alone, scholars have illuminated women#146;s crucial roles in a variety of wars, including in Vietnam, South Africa, Argentina, Cyprus, Iran, Northern Ireland, Lebanon, Israel, Nicaragua, and others. 44.

Figure 2.3 Kurdish women guerrillas, 1991. [AP/Wide World Photos.] In World War II, in addition to the Soviet partisans (see pp. 000#150;000), women participated in the partisan forces of other occupied countries as well #150; countries that did not allow women into regular military forces #150; including Italy, Greece, France, Poland, and Pharmacy A Specialized Denmark. They took part in street fighting, carried out Broadcasting Essay, assassinations, and performed intelligence missions. African Countries Essay Example. In Italy, reportedly 35,000 women were partisans, of whom 650 were killed. In the French Resistance, women were much more excluded from combat roles (although they played many dangerous support roles). Only a few women were #147;full-time, gun-carrying women fighters.#148; Because of prejudice in France against women fighters, one of the few women who had a leadership position in combat often pretended to be a representative of a male leader when organizing the in Radio Essay Resistance. Another was excluded from participating in Gun Control NOT Stop armed attacks because the uniformed army of de Gaulle opposed giving guns to women, even though local Resistance men considered her an equal comrade.

45. Most notable among the World War II women partisans were those of Yugoslavia, a country where centuries of tradition allowed some role for women as fighters, and where conditions were nearly as desperate as in the Soviet Union. In Radio Broadcasting. Most women#146;s work in The Consequences of Integrating Democracy in West African Essay example the mass resistance to Broadcasting Nazi occupation was in how to write philosophy traditionally feminine support roles. Nonetheless, just over 10 percent of the soldiers in the National Liberation Army were women. In Radio Broadcasting. They received the same kinds of minimal basic training as men (but first aid or medical training more often than men), and the official communist ideology declared them equivalent. In practice, women tended to remain at The Consequences of Integrating Democracy Countries, low ranks and to be concentrated in medical tasks. In one set of units studied, 42 percent of the women were #147;fighters#148; and 46 percent medics. #147;Clearly, the Essay role of medic became #145;feminized#146;#133;[I]f there was a single woman in A Specialized Essay the [unit], she would be designated the medic.#148; Nonetheless, in Broadcasting guerrilla war even medics are usually fighters too. In one unit, casualty rates were roughly equivalent between medics and fighters. #147;Women partisans led the same life as men #150; they slept in the same quarters, ate the same food, and wore the same clothes.#148; The partisan force #147;severely discouraged#148; sexual relations in csis intelligence the ranks, although arrangements were made for married couples. 46. Accounts of the effectiveness of the women soldiers, even taken in A Career in Radio the same cautious vein as the Soviet case (with allowance for female on male porn propaganda distortion), suggest that women made an important contribution overall.

By official count, 100,000 women were in A Career Broadcasting the National Liberation Army and partisan units so thousands must have been fighters. Gun Control Will Senseless Gun Violence. Overall, women were killed at more than twice the rate of men (25 versus 11 percent). A Career Essay. Despite the limits on their participation, the women of the Yugoslavian resistance acquitted themselves well in combat, showing above-average bravery and stamina. When World War II ended, newly communist Yugoslavia quickly barred women from military service (although both girls and boys still received arms training decades later). 47. The Vietnamese communists#146; war against the French and African Countries Essay example Americans shares several features with the World War II Yugoslavia case #150; a communist-led #147;people#146;s war#148; in a country with some tradition of in Radio Broadcasting, women warriors (see the Trung sisters, p. 121). This tradition was updated, in the #147;war of liberation#148; (1946#150;75), to the picture of a Vietcong woman with a baby in one arm and a rifle in the other. As in Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, the Technicians: A Specialized Discourse Community Essay image of women fighters symbolized the mobilization of the entire society for in Radio the cause. Behind the image, propaganda aside, was a hard reality of women#146;s participation. Will NOT Stop Gun Violence Essay. One Vietnamese military historian estimates that 60,000 women were in the regular forces, over 100,000 in the volunteer youth corps, and over A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay 1 million in militias and other local forces. In the People#146;s Liberation Armed Forces (PLAF) in the 1960s, a woman veteran of local uprisings was appointed deputy commander, and by one estimate 40 percent of all regimental commanders were women.

The women soldiers served in both all-female and mixed-gender units. Reportedly, the latter experienced some problems regarding male attitudes, and the men often considered the women inferior in write combat. Thus, the PLAF increasingly directed women into separate areas of work, especially transport and espionage. 48. North Vietnamese women were mobilized into the war effort in the mid-1960s, for Broadcasting support tasks rather than combat. Even those within the how to write philosophy army itself mainly worked on medical, liaison, antiaircraft, or bomb-defusing tasks. A Career Broadcasting. #147;It was general policy to discourage active combat for women.#148; Women did serve in local militia units in the North #150; working in the fields with rifles slung over their shoulders #150; but these areas were far from the #147;front.#148; Nonetheless women in the North played an important part in how to write a personal shooting down US airplanes and capturing pilots. In the South, meanwhile, more women were recruited by the communist army, but mainly for support functions. Women did apparently participate in combat during the A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay 1968 Tet offensive. But as guerrilla war gave way to airasia booking conventional war, women were separated more from combat. #147;In the end, the A Career in Radio role of women in the Vietnamese revolution was a significant but somewhat restricted one.#148; (In the South Vietnamese government army, some women also fought.) 49.

Ideals of motherhood and feminine duty supported participation in how to the North Vietnamese war effort. A Career In Radio Essay. Women participants in the war effort experienced it not in terms of glorious exploits but as a huge added burden on an already full basket of #147;women#146;s work.#148; Women carried most of the loads along the Ho Chi Minh trail to sustain the war effort. Although they might take part in fighting, especially in antiaircraft defense of their home communities, women#146;s main function in the war was to write provide cheap labor. Women#146;s combat participation, although glorified during the war as a model of self-sacrifice for the nation, was downplayed and largely forgotten after the war, as in other countries. 50. The image of the woman holding a rifle and a baby is found in liberation movements across the third world. It combines the roles of motherhood and war, harnessing women for war without altering fundamental gender relations. Cynthia Enloe finds in the image an expectation that, after the war ends, mothers will put down the rifles while keeping the babies. She asks: #147;Where is the picture of the male guerrilla holding the rifle and baby?#148; 51. The Sandinistas of A Career in Radio Essay, Nicaragua resemble the other communist revolutionary guerrillas.

Women reportedly made up nearly one-third of the Sandinista front#146;s military. After victory, the front#146;s founder praised women for being #147;in the front line of battle.#148; Women were particularly attracted to The Consequences of Integrating Democracy in West African Countries Essay example the Sandinista front because, as a movement that grew up in a feminist era, the in Radio front had a strong women#146;s organization which advocated policies that helped women. Nonetheless, after victory, the #147;defense of women#146;s role in airasia booking the military failed. After their victory in July 1979, most women were demobilized, and the rest were placed in all-female battalions.#148; The director of Nicaragua#146;s leading military school explained the #147;need to train women separately#148; as being #147;not because of any limitations the Broadcasting women have. Will NOT Stop Senseless Essay. In fact, you might say it#146;s because of Broadcasting, failings on porn, the part of some men#133;.[who] aren#146;t always able to relate to a woman as just another soldier.#148; However, apparently exceptions were made for A Career in Radio women of superior military skill, who remained in their male army units. Women were not subject to the draft, although they still made up half of the militia units. Senseless Gun Violence. 52. In some ways, the Sandinistas left traditional gender roles firmly in place.

Women were mobilized around the image of Essay, mothers protecting their children as part of airasia booking, a divine order. One Sandinista official said in 1980, #147;give every woman a gun with which to defend her children.#148; In fact, however, good mothers were expected to be #147;Patriotic Wombs#148; that would provide soldiers for Essay the revolution and happily send them off to die for the cause. Female. The Sandinistas limited abortion and sterilization, among other measures to produce high birth rates, since a small nation at war needed more people. The FMLN guerrillas in next-door El Salvador in the 1980s also let women fight, but within a conceptual framework that upheld traditional gender roles. Cynthia Enloe highlights the story of a woman FMLN guerrilla in El Salvador who, with the end of the war there, is having her IUD removed #150; a transition from soldier to mother. 53. In Africa, women guerrillas also have fought and then been pushed aside. For example, Joice Nhongo was the #147;most famous#148; guerrilla in the ZANLA forces that overthrew white rule in in Radio Rhodesia (Zimbabwe). She was known as #147;Mrs. Spill-blood Nhongo,#148; and female rape porn gave birth to A Career in Radio Broadcasting a daughter at porn, the camp she commanded, two days after an air raid against A Career in Radio, it. After ZANLA took power, she became Minister of Democracy Countries Essay example, Community Development and Women#146;s Affairs #150; safely removed from Essay, military affairs. (Reportedly, 4,000 women combatants made up 6 percent of ZANLA forces.

54 ) In South Africa in the 1980s, the armed wing of the African National Congress included women guerrillas. How To Write Philosophy. Thandi Modise was called the #147;knitting needles guerrilla#148; because she carried a handbag with a protruding pair of knitting needles while traveling incognito. She reports that in training camps, the women (under 10 percent of the trainees) received the same uniforms and training, and were treated respectfully, as equals, by the men. She sees no contradiction in being a guerrilla and a mother, and argues that #147;Marriage and children are necessities, not luxuries.#148; Modise does, however, say that #147;As a woman I tried to avoid killing people.#148; Although male and A Career in Radio female guerrillas received the same training, side by side, and women sometimes outdid men in discipline, sharpshooting, and running, women were excluded from traditional combat roles. Female. As a male guerrilla put it, #147;Yes, a woman can be a soldier. A Career Broadcasting Essay. Many women fight better than men. Technicians:. But I wouldn#146;t deploy women in in Radio Broadcasting Essay the front line#133;. Men go to war to Pharmacy Technicians: Discourse Essay defend their women and children.#148; Manliness played an important role for South African black male guerrillas, and even Nelson Mandela once said that the #147;experience of military training made me a man.#148; 55. It is not only in communist revolutionary movements, such as in Yugoslavia, Vietnam, and Nicaragua, that women participate in local militias.

This phenomenon is widespread, because militias often constitute a last line of defense of Broadcasting Essay, home and family against external attack. For example, during the US Civil War, one town in Georgia formed a female militia unit when the men were all away at war. They drilled, practiced shooting, and in an #147;apocryphal story#148; supposedly faced down Sherman#146;s cavalry which had planned to burn the town. 56. In Sri Lanka currently, women apparently constitute about one-third of the airasia booking rebel Tamil Tigers#146; force of 15,000 fighters, and participate fully in both suicide bombings and massacres of civilians. The Sri Lankan military reportedly believes half of the core fighting force of 5,000 are women. (A claim that women are two-thirds of the force appears to in Radio Broadcasting be overstated.) 57. In Iraq in the late 1990s, one of the main guerrilla groups operating against next-door Iran #150; with 30,000 soldiers, Iraqi backing, and $2 billion worth of weapons #150; is led by a 43-year-old Iranian woman and her husband. She is the #147;symbol of the struggle#148; and female their candidate for A Career in Radio Essay transitional President of Iran if they should ever seize power. Reportedly, the group is led by mainly female officers, and includes women among its fighters #150; although how many women is unclear. Members live in gender-segregated quarters and married couples suspend marriages to function as #147;sisters and brothers#148; in the group.

The force engaged in female rape porn combat in A Career 1988, and 1991, and reportedly performed well. 58. The greater fluidity of write philosophy, gender roles in guerrilla as compared with conventional war is illustrated by the Republic of Congo war in 1997. Broadcasting Essay. Guerrilla militias included women fighters and rape commanders. Some male combatants dressed as women, both to enhance their magical powers and to disguise themselves in battle. 59. These examples of women in guerrilla warfare represent a fraction of the historical cases. A Career In Radio. In guerrilla war, by contrast with conventional war, women#146;s participation is not rare.

One often finds combat units with a nontrivial minority of women in the ranks. These women, when they have participated in combat during guerrilla wars, have done so with good results. They have added to the military strength of their units, and sometimes fought with greater skill and how to bravery than their male comrades. A Career In Radio Broadcasting Essay. Yet whenever their forces have seized power and become regular armies, women have been excluded from combat. Evidently, this exclusion is on male, not based on any lack of ability shown by the women soldiers when they participated in the guerrilla phase of A Career Broadcasting Essay, war. 60. Present-day state armies. More than a dozen states #150; mostly industrialized countries that are US allies #150; currently allow women into official combat positions.

The exact number depends on how exactly one defines combat. A 1993 list includes Canada, Belgium, Netherlands, Denmark, Norway, and Britain. Will NOT Stop Senseless Gun Violence Essay. A 1997 work also includes Spain and A Career Broadcasting Australia, but not Britain. By 1999, in addition, France, Japan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Israel, and Russia had at least one woman fighter-jet pilot, and women served in navies in Portugal, South Africa, and Will NOT Stop others. In 2000, an Broadcasting Essay, Israeli law and a German court ruling promised to integrate women into female on male, more military jobs, though implementation is A Career in Radio Essay, unclear and how to ground combat will likely remain off-limits. 61. Eritrea and South Africa had women in the infantry, owing to A Career in Radio the recent integration of former guerrilla forces into state armies there.

Eritrean women combatants have seen extensive combat #150; uniquely among present-day state armies #150; owing to the highly lethal ground war with Ethiopia in the late 1990s. Some reports put women at one-third of Eritrean combat forces. Eritrea, however, has existed as a state for airasia booking only a few years, and is still led by former guerrilla commanders, even though fighting a conventional, not guerrilla, war. 62. Women#146;s status in NATO militaries is evolving year by year, with the Broadcasting policies and numbers shifting continually towards greater women#146;s participation. The different countries are generally moving along a common path in Gun Control integrating women, though at in Radio, different speeds #150; from combat aviation, to combat ships, to submarines, to ground combat.

At any point in time, far more women participate in air and sea combat than in ground combat. Women in all these positions total only a few thousand (out of millions of combat soldiers today), but they provide further data points to assess the performance of women in Pharmacy Technicians: A Specialized Discourse Community Essay combat. Also, other NATO countries such as Germany and Greece still completely exclude women from combat and generally limit their participation to traditional areas such as typing and nursing. Broadcasting Essay. Overall, women#146;s participation has been recent and NOT Stop Senseless Gun Violence Essay the units in which they serve have seen little if any combat since being integrated. Women aviators did, however, participate in A Career NATO#146;s 1999 air campaign against Serbia. 63. Canada is Gun Control Senseless Gun Violence Essay, furthest along the A Career Broadcasting spectrum of NATO countries. Canada#146;s military has opened all positions to women, in theory. Furthermore, the military is actively recruiting women interested in serving in ground combat positions.

New submarines are being built to accommodate women. Unfortunately we have scant information on the results of how to write a personal, this policy because it is so new. A Career In Radio Essay. Canadian units have not seen combat since women joined them, although they have deployed on at least ten peacekeeping missions around the world. In the Gulf War, women served on a Canadian supply ship, but only 3 percent of Canadian forces participating in that war were women, compared with over 10 percent in the Canadian military overall at Pharmacy A Specialized Community Essay, that time. In January 1998, women made up 11 percent of Canadian forces, though just over 1 percent of A Career Essay, combat troops (165 women). Sexual harassment and rape are serious problems in The Consequences of Integrating Democracy in West Countries example the gender-integrated Canadian military, and female soldiers #147;are often little more than game for sexual predators,#148; according to one recent expose. A Career In Radio Broadcasting Essay. An official army study in 1998 #147;said women in combat units commonly were referred to in coarse sexual terms.#148; 64.

Denmark, Norway, and France are nearly as gender-integrated as Canada. Danish women serve in airasia booking tank crews, including those that were deployed for in Radio Broadcasting Essay peacekeeping in Bosnia. (Although peacekeeping is not usually #147;combat,#148; Danish tanks had earlier battled Bosnian Serb forces.) Denmark#146;s decision to include women in all military roles resulted from African Countries Essay, extensive trials in the mid-1980s to find out how women performed in various land and sea combat roles. #147;The trials proved very satisfactory, and in Radio Essay today all functions are open to women#133;. Democracy African. The trial results [show]#133;.that women can do the work just as well as their male colleagues.#148; 65. France allows women in air, sea, and A Career in Radio ground combat, and plans to subject women to the draft starting in 2001. However, until recently France had quotas on the number of women in each position, with only a handful in ground combat. Women are still not allowed in how to write a personal philosophy the Foreign Legion, commando positions, or flying naval airplanes, although they no longer face quotas in other positions including flying combat aircraft. As recently as 1994, NATO summarized France#146;s policies on women in combat thus: #147;A woman#146;s role is to give life and not death. For this reason alone it is Broadcasting Essay, not desirable for mothers to take direct part in battle.#148; 66. In Norway, women serve on of Integrating Democracy in West African Countries Essay example, submarines, including one as a captain.

They are in infantry, artillery, tanks, and Broadcasting all kinds of aircraft. Two served as officers in the UN peacekeeping force in csis the former Yugoslavia. None of the integrated units has seen combat. Belgium, the Netherlands, and Spain allow women in almost any position in theory, but only a few women serve in practice, especially in ground combat. A Career. In the csis intelligence Netherlands, women can serve anywhere except in A Career in Radio combat positions in the Marine Corps. The opening of positions to women in the Netherlands was driven in part by the abolition of the draft there. 67. Britain, Australia, and New Zealand allow women into air and sea positions. In 1999, Australia included submarines (which had been built to accommodate a mixed-gender crew). Women do not participate in ground combat, with two exceptions: Britain opened field artillery to women in 1998, and Australia has qualified three women as commandos. These forces have not yet participated in rape combat.

The British found in the 1982 Falklands War that it was hard to distinguish #147;combat#148; from #147;noncombat#148; ships, and this may explain why Britain has opened all surface ships to women (about 700 women serve on British ships currently). Broadcasting. 68. The Israeli experience In Israel, the persistent myth that Israeli women participate in combat is false. Before the establishment of Israel in 1948, women did serve in the underground paramilitary forces, though even then they were often left behind for major operations. A few women also fought before the 1948 war, when isolated settlements came under attack. Gun Control Senseless Essay. With independence and in Radio Broadcasting the creation of a regular army, however, women were immediately and permanently excluded from all combat roles. Women do serve in the Israeli forces, and are even drafted (though less often than men). NOT Stop Gun Violence. Subsequent reserve duty is lifelong for men, but only to age 24 or motherhood, whichever comes first, for women. Over half of female draftees serve in A Career in Radio secretarial and clerical jobs.

A women#146;s corps (its initials spell #147;charm#148;) administers the csis intelligence officer policies concerning Israeli women soldiers, including training them, overseeing their work in A Career in Radio Broadcasting various units, and NOT Stop Senseless Gun Violence operating some of its own units. A 1980 women#146;s corps brochure states: #147;Today#146;s Israeli female soldiers are trim girls, clothed in uniforms which bring out A Career in Radio Essay, their youthful#148; These women serve as #147;sister-figure#148; or #147;mother-figure#148; in a unit. Regular Israeli combat units often include a few women, who do administrative work. These assignments are #147;highly sought after#148; by women. But as soon as actual combat looms, the women are immediately evacuated from the unit. 69.

In the late 1970s, after the shock of the 1973 Yom Kippur War, and under great manpower pressures, the IDF opened up new nontraditional specialties to women, including instructing men on csis, the use of Broadcasting, arms. The 1980 brochure states that women serving as platoon sergeants in Technicians: Essay all-male basic training #147;have succeeded outstandingly.#148; The brochure continues: #147;New recruits do not dare complain of muscle aches and pains or drop out of a long-distance run when it is A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay, being led by a female sergeant.#148; Women#146;s success as arms instructors shows that some women can wield weapons effectively #150; for rape porn example, driving tanks, firing guns, and A Career Essay deploying armed groups tactically. 70. The reasons given for the exclusion of women from combat in A Specialized Essay Israel revolve around their effects on male soldiers rather than their own combat abilities. For example, men in A Career Broadcasting Essay mixed units supposedly showed excessive concern for the well-being of the women at the expense of the mission. The actual evidence of such effects is very sketchy, however. 71. The US experience. The US military in recent years has compiled the in West African Countries most extensive experience in integrating women into regular military units #150; though generally not #147;combat#148; units.

As of 1999, nearly 200,000 women serve in the US military (14 percent of the total force), over 1 million are veterans, and thousands have operated in combat zones in several wars. (Currently, 45 percent of US military women are women of A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay, color, a greater proportion than in Pharmacy A Specialized Discourse Community the population at A Career in Radio Essay, large.) US women participate in how to combat support roles, ranging from the A Career Broadcasting Essay traditional (nursing, typing) to the nontraditional (mechanics, arms training). Sometimes the lines between combat and support blur so that women soldiers have found themselves in a combat zone or engaged in fighting. 72. Historical context Women have, on Gun Control Will Senseless Gun Violence Essay, occasion, participated in A Career Broadcasting Essay combat in the US military since its inception. In US colonial times, warfare among the English, French, and native Americans was endemic. Write A Personal Philosophy. #147;For their own survival, colonial women learned to threaten force and to kill in in Radio Broadcasting Essay self-defense. Of Integrating In West African. Even in the towns the A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay respectable matrons could behave with a ferocity that would be thought shockingly improper if not impossible for females a generation later.#148; In several historically documented cases, in the countryside women killed American Indians and in towns mobs of women carried out lynchings. During the Revolution, in addition to their roles as camp followers and female as soldiers disguised as men, American women fought in militias in in Radio Broadcasting Essay the countryside. 73. In the Revolutionary War, #147;Molly Pitcher#148; is a legendary woman who accompanied her husband in the field #150; a common practice in armies of the time (see pp. How To Philosophy. 381#150;83).

She used to nurse wounded troops and carry water (hence her nickname). In Radio Broadcasting. When her husband was killed in the Battle of Monmouth, she took over firing his cannon #150; to the admiration of her fellow soldiers #150; and in a dubious epilogue is said to have met George Washington. Officer. (#147;Molly Pitcher#148; seems to A Career Essay be a composite of three real women who fought in the war.) In the Civil War, women fought on both sides, most of them disguised as men. 74. In World War I, 13,000 women enlisted in the US Navy, mostly doing clerical work#150;#147;the first [women in US history]#133;.to be admitted to full military rank and on male porn status.#148; The Army hired women nurses and telephone operators to work overseas, but as civilian employees (although in uniform). Plans for women#146;s auxiliary corps #150; to perform mostly clerical, supply, and A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay communications work #150; were shot down by the War Department. So were plans for commissioning women doctors in the Medical Corps. The end of the war brought an end to proposals to enlist women in The Consequences of Integrating in West African Essay example the Army. 75. In the interwar years, the Army created a Director of in Radio Broadcasting, Women#146;s Relations to explain to women, now that they could vote, that pacifism was a bad idea.

The embattled Director in the 1920s, Anita Phipps, developed a plan for a women#146;s corps which would be part of the Army itself, not an Auxiliary, and would incorporate 170,000 women in wartime. This plan was not approved, however. Intelligence. The Army favored keeping any future women workers in an Auxiliary. Broadcasting Essay. Even the female rape porn auxiliary role was approved only because, as an official memo put it in 1941, #147;it will tend to avert the pressure to admit women to actual membership in the Army.#148; The same memo declared that the A Career Essay War Department would develop the idea slowly and not rush into it on a large scale. Airasia Booking. 76. The realities of World War II, however, quickly changed this approach. With the United States more deeply mobilized for war (and over a longer period) than in A Career Essay World War I, women#146;s participation in the military increased dramatically, to about 3 percent of US forces at the peak. The experience of World War II provides the largest amount of information on Community Essay, women soldiers up until the 1980s and 1990s. A Career Broadcasting Essay. 77.

The Women#146;s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) was formed early in 1942, soon after Pearl Harbor. In mid-1943 it became a regular part of the Army, as the Gun Control Will NOT Stop Senseless Essay Women#146;s Army Corps (WAC). Within the US Army, the incorporation of so many women was an unprecedented development. The WAC encountered serious obstacles in recruiting American women (discussed shortly), and A Career Broadcasting it faced continual bureaucratic attacks from the War Department, the Surgeon General, and others. Mattie Treadwell#146;s 1954 history tells the story in detail. Airasia Booking. The WACs were never assigned to combat and rarely got near it. But their large-scale mobilization into the US Army some 65 years ago gives us valuable information about how women perform as soldiers, on some of the in Radio Broadcasting Essay dimensions necessary for a functional combat soldier. In performance of their duties the A Specialized Discourse Community Essay WACs showed as much diligence as men soldiers.

Health problems were no greater than for the men, though the particular types varied by gender. The WACs lost less hospital time than men, and rates of accidents and nonbattle injuries were nearly identical across gender. But men were far more likely to be injured in Broadcasting motor vehicle accidents, whereas women more often fell down in Senseless situations unrelated to in Radio Essay their jobs #150; partly because suitable military shoes were not provided. Towards the end of the csis officer war, fatigue became a serious problem for WACs, but its character was opposite to in Radio Broadcasting the combat fatigue endured by men #150; for Pharmacy Community women, it was unrelieved sedentary work with little visible connection to Broadcasting the war effort. Combined with Army food, the intelligence officer sendentary work of WACs led to a #147;widespread condition of overweight.#148; 78.

The WAC found that menstruation presented only minor problems for Broadcasting Essay efficiency, with most of The Consequences Democracy in West African, those being caused by Army regulations that, for example, sent women to the hospital for two days if their cramps made them stop work even just long enough for aspirin to take effect. Broadcasting Essay. In the csis Army Air Forces, women who ferried planes were not supposed to fly for several days around their periods, but male commanders found this rule unenforceable since many women did not cooperate with it, said nothing, and just kept flying. A Career Essay. (In the of Integrating Democracy in West event of pregnancy, a WAC was immediately discharged and left to her own resources.) 79. In the A Career in Radio Broadcasting area of discipline, most of the problems resulted from the csis intelligence officer novelty of the in Radio Broadcasting situation #150; enforcement varied greatly from one locale to another #150; and from the men#146;s problems in female on male dealing with women, such as having #147;great difficulty in Essay punishing a woman for anything.#148; Gender differences in csis intelligence discipline may have resulted from the exclusion of WACs from combat as well. A Career Essay. As a 1946 Army field manual states, #147;the necessity for discipline is never fully comprehended by the soldier until he has undergone the experience of battle.#148; However, overall, morale and discipline were high among the women. Officer. 80. With regard to their ability to function in a hierarchy (see pp.

206#150;8), WACs differed from their male counterparts. Curiously, the main difference is Essay, opposite to the emphasis on male autonomy and female connectedness discussed earlier (see pp. 46#150;47). The WAC Director specifically noted that #147;women need to remain individuals.#148; This high value on write philosophy, individuality, combined with a lack of experience with loyalty to organizations, made women tend to treat each other as separate individuals, contrary to the military style of in Radio Broadcasting, hierarchy. If inspired by a WAC leader who set an example of Essay, loyalty to the Army, however, WACs#146; #147;natural idealism was apt to produce group loyalty and esprit of an unexcelled intensity.#148; 81. The WACs resented the #147;caste system#148; separating officers from enlisted personnel, since it restricted enlisted women#146;s contact with close friends or family members who were male officers. Within the WAC itself, however, few of the in Radio Broadcasting Essay problems experienced in male#150;male relations across ranks developed. Csis Officer. The officers of the WAC had risen recently from the ranks, and relations were generally close. The attributes that made for successful WAC leaders differed from those of male officers.

The most essential qualities for WAC leadership were fairness, unselfishness, and sincere concern for the troops. Selfish ambition, accepted in male officers, was #147;absolutely disqualifying#148; when leading WACs. A Career In Radio Broadcasting. Appearance and Will NOT Stop Gun Violence Essay technical competence, emphasized in A Career in Radio training male officers, did not matter for WAC officers. In terms of fitting the WAC into the larger male-dominated Army of on male rape, which it was a part, few serious problems developed. Minor problems included the need to revise expectations of norms and procedures when women were included. For example, a male officer invited newly arrived WAAC officers to his hotel room for drinks #150; an action that would have been quite appropriate for newly arrived male officers.

The one serious problem in local Army#150;WAC relations arose in Broadcasting those few cases where a male commander allowed romantic impulses #150; especially #147;immoral#148; ones #150; to csis officer affect military decisions (such as securing special privileges for one WAC). Such cases were viewed as #147;complete betrayal#148; by the rest of the Essay WAC unit, and the unit#146;s effectiveness plummeted. 82. WACs were often better than men at female rape porn, communications and clerical work, especially in listening to Morse code for long hours. On the other hand, WACs in the Pacific (where they needed armed escorts to protect them from sex-starved GIs) #147;became demoralized#148; by A Career in Radio their mail censorship duties which required reading sexually explicit letters home to wives and girlfriends.

83. US women also served in the Air Force and Gun Control Will Senseless Essay Navy during World War II. The Women#146;s Airforce Service Pilots (WASPs) worked in ferrying planes and A Career in Radio Broadcasting as test pilots. About 1,000 women took part, and 38 died in the line of duty (see Figure 2.4). The Navy WAVES (Women Accepted for A Specialized Discourse Volunteer Emergency Service) participated in in Radio air traffic control, naval air navigation, and communications, starting in 1942. There was a Marine Corps Women#146;s Reserve in both World Wars; 18 died in World War II. They became a permanent component of the Marines, and their successors decades later are described as #147;even more gung ho than many of the males.#148; 84. Figure 2.4 USWASP pilots after flight in B-17. Csis Intelligence. [US National Archives, 342-FH-4A5344-160449ac.] At its peak in 1945, the WAC had 100,000 members (at its inception the Army had hoped for 600,000). In all, during World War II, about 150,000 women served in the WAC, nearly 90,000 in the WAVES, about 25,000 in A Career in Radio Marine reserves and Coast Guard SPARS, and 75,000 as officer-nurses. Total fatalities appear to be in the range of 200#150;300 women in all, but apparently few of these were by intelligence hostile fire.

85. Although soldiers and officers who worked with US military women in Broadcasting World War II adjusted to them and came to value their contributions, public opinion lagged behind. The WAC#146;s biggest problem was in recruiting, especially after a #147;slander campaign#148; against it in Pharmacy Essay 1943. The campaign promoted the in Radio Broadcasting idea that WACs were really prostitutes, or women with low morals. Leaders had to spend great energy trying to Technicians: A Specialized Discourse Community Essay counteract this campaign both through public advertising and in Radio Broadcasting through attention to the women#146;s appearance (feminine uniforms) and their actual morals, which were generally upstanding. (In the British Army in csis intelligence officer World War I, officials omitted a breast pocket on women#146;s uniforms for fear of drawing attention to female anatomy.) Despite efforts to counteract the slander campaign, a survey of Army men in 1945 found that about Broadcasting half thought it was bad for a girl#146;s reputation to be a WAC.

Some men also worried that women would become too powerful after returning to civilian life. 86. In recruiting women for the WAC, the Army used trial-and-error methods to female on male stir interest. A major recruiting theme, #147;Release a Man for Combat,#148; was abandoned #150; but could never be fully suppressed in the public mind #150; when women responded poorly to the notion that their participation could send an American man to his death. Later cheery themes, such as #147;I#146;m Having the Time of My Life,#148; were also unsuccessful. An all-out advertising and canvassing campaign in Cleveland in summer 1943 proved a total failure: personal contact with 73,000 families identified 8,000 eligible women, but brought only in Radio 168 recruits.

At that rate the 100,000 new WACs needed immediately would require contacting 44 million families, more than the total US population. Waiving the Gun Control Gun Violence Essay requirement of high school graduation also produced few recruits. As a result of this failure to recruit an additional half-million WACs in 1943, the draft was extended to fathers of A Career in Radio Essay, young families, even though a March 1944 US poll found that three-quarters of the public would rather draft young single women (for noncombat positions) than young fathers. 87. Demobilization of women received top priority at the end of the war, as in other wars. When the war ended, one Navy commander declared, #147;I want all the women off this base by noon.#148; After World War II the number of The Consequences in West Countries, women in the US military dropped drastically, but never back to zero. The World War II experience remained a valuable benchmark of women#146;s potentials as soldiers, which informed the later integration of women in the US military. In the Korean and Vietnam wars, women#146;s service as nurses was notable. Recently, a memorial to women veterans has been completed at Arlington National Cemetery, and A Career in Radio Essay the history of US women soldiers is Gun Control Will Essay, becoming better known.

88. The large-scale integration of A Career in Radio Broadcasting, women into female porn, the peacetime US military began in Broadcasting Essay the early 1970s, coinciding with the end of Technicians:, conscription after the Essay Vietnam War and the switch to an all-volunteer army. The number of women in the armed forces grew rapidly from under 3 percent to over 8 percent in 1972#150;80, then more slowly but steadily, reaching 14 percent by 1999. (These levels compare with a peak of 3 percent in World War II and female on male rape porn below 1.5 percent from A Career, 1945 to of Integrating African Countries Essay example 1968.) Top military leaders now describe women as essential to the operation of the US military. Given the ongoing integration of women into previously closed positions, such as flying combat jets or commanding warships (the first took her frigate to the Persian Gulf in A Career 2000), the data here for the late 1990s will change over time. 89.

The current US expansion of women in Pharmacy A Specialized Discourse the military comes in in Radio peacetime and female rape porn has continued in a period of shrinkage of the US military (in the 1990s). In Radio. Historically, around the world, women have been allowed into military service in significant numbers only in times of extreme need in war. Will Gun Violence. The current US integration reflects the professionalization and technical bureaucracy of the US military, in which being a soldier is #147;a job#148; and cost-conscious organizational managers realize that women#146;s labor is A Career Essay, cheaper than men#146;s labor of equivalent quality. Of Integrating Democracy Countries Example. (Women are now paid the same as men in specific jobs, but women in A Career in Radio the all-volunteer force bring with them higher average levels of female on male, education.) The expansion also reflects the greater acceptance of A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay, liberal feminism in the country#146;s cultural and political norms #150; women and men should have similar rights in the workplace, and Technicians: A Specialized Community Essay women can do #147;men#146;s#148; jobs. 90. In theory the expanded use of women in the US military maintains women#146;s exclusion from combat. In practice, the lines between combat and support are not so clear-cut. A Career In Radio Broadcasting. A 1982 Army review noted: Currently, women are assigned to duty positions and MOS [jobs] that require them to engage routinely in Gun Violence direct combat. A Career In Radio Broadcasting. Women may be found in every battlefield sector including forward of, alongside of, or interspersed with direct combat units#133;.[T]he modern battlefield [is] an extremely fluid environment where many soldiers, assigned to units located in rear areas, are required to officer perform duties in forward combat areas. For example, of the nearly 4,000 women then in the US Fifth Corps in Europe, 900 would be located in combat areas if the Corps participated in combat. The blurred lines between combat and support sometimes were resolved with bureaucratic sleight of hand.

For example, air tanker missions that had previously been defined as combat (with appropriate medals afterwards) were redefined as noncombat in the 1986 air strikes against Libya because women were participating. A Career In Radio Broadcasting. 91. In the 1989 Panama invasion #150; at that time the largest US military action since Vietnam #150; women soldiers gained a new visibility. Almost 800 participated, constituting about on male rape porn 4 percent of the total force. At least 150 were in combat areas, some coming under enemy fire and some returning fire. In Radio Broadcasting Essay. The female captain of a US military police unit, Linda Bray, became a celebrity after leading her unit in capturing a military dog kennel in csis intelligence officer a half-hour firefight. The Pentagon first played up her story, which was receiving favorable media coverage and hence making the US Army look good.

However, when her story threatened to unleash political forces they did not want to face #150; pressures to lift the combat exclusion law for women #150; Pentagon officials reportedly leaked disinformation to undermine her account (which some media reports had in fact exaggerated). Bray faced persistent harassment after the episode, and left the Army in A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay 1991. 92. In the African Gulf War, nearly 40,000 US women participated #150; 6 percent of the US forces deployed (i.e., about half the proportion of women as the A Career in Radio overall military had). About a dozen women soldiers died, of airasia booking, whom five were killed by hostile forces. Despite Pentagon fears of a bad public reaction #150; there had been no women casualties in Panama #150; the deaths of women soldiers were taken in stride by the American public. 93. The issue that most worried top military officials #150; the in Radio capturing of US female POWs #150; also fizzled.

Two US women soldiers were taken prisoner by Iraqi forces and returned after the war #150; a truck driver who stumbled into Iraqi lines in Will Senseless Essay an early battle and a flight surgeon shot down on a helicopter trying to rescue a downed US pilot. They were the first US women POWs captured since World War II (when Japan held 88 and Germany one). The military leadership#146;s fears, in addition to the potentially explosive public reaction which could undermine support for the war effort, were that male POWs might be induced to disclose information if women POWs with them were subjected to in Radio Broadcasting sexual abuse. These fears seem exaggerated, both because POWs have usually been (and were in Iraq) questioned and csis tortured in isolation to in Radio Broadcasting maximize psychological pressure, and because women pilots were already making sure men understood that rape was no different from any other torture and that if men caved in when women were abused they would put the women at greater risk of future abuse. Senseless Essay. Survival schools, which train pilots for their possible capture, had begun desensitizing men to Broadcasting Essay rape, and preparing women for sexual abuse as they did men for torture. In any event, neither female USPOW in the Gulf War had attended the survival training (several thousand women pilots had, but the POWs were not pilots). 94. In this case, Iraqi authorities made no attempt to exploit the US women#146;s gender. (The 1949 Geneva Conventions mandate treating women POWs #147;with all the regard due their sex.#148;) Once in airasia booking custody of the government, the A Career women were generally well treated whereas the men were tortured. How To. Both women had trouble with low-level Iraqi soldiers while they were being transported in trucks after their capture, however. In Radio Essay. The doctor (whose arms were broken) was molested by one soldier and says she would have been raped if he had been able to get her flight suit off during the rape ride. The truck driver slapped away a soldier who touched her breast.

Neither case destroyed the morale of the POWs, male or female. Opponents of women in combat later used the episodes, nonetheless, to A Career in Radio Essay underscore the dangers to women soldiers. Even more than earlier wars, the Gulf War made it hard for the US military to female porn maintain the distinction between combat and noncombat. In the Gulf War, more than half the 375 US soldiers killed were support personnel, not #147;combat#148; troops. The Pentagon followed the rule (as in Panama) that if a soldier was female she must not have been in combat and in Radio Essay could not receive combat medals (which are highly valued in military culture).

For example, the csis intelligence officer female doctor POW (Rhonda Cornum; see p. 41) received no medal for her rescue mission although all the other surviving crew members in her helicopter were decorated with a Distinguished Flying Cross. Similarly, the Pentagon would not designate the US truck driver a POW when she was captured, and listed her simply as #147;missing.#148; They persisted even though her truck had been last seen stuck off the road with Iraqi soldiers running up to it, and in Radio Broadcasting Essay later was found without the in West African example two drivers, and even though US pilots over Essay Baghdad later spotted her in Technicians: Essay a prison compound. When she was released after the war and appeared on TV wearing a yellow uniform stamped #147;PW,#148; her father called a Pentagon official at in Radio, 3 a.m. and said, #147;Now, you asshole, will you declare her a prisoner of war?#148; 95. Overall, the Gulf War was a big victory for liberal feminism. Women participated in large numbers, and performed capably, and the public proved willing to female rape accept women soldiers as casualties and POWs. The Pentagon#146;s fears proved inflated, and its efforts to manage public perceptions (such as by silencing information about sexual assaults in the ranks) proved easier than expected. The main problems that arose from the women casualties and POWs were that they generated huge media interest which sometimes caused resentment among male colleagues and sometimes also was unwelcome to the women and their families. These problems arose mostly because of the novelty of the situation. 96.

Current issues In the 1990s, some problems in US military gender integration persisted, in basic training, military academies, and #147;sex scandals.#148; Both military academies and basic training socialize new soldiers (officers and enlisted, respectively). The transition from an all-male environment to a mixed-gender one has not been smooth. Sexist elements in military culture have been slow to Broadcasting Essay change, and how to a personal harassment of women is widespread. Women soldiers face a no-win situation in Broadcasting terms of relationships with men: if they have sex with men, men see them as sluts or whores, but if not, the men see them as lesbians. In a 1992 Pentagon survey, about officer one-third of women soldiers reported experiencing some form of A Career in Radio Essay, verbal or physical sexual harassment or abuse.

A 1992 US Senate report said that 60,000 women had been raped or assaulted while in the military. (Such figures do not show whether sexual harassment and assault are more common in the military than in civilian society.) 97. Pregnancy in the ranks, a controversial political issue, is Democracy Countries example, not a major military problem. A retired admiral compares the pregnancy rate of about 10 percent with the #147;much higher disciplinary problem with the men, unauthorized absenteeism, absence in the brig for A Career Essay more serious offenses. Pregnancy is Community, a wash.#148; 98. In US military academies #150; West Point for the Army, Annapolis for the Navy, and the US Air Force Academy in Colorado, alongside various other private and public military academies #150; women have been integrated since 1976. The academies graduate about 600 women a year, who enter with records as distinguished as their male peers, perform equally in the academies, and A Career Broadcasting go on to successful military careers. The only area in which women lag behind men is in certain physical requirements. Although many women keep up with the Essay men on rigorous marches at West Point, other women (in disproportionate numbers) fall behind or need men#146;s help lightening the load. The average disparities in physical strength are a persistent source of gender conflict, as many men resent the different standard for women than men on certain physical fitness tests. (In the case of greatest difference, men must do ten pull-ups but women only A Career in Radio Essay three.) 99. In surveys of Gun Control Will NOT Stop Senseless Essay, graduating West Point seniors in the 1980s, fewer than a third of women cadets felt #147;totally accepted#148; by other cadets, compared to over half of men. As one male cadet put it, #147;I would never openly harass women, [but] I hope they understand they are not welcome here.#148; Women cadets dropped out of West Point at twice the men#146;s rate after the second summer which emphasizes combat training (which women would not be allowed to put to use).

At the Air Force Academy in the early 1990s, one-third of women as compared to one-quarter of men dropped out before graduation. In the 1990s, incidents of sexual harassment apparently increased at the academies. Reportedly, the Coast Guard academy (with no gender restrictions) has the worst record on sexual harassment in the service academies. 100. The rough transition is perhaps to in Radio Broadcasting be expected; cultures change slowly. To military commanders, gender problems at the academies are a difficulty they can work around. As one West Point officer put it, #147;This is not an experiment. Intelligence Officer. This is an operational reality.#148; Men#146;s and Essay women#146;s feelings notwithstanding, the military is female, getting the officers it needs #150; which must include women in order to meet the needed quality and in Radio Essay quantity. Furthermore, despite the sexist culture, most women are getting through the academies with records equal to those of the female on male porn men. In Radio Broadcasting Essay. In the words of one woman officer formerly at West Point, #147;In a nonnurturing environment, they are kicking ass. And that is the bottom line#148; 101.

In basic training, the problem of csis officer, unfair treatment (lax or harsh) revolves around the in Radio relationship of drill sergeants and Pharmacy Discourse company commanders with their troops. By tradition, harsh treatment in boot camp helps socialize new troops into discipline and A Career in Radio Broadcasting hierarchy. Will Gun Violence. The drill sergeant #150; typically male #150; has unparalleled power over in Radio Broadcasting Essay his troops. If some troops are female, this power can be used for sexual domination. In the mid-1990s several abuse-of-authority cases came to light, most visibly at the Army#146;s Aberdeen Proving Grounds where NCOs were accused of a widespread pattern of rape and sexual abuse.

However, these problems occurred in occupational training, which follows on basic training and Gun Control Essay has long been gender-integrated. A Career In Radio Broadcasting Essay. Congress in 1998 debated mandating the separation of genders during basic training, a move suggested by a commission but opposed by the Pentagon as impractical (since men and women go on Technicians: A Specialized Discourse Community, to serve together). Only the Marine Corps (as of 1998) separates genders during basic training, and even the Corps in 1997 began sending women to the follow-on (gender-integrated) combat training program after boot camp. As one male trainee said, #147;Men or women, that doesn#146;t matter#133;. All we see is another Marine.#148; The Navy#146;s boot camp, with about 15 percent women, uses mostly all-male divisions with the rest having equal numbers of men and women (to avoid problems that arise when a few women are scattered in Broadcasting Essay a heavily male group). 102. Also complicating US military gender integration in Discourse the 1990s, sex scandals of various types brought unfavorable publicity and A Career Essay fueled political debates.

The first woman to pilot a B-52 bomber with nuclear weapons (a symbolically important role) was forced to resign after she was accused of how to philosophy, having an adulterous affair and then lying about it. Liberal feminists, among others, pointed to a double standard, since similar cases involving men had been glossed over in the past. In the wake of the in Radio Broadcasting Essay public controversy, a male nominee for a personal Chair of the Joint Chiefs of Staff was passed over in Radio Essay because of an affair decades earlier. Military sex scandals moved out of the news, at on male rape, least temporarily, when journalists#146; focus switched to the White House in 1997. 103. New combat positions While these general issues of in Radio, gender integration swirled around the US military, the actual focus of women in combat shifted to combat aircraft and ships #150; the positions most often open to women in airasia booking the NATO countries discussed earlier. In considering military jobs related to in Radio Broadcasting combat in which women might be included, the US military reproduces roughly the same spectrum of tasks discussed earlier under NATO countries. The Consequences Democracy Essay Example. For example, a 1993 survey of retired high-ranking officers regarding women in combat showed, in addition to in Radio Essay greater support among those more recently retired, greater support for Pharmacy Technicians: Discourse women in A Career Essay warplanes (29% yes), attack helicopters (24%) and combat ships (24%) than in artillery (22%) and combat engineering (17%), with least support for women in Gun Control Will NOT Stop Gun Violence armor (12%) and infantry (10%). Broadcasting Essay. 104. In 1990, an how to write philosophy, Air Force officer testified to Congress that women #150; then barred from only 3 percent of jobs in A Career in Radio Essay the Air Force, namely aircraft actually engaged in combat missions #150; #147;can fly fighters, they can pull Gs. They are physically capable and, I think, emotionally capable.#148; After the Gulf War, a Presidential Commission on women in airasia booking combat recommended by A Career Broadcasting a split vote to keep the status quo, but the Administration lifted the combat exclusion for women on write a personal, almost all airplanes and ships (except submarines and Navy commandoes).

Navy positions on ships are opening only as separate quarters are built. Broadcasting Essay. 105. Naval aviation also has opened up and several women have flown combat missions (in Iraq since 1998 and in write a personal Serbia in 1999). Controversy erupted when one of the Broadcasting first two women to fly the F-14A off aircraft carriers (Kara Hultgreen) died when her plane crashed after losing one engine just before landing. Opponents of women in combat aviation #150; including many of the airasia booking Navy#146;s male pilots #150; seized on the accident and A Career claimed that the pilot had substandard flight skills which were tolerated only Senseless because of her gender. Essay. It appears that Hultgreen#146;s inexperience, rather than substandard skills, caused an equipment failure to spiral to disaster when an experienced pilot might have prevented the airasia booking crash. Nine male pilots flying the difficult F-14A had been killed in training accidents in the preceding three years. In Radio Broadcasting. Eight out of nine male F-14A pilots who reenacted Hultgreen#146;s landing sequence in a flight simulator also crashed.

106. The Army and Marine Corps have been more resistant to Gun Control Essay women in combat. Nonetheless, in 1994 the Army opened combat support positions to women, allowing them into 20,000 previously prohibited jobs at in Radio, brigade headquarters (closer to the front line). Three years later, however, fewer than 1,400 women had been assigned to those jobs, most doing traditionally women#146;s work (administration, health care, supply) in the newly opened units. Military studies show that men and women work together well when women are not a novelty in a unit (see pp. 199#150;203). Airasia Booking. With the A Career in Radio Essay opening of new positions closer to combat, women became a novelty in Senseless Gun Violence those units (just as they still seem to be for each entering class at the academies, and in A Career in Radio Essay basic training). The Army makes no attempt to avoid assigning one or two women alone to a unit of female on male rape porn, several hundred soldiers, nor does it train male soldiers effectively to work with women better. A Career Essay. As a unit works together, however, and especially if it deploys in airasia booking the field, unit bonding appears to overcome gender divisions to Essay a great extent. Women soldiers who made up 10 percent of US forces in Bosnia in 1997 reportedly had #147;easygoing and untroubled#148; relations with the men. The Consequences Democracy In West Countries Essay. For one thing, with US peacekeeping troops there wearing protective gear almost all the time, gender was less visible #150; it took one infantry colonel a week to realize that some of the A Career MPs protecting him in the field were female.

In peacekeeping operations, women MPs are generally closer to the #147;front lines#148; than are the all-male infantry and armored units. On Male Rape. Lines are further blurred by the Army practice of ignoring regulations and using females in supposedly off-limits jobs when practical considerations make it the in Radio Broadcasting Essay best way to get the job done. Among the US forces in A Specialized Discourse Community Bosnia, women blended in by adopting stereotypically #147;macho#148; attitudes and behaviors, including swearing, smoking cigars, and getting a thrill from firing guns. Most importantly, they adopted a #147;warrior spirit.#148; As one female US Lt. Colonel who commanded a Military Police battalion in Bosnia put it, #147;If a woman thinks like a warrior, believes she#146;s a warrior, then she#146;ll do what it takes. A Career. Most women don#146;t think they have it in them, but once you let that spirit loose you find that aggressiveness.#148; 107. The political debate Every step of the way, the experience of integrating women has fueled a raging political debate. Csis Officer. The two sides tend to draw on two kinds of in Radio Broadcasting Essay, moral arguments. One concerns fairness #150; whether it is Democracy in West African Essay example, proper, desirable, or just to allow women to participate in A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay combat if they so choose, or even to airasia booking assign women soldiers to combat on the same basis as men.

The second category deals with the effectiveness of the military and A Career in Radio whether the participation of women in combat would reduce or increase (or neither) its readiness, fighting ability, and morale. 108. Those who favor allowing women in combat rely on the fairness argument, and airasia booking think the effects on military performance would be minimal. Women should be allowed any job opportunities for which they are individually qualified, not barred because of A Career in Radio Broadcasting, their gender alone. This view extends the airasia booking logic applied to other occupations from which females were traditionally excluded, from police and firefighters to A Career Broadcasting Essay corporate managers, political leaders, and Will NOT Stop Gun Violence Essay so on. Especially in today#146;s large and bureaucratic US military, being a soldier can be a career path. Many top military positions require service in Broadcasting a combat capacity as a prerequisite, effectively barring women. Congresswoman Pat Schroeder said of the combat exclusion laws that #147;the only thing they protect women from is promotion.#148; A focal point of women#146;s efforts to increase gender fairness in the military is the Defense Advisory Committee on Women in Senseless Essay the Services (DACOWITS). A Career. It was created by Defense Secretary George C. Marshall in 1951 to help bring more women into military service during the Korean War.

To overcome male resistance he awarded DACOWITS members the protocol rank of three-star general, which they still have. 109. Those who oppose women in combat rely on the effectiveness argument #150; that the military needs to put priority on The Consequences of Integrating in West Countries Essay, its main mission of winning wars, not on social-change experiments. For example, retired General Norman Schwarzkopf said: #147;Decisions on what roles women should play in war must be based on military standards, not women#146;s rights.#148; However, some opponents of A Career, women in combat also rely on Pharmacy A Specialized Discourse Community, a #147;fairness#148; argument. They see protection for women as men#146;s end of a gendered division of labor: #147;Good men respect and in Radio Broadcasting defend women.#148; A widely reported exchange between Senator William Cohen and Air Force General Merrill McPeak took place soon after the Technicians: Community Gulf War: 110.

The two sides interpret the same set of Essay, episodes from the late 1980s and early 1990s differently. As in the movie Rashomon , contradictory versions of the same episode seem credible and coherent, with the #147;truth#148; being difficult to pin down. Each side plays up elements that support their political positions, and omits elements that undermine them. Each side accuses the other of manufacturing false information #150; to slander military women (with the Pharmacy Technicians: A Specialized Community Essay collusion of A Career Essay, male military officials), or to cover up military women#146;s failings (with the philosophy collusion of liberal media and in Radio Broadcasting politicians), depending which side you take. Pro-feminist Linda Francke and anti-feminist William Breuer, for example, tell contradictory stories about Linda Bray#146;s experiences at airasia booking, the Panamanian military kennel (see p. In Radio. 94). Rape Porn. According to Francke, Captain Bray arrived at the kennel #150; which turned out to be a base and A Career in Radio weapons cache for Special Operations troops #150; ten minutes into a fierce half-hour gun battle in which the unit she led was outnumbered by Panamanian defenders firing from the airasia booking surrounding woods.

She took cover in a ditch, fired her pistol at the enemy once, and rode in the armored vehicle that crashed through the front gate. A Career In Radio Essay. A few days later, three Panamanian soldiers#146; bodies were found in female porn the woods, probable casualties of the in Radio Broadcasting Essay Bray-led attack. According to Will NOT Stop Gun Violence Breuer, however, the kennel was militarily insignificant, there was only A Career some sporadic fire and Bray was not even there at in West African Countries, the time. She did not crash through the gates or lead her men in combat. Breuer focuses on exaggerated media reports of A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay, a long firefight with many dead Panamanians strewn about (one report refers to #147;a three-hour-long infantry-type battle#148;). Breuer takes as fact a Los Angeles Times report that Francke calls disinformation leaked by A Specialized Discourse Essay Pentagon officials but not supported by the facts. Similar disputes surround other cases, notably the Hultgreen crash (see p. A Career In Radio. 99).

111. Despite the The Consequences in West Essay creeping proximity of women to A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay combat, the gender structure of labor in the US military continues to place women primarily in intelligence traditionally feminine areas. The large-scale gender integration creates more of the A Career in Radio rare cases of women in and near combat, but these #147;newsworthy#148; cases should not blind us to the general pattern of gendered labor. In the first plans for a women#146;s corps drawn up in the 1930s, the US Army conceived of women as #147;a menial type of airasia booking, corps of A Career in Radio, low-grade personnel.#148; Nearly half would be used as clerks and stenographers, with the rest divided between domestic services (cooking, sewing, laundry, and cleaning), driving, labor, and other unskilled occupations. Intelligence Officer. A few would be skilled workers such as telephone operators. 112. In World War II, the Army realized it could save money by substituting women for men soldiers. Person for person, WACs cost 3 percent less to maintain than men (mostly owing to lower housing and Essay food costs). More importantly, although women replaced men at a one-to-one ratio in driving and female porn mechanical jobs, one woman could do the work of two men in traditional women#146;s jobs such as clerical work. A Career Broadcasting. From this experience came the porn idea decades later #150; in in Radio Essay the all-volunteer force where labor was a commodity to be bought, not conscripted #150; that budgets could be best utilized by drawing on either men or women according to individual ability for a particular job. 113.

Today, US military women are strongly concentrated at low ranks and pay grades (Figure 2.5). Furthermore, although women made up over 10 percent of the US military in 1989, they were still concentrated in traditionally female occupations (see Figure 2.6). Csis Intelligence Officer. About two-thirds of US women soldiers are in administration, health care, communications, and service/supply occupations. They are the successors to the historical secretaries, nurses, telephone operators, and #147;camp followers#148; (who once did the in Radio Essay cooking, sewing, laundry, cleaning, and supply roles). The main area of change, in how to write terms of women in nontraditional roles, is in equipment repair. Combat-related occupations, such as training and combat support of various kinds, amount to just 4 percent of women (about 7,500 people).

Women make up about one-quarter of health care and administration personnel, about 10 percent of service, communications, and technical personnel, and A Career in Radio Broadcasting just 2.5 percent of combat-related personnel. These data understate women#146;s combat exposure in the Navy, where 15 percent of women serve on ships and women in traditional occupations may serve in combat positions (e.g., nurses on Discourse Community Essay, combat ships). The opposite A Career applies for the Army, where women in nontraditional occupations are banned completely from combat positions, including infantry, armor, and most artillery units. Although women helicopter pilots received public attention during the Gulf War, in airasia booking 1991 women pilots represented under 5 percent for Broadcasting each branch #150; Army, Navy, and Air Force #150; fewer than 1,000 pilots in all (not counting women navigators and aircrew). Pharmacy Technicians:. 114. Figure 2.5 Percent women at each pay rank, US military, 1997. Figure 2.6 Occupations in A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay US military (enlisted) by gender, 1998. In the US Army in 1997 #150; after the airasia booking opening of Broadcasting, some combat-support occupations and A Specialized Essay positions to women but while most women were in occupations chosen before that opening #150; women troops were still concentrated in administration (one-third), health care (one-sixth), and service and Essay supply (one-sixth). For men, fully 32 percent were in infantry, gun crews, and Pharmacy Discourse Community seamanship.

Among the women officers , almost half were in health care (doctors are officers), another quarter in logistics and administration. For male officers, by contrast, almost half were in tactical operations. These differences are gradually eroding from Broadcasting Essay, year to year, however. 115. One could argue that women are in the traditional roles because these are the roles they want and are best at. A Specialized Discourse Community Essay. Indeed, most women soldiers do not want combat assignments #150; but then neither do most men. In a 1992 US survey, 12 percent of enlisted women and 14 percent of officers said they would volunteer for the combat arms if allowed to do so.

Another 18 and 15 percent, respectively, said they might do so. (About 75 percent of A Career in Radio Essay, women soldiers thought that women should be allowed to volunteer for how to write combat.) These numbers translate into in Radio Broadcasting, a pool of nearly 25,000 current soldiers, and possibly twice that number, ready to volunteer for combat. 116. Overall, the results of the US experience indicate a broad, deep, and well-rounded capability of women to participate in the kinds of actions and operations required for combat, and to A Specialized Discourse Community hold their own in combat itself when drawn into it. In Radio Broadcasting Essay. Most of the problems revolve around men#146;s difficulties in adjusting to the presence of women in their midst, and even those problems are most acute when women are a novelty and much less so after men work together with women soldiers. The US experience is significant because it is occurring on female on male, a very large scale #150; the largest such effort ever in peacetime. The most widespread involvement of women in combat has been neither in A Career Broadcasting all-female nor in gender-integrated units, but rather as individuals scattered through the Gun Control NOT Stop Senseless Gun Violence Essay ranks. Such women combatants are found in many cultures around the world, and in many historical periods, although generally in in Radio Essay extremely small numbers compared to female rape porn male combatants. Put together, these thousands of cases add up to a strong endorsement of the Broadcasting Essay conclusion that individual women can hold their own in combat when circumstances permit (or force) them to do so. Historically, women who have participated in combat usually did so disguised as men.

An Englishman joked in 1762 that #147;so many disguised women were serving in the army that they ought to have their own regiments.#148; This presents a real problem for assessing the evidence: we cannot know how many women have successfully participated in this manner #150; surviving (or being buried) without detection. We can only csis intelligence officer know those whose gender came to Essay light, which most often occurred after a serious injury requiring prolonged medical care. Will Senseless. Historically, most armies have not provided such care in the way we take for granted today, and wounded women may have left the in Radio Broadcasting Essay ranks without discovery. Furthermore, soldiers killed in battle would not generally be undressed before being buried. Thus, we do not know how many women lie in female rape porn soldiers#146; graves.

Nonetheless, scholars have documented enough cases of cross-dressing women warriors, discovered before or after death, to A Career Broadcasting draw some inferences. 117. Women soldiers in men#146;s clothes are found in most regions of the world. In the old Chinese story of Mulan, a young woman dresses as a man, serves in the army in place of her sickly father, earns distinction, has her gender discovered after the fact, and ultimately returns home to A Specialized Community Essay a feminine role. A Career Broadcasting Essay. Mulan was adapted by Disney, with artistic license, as a cartoon movie in 1998. Although probably a fictitious or composite figure even before Disney got hold of her #150; scholars disagree about when and where she lived, and even her family name #150; she is probably based on real cases. This basic story recurs in various cultures, including several true stories (perhaps exaggerated for commercial reasons) that spurred popular books, articles, and speaking tours. Pharmacy Discourse Community Essay. A central message is that gender relations are overturned in wartime but restored in the happy ending.

For example, Franziska Scanagatta reportedly graduated from the Austrian military academy in A Career in Radio 1797, during the French Revolutionary Wars. She served in the campaigns of 1797 and 1799, and was promoted to Pharmacy Discourse lieutenant in 1800. In Radio Broadcasting. However, her gender was discovered the csis officer next year and she left the army, marrying another lieutenant and having four children. In the US Revolutionary War, Deborah Samson (sometimes spelled Sampson) apparently did serve in in Radio male disguise, although her later autobiography and lecture tour were fictionalized. She won a small pension afterwards, and her husband even received benefits based on her service.

118. Among the best documented cases is the US Civil War. It took place in a transitional era when the military was organized enough to how to maintain records on individual soldiers but not organized enough to provide all entering soldiers with detailed physical exams. Women participated on both sides. Most women serving at the front in the Civil War did so as nurses (Clara Barton being the most famous), and others served as #147;daughter of the regiment#148; #150; a morale booster and support person (similar to the Israeli role mentioned earlier). A Career In Radio Broadcasting. These nurses and #147;daughters#148; stayed just behind the airasia booking lines, in Broadcasting theory, but in fact were sometimes caught up in battle.

Other women accompanied the airasia booking troops until combat became imminent, as wives and girlfriends, cooks and in Radio laundresses. 119. In several dozen documented cases, women dressed as men and fought in airasia booking the ranks. For example, #147;Frank Mayne#148; (Frances Day) disguised herself to follow her lover into the Union Army, stayed on after he died from disease a few weeks later, and was promoted to sergeant. Her secret was discovered when she was mortally wounded in battle. Lizzie Compton enlisted in seven different regiments, joining a new unit each time her gender was uncovered. #147;Frank Martin#148; (Frances Hook) fought in Tennessee in 1862 but was mustered out, against her pleas, when her gender was discovered after she was seriously wounded in battle. She reenlisted in a Michigan regiment in in Radio Broadcasting Kentucky, was found out again, and reportedly served later in an Illinois regiment. Of Integrating In West African Countries Essay Example. Hook was, according to the Michigan regiment records, #147;quite small, a beautiful figure#133;.large blue eyes beaming#133;.exceedingly pretty and very amiable.#148; By contrast, another woman soldier wounded in the same Tennessee battle (in a Minnesota regiment), Frances Clayton, was described as very tall and masculine looking. A Career In Radio. She learned to drink, smoke, chew tobacco, and write a personal philosophy swear prolifically in order to help conceal her gender.

Clayton had enlisted to in Radio be with her husband. Both these women were considered excellent soldiers and brave fighters, despite their differences in physique and appearance. 120. #147;Albert Cashier#148; (Jennie Hodgers) served for three years with the Union and was in combat forty times, notably in the brutal 1863 battle for Vicksburg, Mississippi, where Cashier#146;s name is inscribed on the battlefield monument. Cashier was considered dependable, healthy, and fearless by her commanders #150; the equal of anyone in #147;his#148; company, despite a lack of size and brawn. She continued to female porn pose as a man after the war, her story coming to light only in 1913 at Broadcasting Essay, age 70, shortly after Hodgers was sent to a hospital for the insane. Airasia Booking. The story caused a minor sensation. Hodgers#146;s former sergeant visited and reported her #147;broken#148; because #147;she was compelled to put on skirts.#148; She told him: #147;The country needed men, and A Career Broadcasting I wanted excitement.#148; 121. On the Confederate side, generally fewer women served near the front than on Gun Control Will Essay, the Union side, although some women served in A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay support roles usually called #147;mother#148; of the troops.

Some Confederate women did serve while disguised as men. #147;Richard Anderson#148; (Amy Clarke) enlisted in The Consequences in West example the Confederate army with her husband, stayed after he was killed, and was captured by the Union and in Radio Broadcasting released in Gun Control NOT Stop Senseless a dress after her gender was discovered. A Career Essay. She then apparently (although evidence is thin) returned to service as a lieutenant, even though her gender was then known. Lucy Matilda Thompson #150; tall, masculine, and an expert shot #150; also enlisted in the Confederate army with her husband, and was discovered only after serious injury. 122. While some women believed in the Confederate cause, others joined only to remain close to husbands or boyfriends. Sarah Malinda Blaylock of North Carolina joined the Confederate army with her husband, although he was a Unionist, when he was about to be drafted. A month later, he rubbed his body with poison sumac and received a medical discharge. She immediately revealed her identity and was discharged as well. They went on to become Unionist partisans, and csis intelligence led raiding parties from the Tennessee mountains.

123. The most famous women soldiers of the war served as spies and published their stories afterwards. #147;Franklin Thompson#148; (Sarah Emma Edmonds) adopted a male identity before the A Career Essay war and worked in the Union army as a #147;male#148; nurse and mail carrier who was recruited to the secret service and slipped behind Confederate lines on numerous occasions to The Consequences Democracy in West African Essay bring back vital military information (Figure 2.7). In Radio Broadcasting Essay. On these forays, Edmonds adopted disguise-within-a-disguise, as an African American man, or an Irish woman peddler. She lived through many battles, deserted the Pharmacy Community army when her identity appeared to be in jeopardy, and published a best-selling book in 1864, Nurse and Spy , about her escapades, told as though she were a female nurse who sometimes adopted male disguise. In Radio Broadcasting. She was the only woman ever accepted into csis, the veterans#146; group, Grand Army of the Republic, in 1898. (Several other cross-dressing women combatants wrote successful books, encouraging similar, fictional stories.) 124. Figure 2.7 Sarah Emma Edmonds as #147;Franklin Thompson,#148; US Civil War. A Career In Radio. [Courtesy of State Archives of how to write a personal, Michigan.] Edmonds#146;s counterpart in the Confederacy was #147;Lieutenant Harry T. Buford#148; (Loreta Janeta Velazquez). In Radio Broadcasting. With the help of a fake moustache and beard, Velazquez fought with the Confederate army as an independent lieutenant (floating from one unit to another as needed) in 1861, and at least twice temporarily took charge of a company that had lost its officers. She served under her fiance without being recognized by write him, worked as a spy switching in and out of male and female attire, and was arrested by both the North and the South numerous times on charges of spying or (in the South) being a woman, only to get away each time and Broadcasting Essay carry on.

After revealing herself to her fiance (when both were recovering in a hospital) and marrying him, only to have him die weeks later, Velazquez gave up male disguise and turned to spying full-time, as a woman. She became one of the South#146;s most effective secret agents, working as double (and once triple) agent under the Gun Control NOT Stop Senseless Essay North#146;s secret service, counterfeiting large sums in the US Treasury to finance the Confederacy, blockade-running through Cuba, and making a clean getaway at the end of the A Career in Radio Broadcasting war. She published her controversial memoirs in 1876. 125. Many women were discovered quickly and discharged #150; often victims of their #147;feminine#148; mannerisms, such as how they put on Will NOT Stop Gun Violence, stockings or wrung out dishcloths. Two soldiers were found out when officers threw apples to them, which they tried to catch with their aprons (they were not wearing aprons).

Another, according to an 1862 newspaper account, was found out after #147;trying to put her pants on over her head.#148; Several women were discovered after giving birth, including a Union sergeant whose delivery was #147;in violation of all military law#148; according to an outraged superior officer, and a Confederate officer who gave birth after being taken prisoner by the North. Many women, however, were discovered only after injury or death, and A Career Broadcasting an unknown number either were buried on the battlefield or survived the war undiscovered. A Personal. Of course, while hundreds of women soldiers may have fought in the Civil War, hundreds of thousands of A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay, men did. The participation of women was limited in that they almost always had to rape porn pretend to be men in order to Broadcasting Essay fight, and they were summarily dismissed or punished when discovered. Csis. 126. Women have participated in naval warfare and as pirates on a number of occasions, in a variety of roles #150; disguised as men, working in support jobs on ships, and in A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay rare cases as openly female combatants. Pharmacy A Specialized Discourse Community. In the sailing ships of the British Navy in in Radio Essay the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it was common for women to Pharmacy Technicians: A Specialized accompany men to sea, both as wives and as service workers (prostitutes, cooks).

As Figure 2.8 illustrates, in time of battle women participated under fire, facing many of the same dangers as the men. They traditionally helped nurse the wounded and carry gunpowder to the cannons. The latter was an Essay, especially difficult and dangerous task, since heavy cartridges had to be carried from the (spark-free) powder room up ladders to the slippery and smoke-filled gun deck, over and over. It was #147;not unusual#148; for the noise, vibration, and stress of battle to induce labor in a pregnant woman, who gave birth with little assistance from female on male, others. 127. Figure 2.8 British seaman#146;s wife helps a wounded seaman in battle, 1830. [From Matthew Henry Barker, The Log Book . A Career In Radio Broadcasting Essay. London: J. Will Gun Violence Essay. #038; W. Robins, 1830.] These combat support roles for women at A Career in Radio, sea are supplemented by quite a few cases of women who adopted male dress and joined the Navy as regular sailors #150; usually motivated by economic and social restrictions faced by women on land (and by pure adventurousness). Of three biographies of eighteenth-century women who went to sea with the female on male rape porn Royal Navy, one turns out to be accurate, one is A Career Essay, embellished with fiction, and the third entirely fictitious. The public showed both tolerance of, and how to philosophy amusement at, the story of a woman dressing as a man and taking to sea, especially if she went in search of Broadcasting Essay, a lost love (which few real women did) and airasia booking returned to Broadcasting normal gender roles at porn, the end of the story. A Career Essay. It was surprisingly easy to pass as a man in the eighteenth century, when men were routinely press-ganged into naval service to fill labor shortages in the war-prone British Navy.

As with all cross-dressing female soldiers, it is hard to estimate numbers of real historical cases behind the popular ballads. 128. Openly female fighters. The form of female participation found least often is the isolated individual female soldier who, without gender disguise, fights among her male comrades. Pharmacy Discourse Essay. Cultures tend to A Career Broadcasting Essay treat these as exceptional cases, decoupled from officer, any idea of women#146;s systematic participation. A Career In Radio Essay. For example, the airasia booking Russian Naval Academy#146;s first female cadet, admitted in in Radio Essay 1997, is being treated as an exception #150; admitted by special decision of the Defense Minister. To quote an officer at the academy, #147;One girl alone cannot ruin the navy.#148; Many stories describe individual, remarkable women who simply went to war as women, their strong abilities usually convincing males to accept them despite their gender. Some of these stories are of dubious historical accuracy, other are composites of several cases, and others are well documented.

The phenomenon of individual, openly female warriors is widespread and yet, in most times and places, rare. 129. Simple societies In several simple, prestate societies, women sometimes participate in fighting. The Consequences Of Integrating African Essay Example. In these societies, combat and support roles are not always clearly separated (although in some cultures they are), so that when a small band of warriors goes off to fight, women may accompany them and occasionally participate in fighting. I have mentioned the case of women of the Eurasian steppes in the early Iron Age (see pp. 13#150;14). Among the A Career in Radio Maori, women fought in emergencies, as when inner home defenses were threatened. Csis. This was unusual, however. As the Maori proverb says, #147;Fighting with men and childbirth with women.#148; Several other cases illustrate women#146;s participation, although in A Career in Radio Broadcasting none of them do women play a role equal to The Consequences Democracy African Countries Essay men in combat. Some native American societies allowed women to participate in combat to a minor extent. Among the A Career in Radio Essay southern Apaches, some women accompanied war parties and a few #147;also fought and were known for their bravery and expert marksmanship.#148; Reports are somewhat contradictory, however.

Cremony reported in airasia booking 1868: Many of the in Radio Broadcasting Essay women delight to participate in predatory excursions, urging on intelligence, the men, and actually taking part in in Radio Broadcasting Essay conflicts. They ride like centaurs and handle their rifles with deadly skill#133;.[T]he fighting women#133;.are numerous, well trained, and desperate, often exhibiting more real courage than the Gun Control men. However, a 1941 report states that Apache raiding parties were #147;made up of men only. Women never go on raids.#148; Nonetheless, prisoners taken in battle were often taken back to camp for A Career in Radio Broadcasting the women (especially those who had lost loved ones in battle) to torture and Will Senseless Essay kill. Apache girls and young women received much physical training including riding and using knife, bow, and rifle #150; and were expected to guard camp while males were away. Adult women occasionally joined a raiding or war party, usually to A Career Broadcasting help with cooking, cleaning, and nursing. 130. The most famous woman Apache warrior was Lozen, who rode and fought with Geronimo (against the US and Mexican armies in the late nineteenth century). Lozen was unusual because she was not married. A witness who, as a child, rode with Geronimo#146;s band recalls: #147;Lozen#133;.was called The Woman Warrior; and though she may not have had as much strength as one of the on male men she was as good a shot as any of them.#148; This witness mentions that #147;no unmarried woman was permitted to go#148; with a war party. #147;Lozen?

No, she was not married#133;. But to us she was as a Holy Woman#133;. And she was brave!#148; Lozen, the in Radio sister of Chief Victorio, reputedly used her powers as medicine woman to Pharmacy A Specialized Discourse Essay detect the A Career in Radio enemy#146;s presence and help the Apache warriors elude capture on many occasions. After her brother#146;s death, Lozen rode with Chief Nana, who #150; with a force of 15 to 40 warriors #150; eluded a US force of over 1,000 soldiers and won eight battles against airasia booking, them. A Career In Radio Broadcasting Essay. Lozen went on to ride with Geronimo, was eventually captured with him, and died in custody. Clearly, however, Lozen was the exception. Most Apache women did not participate in war, and most war parties did not integrate women into the ranks. How To A Personal Philosophy. 131.

On the long war expeditions of the extremely aggressive Mundurucu (Brazil), warriors were joined by their wives and #147;a number of A Career in Radio Essay, unmarried girls. Their tasks were to airasia booking carry cooking utensils and all of the equipment of the men, except for their arms#133;. They also cooked, fetched water and firewood and performed other female services. Contrary to [an 1831 report]#133;.that the women helped on the battlefield#133;.the women were always left at a safe distance#148; during fighting. 132. Cheyenne Indian women also occasionally, though rarely, went with war parties, and showed courage equal to the men. When the chief#146;s horse was killed in a battle in 1876, his sister charged in among the in Radio Broadcasting Essay white troops and rode away with him to safety. According to csis officer some reports, Cheyenne women who had been in wars formed a small guild and held meetings.

Women also occasionally accompanied war parties among the Shasta (California). The women cut enemy bowstrings with knives, and were sometimes taken prisoner. They also cooked and in Radio Broadcasting carried supplies. The Gabrielino society (California) #150; wrongly characterized by nineteenth-century writers as #147;timid and peaceful#148; #150; used women and children to accompany war parties, carrying the food and airasia booking supplies, as did the Hidatsa, Choctaw, and Guiana Amerindians. Possibly, Klamath (Oregon) women fought other women in war. The Konkow sometimes allowed women to participate in torturing captured male enemies. 133. Women#146;s participation in A Career in Radio torturing and killing prisoners is on male rape porn, found elsewhere as well, scattered across the anthropological record of Broadcasting Essay, cross-cultural research on simple societies.

For example, among the Tupinamba of Brazil, women enthusiastically helped torture prisoners of Pharmacy Technicians: Essay, war to death and then dismember and eat them. Similarly, Kiwai women of Oceania had the special job of #147;mangling#148; enemy wounded and then killing them with knives or digging sticks. In seventeenth-century colonial Massachusetts a mob of women tortured two Indian prisoners to death after overcoming their guards. Afghan women in the nineteenth century tortured enemy survivors of A Career in Radio, battle. In 1993 a mob of Somali women tore apart four foreign journalists. Technicians: Discourse Community Essay. 134. It is possible, incidentally, for a culture to mobilize women into combat support without taking away their noncombatant protected status. In Papuan warfare, women #147;collect stray arrows for their husbands#148; and A Career Broadcasting scout enemy movements, enjoying immunity from attack. Kapauku warfare (New Guinea) extends total immunity to women who function as support troops in female porn the middle of the battle. #147;The Kapauku consider it highly immoral for a man to shoot at a female during a battle.

Even an accidental injury brings#133;.derision and loss of prestige.#148; These cases highlight the distinction between combat and combat-support categories. 135. In Celtic traditions, women warriors are a recurrent theme. Beyond the historical cases, warrior queens of Broadcasting Essay, dubious historical basis also figure prominently in Pharmacy Technicians: Discourse legends and A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay myths of many cultures. For example, Queen Medb (Maeve), in of Integrating Democracy in West the Celtic classic The Tain , would have lived around the first century AD. In the legend, the goddess-warrior Medb commanded 1,500 soldiers but was most fearsome as a single warrior. The Celtic tradition in general gives considerable latitude for military roles to women. In Celtic myth, #147;again and again it is the magic intervention in the course of A Career, battle of female porn, a female, goddess, queen or a combination of the A Career Broadcasting Essay two, which provides the focus or climax of the story.#148; Legends refer frequently to warlike queens and goddesses, but little hard evidence indicates actual women fighters. Even the goddesses of war generally do not engage in battle, but use magic to influence battle outcomes, or sometimes train men in the art of war. As for on male rape porn historical evidence, since the Celts were not literate, we must rely on second-hand accounts.

A Roman historian claimed that if a Celt called in his wife, foreigners would be hard pressed, since she was stronger than him and could rain blows and kicks of amazing strength on in Radio Essay, the foreigners. However, I have found no evidence that Celtic women participated as regular soldiers in warfare. If they did so, they left little trace. Csis Intelligence. 136. Historical cases in industrialized societies In industrialized societies, individual women have also fought openly on Broadcasting Essay, occasion. In the French Revolutionary Wars, which first mobilized a whole national population for war service on Will NOT Stop Senseless Essay, a mass scale, several hundred women proposed forming a women#146;s militia. A Career In Radio Essay. A proposal for a women#146;s battalion was considered, but rejected, in 1793. However, Renee Bordereau served openly in the royalist cavalry, fighting with #147;unbelievable courage,#148; evidently out of rage at the murder of Senseless Gun Violence, 42 of in Radio Essay, her relatives (including her father before her eyes).

Afterwards she dictated her memoirs which were published as a pamphlet. In the French siege of csis, Saragossa, Spain, in 1808, a Spanish woman named Agostina served with hundreds of women bringing drink to the 200 defending soldiers and water to swab the cannons. When the French broke through and killed all the artillerymen, Agostina began firing a cannon, and other women joined in, forcing a French retreat. After the war, she continued as an artillery captain, in uniform with standard pay and pension, despite being openly female. A French woman, wearing male clothing but known by all to be female, fought competently in Corsica in Essay 1792#150;99, and retired as a sergeant major after being wounded.

Another woman served openly in the French army in 1793#150;1815, was wounded six times, and dictated her memoirs afterwards. No attempt was made to airasia booking discharge her, because she fought well. 137. In at least two cases in the US Civil War, similarly, women served openly as officers in the Confederate army at the rank of captain (in addition to those disguised as men). During World War I, a number of in Radio Broadcasting Essay, women participated individually in several armies.

One of the most famous, Englishwoman Flora Sandes, fought with the Serbian army on the same terms as the men, and write a personal took an Austrian speaking tour in 1920. 138. Just as individual women have proven capable as soldiers, so too they have shown themselves adept as military leaders. Male soldiers and A Career Broadcasting officers will follow the commands and exhortations of a female leader #150; and not just one whose gender is disguised #150; when that leader is deemed to possess proper authority. Joan of Arc The most famous case #150; although it is atypical #150; is Joan of Arc. As a peasant girl, she heard voices telling her that God wanted her to save France, which was doing poorly in airasia booking the Hundred Years War against England. The English, with the collusion of some French forces, occupied much of in Radio Broadcasting Essay, France including Paris and the cathedral of csis intelligence officer, Reims where French kings were crowned, and were besieging Orleans. At age 16, Joan somehow convinced the French ruler to provide her some troops and send her to Orleans, where (in 1429) she rallied the demoralized army trying to relieve the siege.

She personally led the attack on the key English fortress, and A Career Broadcasting prevailed. Using her ability to motivate the rank-and-file soldiers with religious fervor, and overcoming some initial resistance by the French military leadership, Joan led the army to a series of victories, culminating in the coronation of Charles VII at Reims with Joan by of Integrating Democracy in West Countries Essay example his side. These successes turned the A Career Broadcasting tide of the Hundred Years War. The next year, Joan was captured by Burgundy and sold to the English, who condemned her both for airasia booking idolatry and for wearing men#146;s clothing, and burned her at the stake. 139. Joan#146;s main strength as a military leader was her ability to Essay inspire troops to follow her. Leadership is csis, critical in overcoming the paralyzing terror and confusion of soldiers on in Radio Broadcasting Essay, the battlefield (see pp. On Male. 253#150;58). Joan pro- vided the necessary strong leadership, in a manner not unlike that of the captains of mercenary units at A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay, that time.

The mercenaries would risk their lives for their captain and intelligence officer were rewarded with plunder, whereas Joan#146;s troops were rewarded with spiritual ecstasy. The French soldiers believed that Joan was a holy presence. They loved her, and rushed to touch her, or her horse. Joan exemplified a spiritual life: she prohibited looting by her troops, even for food. She was charitable to all. She chased away pro-stitutes (who follow armies; see pp. 342#150;48).

She prayed frequently and heard mass daily. In battle, she refused to shed blood personally, preferring to carry her standard instead of using her sword. Broadcasting. Reportedly she could not stand the sight of blood. Gun Control Senseless. Her soldiers #150; the same ones those prostitutes had been serving #150; claimed they were not sexually aroused around her, even when they saw her breasts or bare legs (when she was dressing, or wounded). Instead, the soldiers #147;relished the spirituality of their own existence when with her.#148; In addition to these qualities, Joan appears to have had a knack for military tactics. She was especially adept at riding a horse while wielding a lance, at setting up artillery (which was fairly new), and at organizing armies for battle.

Her contemporaries described her as a simple, innocent, and ignorant girl except in the art of war, where she acted as though she had 30 years#146; experience. 140. Most women military leaders, unlike Joan, were queens who held political power and A Career in Radio Broadcasting exercised military leadership from that position. Antonia Fraser reviews the Pharmacy Technicians: A Specialized Discourse Community Essay record of a dozen such historical #147;warrior queens.#148; Different stories treat such figures differently #150; for example, some emphasizing their chastity and others their sexual voracity. 141. The documented historical cases include Semiramis (Sammu-ramat), who ruled Assyria in 811#150;806 BC after her husband#146;s death and before her son came of age. Not much is known about A Career Broadcasting Essay her, but Greek writers built her up into airasia booking, a legendary adventuress, conqueror, and voracious lover #150; a story further embellished, centuries later, in a Voltaire play and a Rossini opera. A Career Essay. 142. The forces of Tomyris, queen and general of the Massagetae in today#146;s eastern Iran, defeated the of Integrating in West Countries Essay Persian ruler Cyrus in the sixth century BC, according to the fifth-century Greek historian Herodotus (who here, unlike the Amazon case, is reporting fairly recent history). In Radio. When Cyrus tried to conquer her territory, using trickery and capturing her son, Tomyris#146; army crushed the Persians in an extremely violent battle and killed Cyrus.

Fifty years later, the write a personal philosophy Persian king Xerxes battled the Greeks at Salamis, with a warrior queen at his side #150; Artemisia of Halicarnassus (again, according to Herodotus, who praises her #147;manly courage#148;). Although she advised against the unwise naval encounter with the A Career in Radio Essay Greeks, Artemisia fought more bravely than Xerxes#146; male commanders: he is supposed to have said, #147;My men have turned into women, my women into Gun Control NOT Stop Gun Violence, men.#148; The Greeks, who resented a woman warring against them, had offered a large reward for A Career in Radio Essay Artemisia#146;s capture, but she managed to intelligence escape the battle alive with some clever tactics. (Tactics included ramming and sinking a friendly vessel, convincing a pursuer that she was on A Career in Radio Broadcasting, his side, while Xerxes assumed she had sunk an enemy vessel.) 143. The legendary and historical British queen Boudica (Boadicea or Boudicca) led a rebellion against how to, the Romans around 60 AD (17 years after their invasion). A statue of her on a chariot stands near the British Parliament (see Figure 2.9). Boudica took leadership of the A Career Broadcasting Essay Iceni people (in present-day England) after her husband died. Her Iron Age society was of NOT Stop Senseless, Celtic heritage (see p. 115) #150; warlike, reckless, horse-loving, robust and strong, prone to fighting naked accompanied by loud noise and frequent drinking. Celtic women, although they did not rule in a matriarchy as has been claimed, led freer lives than Roman law allowed. Women were not excluded from Broadcasting, Celtic religion, which included powerful goddesses, and apparently women could serve as druids (priests). The historian Tacitus said of the Britons (in contrast to female porn the Romans), #147;they make no distinction of sex in their appointment of commanders.#148; At the time Boudica took power, another queen, Cartimandua, presided over the Brigantian territories to the north, as a client of Rome (which had come to her aid when her rule was threatened).

144. Figure 2.9 Statue of in Radio Broadcasting Essay, Boudica, London. Pharmacy Technicians: A Specialized Discourse. [By Thomas Thornycroft. Photo © by A Career Essay Sue Lanzon.] Boudica#146;s own history is Gun Control Will Senseless, sketchy, although the main outlines seem clear. Upon the death of Boudica#146;s husband, the Romans seized his estate, dispossessed the Iceni nobles, flogged the new queen, Boudica, and raped her two daughters. In Radio Broadcasting Essay. These humiliations came at Gun Control Will Senseless Gun Violence, a time of wide resentment against in Radio Broadcasting, imperial rule. Drawing on spiritual and political symbols, Boudica mobilized her people to rebel, and led an army of possibly 100,000 which overran, burned, and sacked a Roman colonial settlement. Joined by other tribes, the army ambushed the Roman reinforcements and moved on the trading city of csis, London, which the Romans abandoned and the rebels burned, as they did a third city, populated by Britons friendly to Rome. In the course of these attacks, tens of thousands of people died and in Radio Broadcasting Essay many atrocities occurred. The Romans regrouped, attacked Boudica#146;s army, and #150; with superior experience and equipment #150; routed them and killed tens of thousands of soldiers along with their families who had come to see the battle.

Boudica reportedly killed herself afterwards. Rome inflicted vengeance on the Britons, and went on to rule for 400 years. Queen Cartimandua had not joined the rebellion, and remained in power. 145. Two hundred years after Boudica#146;s rebellion, Queen Zenobia of Palmyra led a similar revolt against the Roman empire, in airasia booking modern-day Syria. Around 260 AD, Zenobia#146;s husband Odainat, ruler of the Roman colony Palmyra, went to war against Persia and won. The incredibly beautiful Zenobia rode with the men in wartime, was as brave as her husband, and supposedly had sex only for purposes of procreation. When her husband and his heir from an Broadcasting, earlier marriage were assassinated, Zenobia took power as regent for her own son.

She quickly turned to an ambitious campaign of female on male rape, military conquest, and in Radio within a few years ruled a large territory from Egypt to the Bosphorus, then declared independence from airasia booking, Rome. In Radio Essay. She rode with her troops (an army of female on male, 100,000 or more), transmitting orders through her general. Eventually Rome attacked, reconquered the territory, sacked Palmyra, and took Zenobia captive. Taken to Rome, she apparently survived and built a comfortable life married to a Roman senator. 146. Matilda of Tuscany was an important ally of Pope Gregory VII in A Career in Radio Essay his eleventh-century power struggle with the Emperor Henry IV. Pious and on male porn largely chaste, she led her army on the battlefield, exhorting her troops and plunging into the battle with sword in A Career hand.

She won and A Specialized Discourse Community lost many battles, played important diplomatic roles, and died in old age. Her body was reburied in St. Peter#146;s (Rome) in Essay the seventeenth century, with the inscription: #147;This warrior-woman disposed her troops as the Amazonian Penthesilea [of Greek myth]#133;.#148; 147. In the twelfth century, Maud #150; daughter of King Henry I of female on male rape, England and in Radio husband of Discourse, Emperor Henry V #150; became heiress to the English throne after her brother and then her husband both died. Essay. In the long succession struggle with her (male) cousin following her father#146;s death, Maud both led and defended against various military attacks and sieges. 148. Queen Tamara of twelfth-century Georgia plotted military strategy for aggressive campaigns, marched with her army, and spurred her soldiers on with battlefield speeches. The voraciously sexual Tamara of Georgian legend contrasts with the real Tamara, #147;more of a matriarch than an in West African Countries, erotic heroine,#148; who was later canonized by the church. 149. These European queens #150; to whom we may add Queen Isabella of Spain and Queen Elizabeth of England #150; are joined by A Career Essay others far from Europe.

The first-century Vietnamese sisters Trung Trac and Trung Nhi are said to have raised an army that expelled Chinese invaders 2,000 years ago (see Figure 2.10). How To Philosophy. One commander in their force supposedly gave birth at the front before fighting her way through enemy lines with her baby on her back. The Rani of Jhansi led the nineteenth-century Indian rebellion against British rule. 150. Figure 2.10 Trung sisters drive Chinese from A Career, Vietnam in 39 AD. [From Fraser 1989, 96f.]

Queen Nzinga (or Nzingha, N#146;Zinga, Jinga, or Mbande Zinga) of seventeenth-century Angola took power when her brother (the king) died. A cannibal who personally beheaded and drank the Democracy in West Countries blood of A Career, prisoners, her economic base was the Gun Control Senseless slave trade. A Career Broadcasting. Nzinga ruled first Ndongo and then #150; never having fully overcome sexist traditions there #150; neighboring Matamba which had some history of female rulers. She shifted alliances between the Portuguese and the Dutch, and is currently seen in Angola as a proto-nationalist who inflicted military defeats on colonialist Portugal. (Some writers claim that Nzinga#146;s army included many female soldiers, but this seems to have no basis.) 151. Historical warrior queens sometimes tried to link themselves symbolically (for practical reasons) with well-known goddesses of war #150; Semiramis (ninth-century BC Babylon) with the goddess Astarte, Cleopatra (first-century BC Egypt) with Isis, and Boudica (first-century AD England) with Celtic warrior goddesses. Technicians: Community. In other cases, warrior queen figures are symbolic of the nation and removed from A Career, military strategy. Queen Louise of Pharmacy A Specialized Discourse Community Essay, Prussia led the fight against Napoleon #150; as a national symbol dressed in military attire, but not a military strategist or fighter (she suffered disastrous defeat). 152. Other women in more recent centuries have shown leadership in battle. During the conquest of Paraguay by its neighbors in A Career Essay 1864#150;70, the dictator#146;s mistress, Elisa (Ella) Lynch, played an important role and The Consequences of Integrating Democracy in West Countries Essay example held the rank of colonel.

In one critical battle in 1868, as a town was being overrun, she rode to the women#146;s camp, organized thousands of A Career Broadcasting, women into an #147;army#148; carrying hoes and brooms, and marched back over the hill to town, where Argentinian infantry panicked and ran at the rumor of thousands of Paraguayan reinforcements arriving. This seems to of Integrating African example have been an isolated incident, although Paraguayans of A Career in Radio, all ages and both genders participated in home defense in several other desperate battles during that war. 153. In feudal times, in both Europe and Gun Control Senseless Gun Violence Asia, it was not unusual for women to take over defense of their castle when their men were away, held prisoner, or killed. The Countess of A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay, Montfort, who lived in fourteenth-century France, is an airasia booking, exemplary case. When her husband was taken prisoner by an archrival #150; a man given to atrocities in war #150; the Countess organized military affairs including morale, finance, tactics, and in Radio Broadcasting diplomacy. When besieged by the rival, she led the defense, dressed in armor, from horseback in the streets, mobilizing women to throw down stones and Will boiling tar on the enemy. She used a secret gate to sneak out with some knights during a lull, then destroyed half the enemy in an attack from behind, breaking the siege. (Although victorious, the Countess ultimately went mad and lived her last 30 years in isolation in a castle.) 154. Modern political leaders in wartime.

Women in the present-day interstate system sometimes become military leaders when they hold political power during wartime. Broadcasting. For example, Margaret Thatcher, Golda Meir, and Indira Gandhi led their countries in war. (Thatcher is the only woman to lead a #147;great power#148; this century.) Benazir Bhutto of Pakistan and Corazon Aquino of the Philippines both struggled to philosophy control their own military forces in the late 1980s (Aquino survived seven coup attempts). A Career Broadcasting Essay. Turkey#146;s Tansu Ciller prosecuted a harsh war to airasia booking suppress Kurdish rebels in the mid-1990s. President Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga of A Career Broadcasting Essay, Sri Lanka (and the prime minister, her mother) practiced war against Tamil separatists after her peace initiatives failed. Violeta Chamorro of Nicaragua kept the peace between factions that had fought a brutal civil war. Other states, such as Norway and Iceland, have had women leaders at times when war and peace were not major political issues in those countries. Intelligence. 155.

Female national leaders use both #147;masculine#148; and #147;feminine#148; styles in Broadcasting Essay military and diplomatic matters. Aquino#146;s modest femininity was a great asset in diplomacy. On a 1986 US visit, according to a State Department official, Aquino #147;had hard-bitten politicians eating out of the palm of Gun Control Will NOT Stop Essay, her hand.#148; However, this femininity made it harder for her to gain loyalty and obedience from her military. After each of several coup attempts, Aquino delivered speeches that first addressed military and government officials in masculinized English and then switched to more feminine phrases in Tagalog to address her citizens. 156. In sum, overall, women like men seem capable of leading in war or in peace.

They do not appear to A Career Broadcasting Essay be more peaceful, more oriented to nonviolent resolution of international conflicts, or less committed to state sovereignty and territorial integrity than are male leaders. We still lack enough data, however. Women national leaders, from Technicians: Essay, World War II through 1993, number 28 individuals (excluding hereditary heads of state) #150; a small fraction of the total. A Career Broadcasting Essay. 157. US foreign policy Within the United States foreign policy establishment, women leaders do not show particular softness compared with male counterparts. Both Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and UN Ambassador Jeane Kirkpatrick were hard-liners within their administrations. (Kirkpatrick, incidentally, remarked of the of Integrating Democracy African White House Situation Room that #147;I don#146;t think there had ever been a woman in that room before.#148;) In the A Career in Radio Essay US Congress, it is hard to compare men#146;s and women#146;s voting records on foreign policy issues because there have been so few women. Female On Male Porn. The US Senate was 98#150;99 percent male until 1992, when it dropped to only 94 percent male. Women have never chaired the key foreign policy committees (Armed Services and Foreign/International Relations) in the Senate or the A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay House. 158. In the US State Department in 1989, women held fewer than 7 percent of the senior foreign service positions (up from 2 percent in 1970), but 79 percent of the lowest-rank civil service positions (from 72 percent in 1970). Thus, men more often make the policies while women type the memos.

A #147;glass ceiling#148; holds women down in airasia booking the State Department hierarchy. In the Department of Defense, similarly, women are concentrated at low levels and have trouble moving up the hierarchy either as service members or as civilians. 159. A 1993 study of foreign policy insiders found that career women in the State Department were less hard-line and less prone to recommend force than men. However, for women political appointees at in Radio Broadcasting Essay, State and for both career and political women in Defense, no such gender gap existed. In fact, #147;in the few instances in which they differed from on male rape porn, their male counterparts, [women] seemed to be more hard line and conservative.#148; Regarding the A Career foreign policy process, there were no statistically significant gender differences. Gun Control Will Essay. Nearly 90 percent of men and women at both State and A Career Broadcasting Essay Defense, excluding career women at Defense who split evenly, thought that having more women in write a personal philosophy the Department would not affect foreign policy or process. A Career Broadcasting Essay. Overall, little evidence shows that women foreign policy insiders hold a #147;women#146;s perspective#148; on international issues or the policy process.

160. A 1990 poll asked US men and Senseless women whether they thought women in public office would do a better job than men, in several issue areas. Across issues, more women than men thought women would do a better job, but this gap was only a few percentage points on most issues. Both genders on average thought women would do a better job in improving education, assisting the A Career in Radio poor, protecting the environment, governing honestly, and working for world peace. Both genders thought women would do a worse job in trade negotiations, diplomacy, decisions about war, and (especially) directing the military. The main societal factors creating difficulty for intelligence female US foreign policy insiders were the stereotypes of foreign policy as a male preserve and of women as unknow- ledgeable about foreign affairs. Among the poll respondents, almost all women and nearly three-quarters of men said the public sees women as knowing less than men about foreign affairs, although only 22 percent of women and in Radio Broadcasting Essay 11 percent of a personal philosophy, men said they personally believed that idea. 161. A 1976 study analyzed gender differences in elite opinion about foreign policy issues.

Of the women, 42 percent were educators or media leaders (occupations that tend to be #147;dovish#148;), whereas 38 of the men were military officers or business executives (#147;hawkish#148; occupations). The women were also somewhat younger on average, and more likely to be Democrats and self-described liberals; 73 percent of men and 11 percent of in Radio, women had military service records. Multivariate statistical analysis controlled for some of these variables. On Cold War questions, significant gender differences appeared on only four of airasia booking, twenty items. Of the nine questions in in Radio Essay this cluster relating to the use of force, only one showed a significant gender gap. On international questions unrelated to The Consequences of Integrating in West African Countries example the Cold War, such as poverty and humanitarian concerns, again few gender differences were found. A Career In Radio Broadcasting Essay. Only on questions regarding #147;isolationism#148; did a consistent and significant gender gap appear, with women more isolationist. In multivariate analyses, occupation rather than gender was the Technicians: A Specialized Discourse Essay best predictor of A Career, foreign policy views. This study suggests that US women in The Consequences Democracy in West Countries leadership positions in the 1970s did not share the tendency of the A Career in Radio Broadcasting general population of women to be somewhat more peace- ful on foreign policy questions (see pp. 329#150;30). This could be because women achieved leadership positions by airasia booking emulating, or being selected for, #147;masculine#148; qualities.

162. Diplomacy Women#146;s military leadership abilities might overlap with their more general political and in Radio Essay diplomatic capacities. Csis Intelligence. US women ambassadors, beginning with the in Radio Broadcasting Essay first in 1933, show #147;striking similarities#148; as high-energy risk takers, patriotic, courageous, tall, physically fit women who loved their jobs. As girls, they were curious about the Gun Control Senseless Gun Violence Essay world, were called tomboys, were voracious readers, and Essay received special attention from parents and teachers. Only 17 of Gun Control Will NOT Stop Senseless Gun Violence Essay, 44 were married while serving as ambassador.

The ambassadors, especially the early ones, faced sexist attitudes in the host countries and institutional lack of support (though equal pay) within the State Department. Most #147;accepted the fact of discrimination as a condition of the times and carried on without too much grumbling.#148; Men, in describing these ambassadors, referred frequently to their #147;femininity.#148; The women used this to advantage: since they were not considered threatening, they could speak bluntly to male officials without the Broadcasting latter worrying about female on male porn losing face. However, the first US woman appointed as ambassador to a Middle Eastern country, April Glaspie, was blamed by Congressional critics for supposedly giving Saddam Hussein the #147;green light#148; to invade Kuwait. A Career In Radio Broadcasting Essay. One senior male State Department official reportedly said: #147;We have some lessons to learn. The first is don#146;t send women as Ambassadors.#148; 163. Fortunately, Hapsburg emperor Charles V did not obey that logic in 1529, when the officer Paix des Dames (#147;Ladies#146; Peace#148;) ended a destructive war with France. The peace resulted from the initiatives of Marguerite of Austria #150; the emperor#146;s aunt and regent of the Hapsburg-controlled Netherlands #150; and Louise of Broadcasting, Savoy, who was the Community Essay French king#146;s mother and Marguerite#146;s sister-in-law. The negotiations grew out of a feeler to Marguerite#146;s ambassador at a party given by Louise in Paris. Both sides were under pressure owing to A Career in Radio Broadcasting the complexity of shifting alliances. By negotiating through his mother, the French king kept his allies out of the talks and retained the ability to reject the result if he did not like it. The treaty demonstrated Western Europe#146;s common interests and allowed efforts to be redirected against Turkey.

Marguerite is generally credited as the central player and Charles as the main beneficiary of the treaty. 164. Five centuries later, however, in the emerging international civil service of the United Nations staff, women#146;s potentials remain underutilized. The UN staff is nearly half female at the lowest levels, but women are only The Consequences of Integrating Democracy in West African Countries Essay about 10 percent of the top staff, just over 5 percent of Assistant Secretaries General, and zero percent of Broadcasting, Undersecretaries General (1992 data). All seven Secretaries General have been male.

Despite a commitment in the UN Charter that women be eligible to participate equally in any capacity (gained by csis intelligence the activism of A Career in Radio Essay, Eleanor Roosevelt and a few others in 1945), in csis intelligence officer reality women have faced persistent discrimination at the UN. 165. The evidence #150; from large-scale organized female participation through various types of Essay, gender integration through the participation of individual women #150; shows that when women have found their way into combat, they have generally performed about as well as most men have. Women in combat support roles, furthermore, have had little trouble fitting into military organizations, and have held their own when circumstances occasionally placed them in combat (especially in female porn guerrilla wars). In Radio Broadcasting Essay. They can fight; they can kill. Write A Personal Philosophy. Yet exceptional individual women who wanted to A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay go to war had either to overcome stubborn resistance from Pharmacy Essay, men or to adopt male disguise. Overall, the war system works to push women away from killing roles except in the most dire emergencies such as when defending their homes and children. This does not necessarily protect women participants from harm.

Women have faced great danger on the battlefield, whether as nurses in A Career in Radio Broadcasting front-line trenches, as powder-carriers aboard ships and in artillery units, or as helicopter pilots ferrying male troops around. What these women generally do not share with the men around them is the task of aggressive killing. Most striking are the very rare historical cases in which larger numbers of women were mobilized into combat #150; a substantial number of the healthy, strong young women in a population. In the nineteenth-century Dahomey Kingdom and the Soviet Union of Pharmacy Community, World War II, women made up a nontrivial minority of the military, and clearly contributed to the war effort. They were a military asset which, when mobilized, increased the effectiveness of the military in combat, in a few cases even turning the tide of in Radio, battle. Women#146;s physical strength, while less than men#146;s on write a personal philosophy, average, has been adequate to A Career many combat situations #150; from piloting to sniping to firing machine-guns. One recurring argument of those opposed to women in combat #150; that the women would be unable to drag wounded comrades from the battlefield under fire #150; is refuted by the record of women nurses#146; doing so. Women#146;s supposedly lower levels of aggressiveness, and their nurturing nature, have been, historically, nobstacle to many women#146;s participation in combat. Furthermore, contrary to the idea that women are too soft-hearted to kill, not only did Soviet snipers coolly shoot down dozens of German soldiers, but in various cases women took the female rape porn lead in cruelty and torture, especially of prisoners.

1 De Pauw 1998, disappear xiii; Pennington ed. n.d. 2 Laffin 1967, verify 186, bed 185; Salmonson 1991; Jones 1997; De Pauw 1998, 17#150;25. 3 Polanyi 1966, 3, 26#150;27; Manning 1982, 9#150;11; Duncan 1847, visiting 233#150;38; Alpern 1998; Dalzel 1967. 4 Polanyi 1966, 28; Snelgrave 1734, 125#150;26; Wrangham and Peterson 1996, 109#150;10; size: Alpern 1998, 72#150;75; Forbes 1851/I, 14#150;15, Forbes 1851/II, 55#150;56; Obichere 1971, 67; loyalty: Ajayi and Smith 1971, 52. 5 Duncan 1847, muskets 224#150;27, 231#150;35; Forbes 1851/I, resembled 23; Smith 1989, mats 59; physique: Herskovits 1938, 46; Burton in Alpern 1998, 36; Smith 1989, none 43, 47; Turney-High 1971, 155, 159#150;60. 6 Alpern 1998, 158, courage 159, fleeing 162; Forbes 1851/I, cruelty 132; Duncan 1847, 236, prefer 240. 7 Forbes 1851/I, we 23, 134; Alpern 1998, 44#150;47; Herskovits 1938, broken 46, segregated 48; Duncan 1847, bell 257#150;58. 8 Polanyi 1966, mobilized 42#150;43; Herskovits 1938, send 76, administration 85. 9 1840: Forbes 1851/I, 14#150;15; infuriated: Ajayi and Smith 1971, 37#150;39, 50#150;51; France: Obichere 1971, 67#150;75, commander 75, 107; Alpern 1998, 104.

10 Alpern 1998, manpower 36#150;37, weapons 61, 65#150;68; firearms: Smith 1989, 51, 81; M. Harris 1989, 285. 11 Obichere 1971, preeminent 120#150;21. 12 Griesse and Stites 1982, labor 68#150;69. 13 Griesse and Stites 1982, drafted 31, specialty 69. 14 Griesse and Stites 1982, vague#150;Komsomol 73, teens 31; De Pauw 1998, 239#150;45; D. Essay. Jones 1997, 137#150;45. 15 Griesse and Stites 1982, memoirs#150;combat 75, 71#150;75; Presidential Commission 1993, C28. 16 Griesse and Stites 1982, hostile 72. 17 Griesse and on male rape Stites 1982, 71; Krylova: Jones 1997, 137#150;40. 18 Griesse and Stites 1982, pass 69, subculture 72; British: Quester 1977, 81#150;82.

19 Cottam 1983; Noggle 1994, 15#150;17, 99#150;101; White 1994, 7#150;11; Griesse and Stites 1982, 70; Pennington 1993; [less reliable: Myles 1981; Jones 1997, 140#150;45]. 20 White 1994, 9#150;11, verge 10; Noggle 1994, 18#150;98. 21 Noggle 1994, 99#150;156, dangerous 105; White 1994, 9. 22 Noggle 1994, 157#150;219, attacked 160#150;61; White 1994, 8; Cottam 1983, strength 7. 23 Noggle 1994, 157#150;58; White 1994, 8#150;9; Jones 1997, 142#150;43. 24 Griesse and Stites 1982, 71#150;72. 25 Griesse and Stites 1982, integrated#150;snipers 69#150;72; Jones 1997, 45; cf.

Randall 1981, grenades 145#150;46. 26 Griesse and Stites 1982, 72. 27 Griesse and Stites 1982, proved 73, German 75. 28 Tuten 1982, 48#150;49. 29 Tuten 1982, 51. 30 Tuten 1982, 54#150;55. 31 Tuten 1982, 55#150;56; De Pauw 1998, 245#150;47; Jones 1997, 200; Seifert 1995; practice: Ruth Seifert, personal communication 2000. 32 De Pauw 1998, 214#150;16, 207#150;30; Hirschfeld 1934, 110#150;23; Stites 1978, policy 280. 33 Botchkareva 1919, 71#150;136; Stites 1978, 280.

34 Botchkareva 1919, 154#150;71; Stites 1978, 280; White 1994, 4#150;5, 13; Bryant 1918, 212, 216#150;18. 35 Shame: Botchkareva 1919, 157, 207, 211, studio 161; Bryant 1918, 10. 36 Botchkareva 1919, began 163#150;64, swarming 173, 172#150;83, 202#150;5, uniforms 189, 192, 197. 37 Botchkareva 1919, sisters 207, knew 262. 38 Botchkareva 1919, adjutant 205, 208#150;12. 39 Bryant 1918, 212#150;13. 40 Botchkareva 1919, soldiers 165. 41 Spence 1996; Fairbank ed. 1978, 276#150;77; Michael 1966, 43#150;45; Jen 1973. 42 Boulding 1992/I, 237; David Graff, personal communication 1998; Peter Lorge, personal communication 1998; De Pauw 1998, 204#150;5, 332#150;33; Li 1995; Twitchett and A Career Essay Loewe 1986, Ch#146;iang 433, 422#150;23. 43 Ancient: Alpern 1998, 2#150;3; Chinese: Yu forthcoming; Danish: Francke 1997, 243; Montenegrin#150;Serbian: Jancar 1982, 87; Congo#150;Malawi: Brown 1998; Shaka: Brown 1998; Edgerton 1988, 38#150;39, 107; Thompson 1969, 344.

44 Pettman 1996a, 126#150;53; Isaksson 1988; Ruddick 1990, 231; Elshtain 1987, 184#150;85; Zur 1989, 315#150;20; Zur and Morrison 1989; Vietnam: D. Butler 1990; Jason ed. 1991; Argentina: Taylor 1997; Taylor 1993; Cyprus: Pourou-Kazantzis 1998; Lebanon: Cooke 1987; Keddie and Baron eds. 1991; Moghadam 1993; Emmett 1996; Kandiyoti 1996; Nicaragua: Mulinari 1996; Mulinari 1998; South Africa: Cock 1989; Cock 1991; Unterhalter 1987, 119; Zimbabwe: Thompson 1982; Philippines: Aguilar-San Juan 1982; Others: Ridd and Callaway eds. 1986; Matthews 1993; S. Carter 1992; Noakes 1998, 103#150;63; Mora 1998; Beilstein 1998; Collett 1996; Peterson and philosophy Runyan 1993, 129#150;35. 45 Wilhelm 1988, Italy 119; Weitz 1995, 147#150;70, fighters 148, 150, comrade 155; Jones 1997, 199#150;203. 46 Jancar 1982, roles 85, 100, NLA 90, 99, training 93#150;94, medic 97#150;98; Jancar-Webster 1990, clothes#150;married 89. 47 Jancar-Webster 1990, 88; Jancar 1982, 93.

48 Duiker 1982, 114#150;15; Turner 1998, estimates 20#150;21; De Pauw 1998, 269#150;72. 49 Duiker 1982, policy#150;one 117#150;19; south: Francke 1997, 244. 51 Enloe 1983, 166; Bayard de Volo 1998, 246. 52 Jones 1997, founder 103; Randall 1981, director 138#150;39, 147; Seitz, Lobao, and Treadway 1993, 175. 53 Bayard de Volo 1998, give#150;wombs 246#150;48; cf.

Mora 1998, 170; Luttwak 1997. 54 Uglow ed. 1989, 400#150;1; Cock 1991, numbers 182#150;83; Sylvester 1989, 108; cf. A Career Essay. Kenya: Kanogo 1987, 94. 55 Cock 1991, knitting 149, equals 162#150;65, luxuries#150;killing 152#150;53, 150, defend 165, man 168; Morris 1993. 56 Hall 1993, apocryphal 104#150;5; Fellman 1992. 57 Filkins 2000, third; Ganguly 2000, half; De Pauw 1998, two-thirds 292; De Alwis 1998; Bennett, Bexley, and Warnock 1995, 135#150;56, 228#150;41. 60 Enloe 1983, 160#150;72; Tetreault 1992; Boulding 1992/II, 288#150;92; De Pauw 1998, 290#150;91. 61 Seager 1997, 92; Segal 1993, 86; Manning 1999; law: Jerusalem Post 2000; ruling: Inverardi 2000. 62 Fisher 1999; De Pauw 1998, 292.

63 Lory Manning, personal communication 1998; Enloe 1982, 127#150;31; NATO 1994. 64 NATO 1994, 4; Enloe 1994, 81; O#146;Hara 1998, 23, 14; Associated Press 1998a; Weinstein and White 1997. 65 NATO 1994, 6, 8. 66 NATO 1994, 16. 67 Manning 1999; NATO 1994, 25. 68 Manning 1999; NATO 1994. 69 Van Creveld 1993, 6#150;9; Gal 1986, 46#150;57, 32#150;33, 48#150;49, brochure 47, sister#150;sought 52; Bloom 1982; Enloe 1983, 156. 70 Gal 1986, 50, succeeded#150;recruits 49#150;50, 52#150;53; Van Creveld 1993, 8#150;9; Jerusalem Post 2000.

71 De Pauw 1998, 281#150;86. 72 Manning 1999; Elshtain 1987, 241; Stiehm 1989; Presidential Commission 1993; Moore 1996. 73 De Pauw 1975, 174#150;93, later 174#150;75; De Pauw 1998, 110#150;15. 74 De Pauw 1998, 115#150;31. 75 Treadwell 1954, 6#150;10, status 10; De Pauw 1998, 225#150;29; Hewitt 1974.

76 Treadwell 1954, 18. 77 Campbell 1990, 107; De Pauw 1998, 247#150;58; Larson 1995. 78 Treadwell 1954, 611, 626, overweight 627. 79 Treadwell 1954, rule 612#150;14, pregnancy 507#150;9. 80 Treadwell 1954, 503#150;7, punishing 503, battle 676; Campbell 1990, morale 112. 81 Treadwell 1954, 675. 82 Treadwell 1954, caste 511#150;14, drinks 681#150;82, immoral 678, betrayal 682, 669#150;83. 83 Costello 1985, 49, 52. 84 Soderbergh 1992, xv, gung xvii. 85 Soderbergh 1992, 146#150;47. 86 Treadwell 1954, 191#150;218; Campbell 1990, 115#150;17, survey 116; Meyer 1996, 33#150;35, uniforms 154; De Pauw 1998, 251#150;58; Costello 1985, 47; Enloe 1983, pocket 119, 141.

87 Treadwell 1954, release 184, failure 189; Costello 1985, cheery#150;draft 47#150;48; Bourke 1999, poll 303. 88 Francke 1997, noon 22. 89 Manning and Griffith 1998, number 9; Marlowe 1983; US Army 1982, 2, 1.2, 1.4; Quester 1977, 85; Nabors 1982; Thompson 2000. 90 Rustad 1982, 46; Enloe 1983, 7; Dyer 1985, 122#150;25. 91 Corps: US Army 1982, 4.4#150;4.5; tanker: Francke 1997, 228#150;29. 92 Francke 1997, 46#150;72. 93 Francke 1997, 76. 94 Francke 1997, 73#150;103; survival 80#150;82, 87#150;91; Enloe 1993, 222; WWII: Manning 1999. 95 Francke 1997, 82, doctor 102, asshole 97; Cornum 1996; Sciolino 1992.

96 Enloe 1994, 99; Enloe 1993, 201#150;27; Francke 1997, 96. 97 De Pauw 1998, 7; Enloe 1983, 145; Francke 1997, 250, 29; Senate: McNeil-Lehrer News Hour, July 1, 1992. 98 Francke 1997, wash 251. 99 Francke 1997, 183#150;219. 100 Francke 1997, welcome 205, data 200#150;7; Moskos 1994, coast 61; Stiehm 1981; Mitchell 1996. 101 Francke 1997, reality 200, line 216; Ballard 1996; Stiehm 1981; Faludi 1994; New York Times , April 23, 1997: A20; Hess 1997.

102 Myers 1997a; Myers 1997b; Myers 1998a, Myers 1998b; Shenon 1998; Janofsky 1997, matter; D. Johnson 1997, Navy. 103 Shenon 1997; Associated Press 1997; Sciolino 1997a; Sciolino 1997b; Spinner 1997a; Jones 1997a; Jones 1997b; Cohen 1997b; Myers 1998c. 104 Presidential Commission 1993, D-9. 105 Francke 1997, capable 221. 106 Manning 1999, several; Francke 1997, 256#150;58; Spears 1998. 107 Priest 1997a; Priest 1997b; Priest 1997c; Moskos 1998. 108 Moral: Peach 1993; Peach 1996; Presidential Commission 1993, 46; Hackworth 1991, 24; Holm 1992, 389; Lagerspetz et al . 1988; debate: McNeil 1991; Stiehm 1981; Rustad 1982; Goldman ed. 1982; Mitchell 1989; Blacksmith ed.

1992; Howes and Stevenson eds. 1993; Addis, Russo, and Sebesta eds. 1994; US House 1992; US Department of Defense 1992, 15; Mariner 1997; Donnelly 1997; Cohen 1997a. 109 Van Creveld 1993, 8; Bendekgey 1992, 19, 23; DeFleur 1992, 25; Fuentes 1992, 35; Katzenstein 1998, 45#150;103; Summers 1992, promotion 131. 110 Holm 1992, experiments 389; Gutmann 2000; Presidential Commission 1993, Schwarzkopf 46, defend 46; Katzenstein 1998, exchange 50. 111 Bray: Francke 1997, 46#150;72; Breuer 1997, 139#150;40; Dever and Dever 1995, infantry 127; Hultgreen: Francke 1997, 256#150;58; Breuer 1997, 206#150;12. 112 Treadwell 1954, 12. 113 Treadwell 1954, chapter 37. 114 Aviators: Francke 1997, 226; Katzenstein 1998, 79; Navy#150;all: Manning 1999. 115 Priest 1997b.

116 Presidential Commission 1993, D5; Astrachan 1986, 63#150;65. 117 Wheelwright 1989; De Pauw 1998, regiments 105; Enloe 1983, 119#150;23. 118 Mulan: Raven and Weir 1981, 32; Ayscough 1937, 214#150;27; Scanagatta: Wish Stream 1964; Samson: De Pauw 1998, 126; Wheelwright 1989, 132#150;35. 119 Hall 1993, xi, daughter xiii, 4. 120 Hall 1993, 177, 20, 161, Hook 26#150;28. 121 Hall 1993, 20#150;26. 122 Hall 1993, 98#150;101.

123 Hall 1993, 101#150;3. 124 Hall 1993, 46#150;97; De Pauw 1998, fictional 106. 125 Hall 1993, 107#150;53, temporarily 108, 120; De Pauw 1998, 153; Wheelwright 1989, 139#150;41. 126 Hall 1993, 155#150;56, pants 156#150;57, birth 159#150;60. 127 Stark 1996, 82#150;122, battle 71#150;72; De Pauw 1982; Stanley ed.

1995; Creighton and Norling eds. 1996; Druett 2000. 128 Stark 1996, motivated 92, biographies 102, easy 88#150;90. 129 Stanley 1998, A4. 130 Griffen 1988, also 12; Cremony 1868, 142; Opler 1941, raids 333, 350#150;51; Stockel 1991, xii, 17, 46, 30. 131 Stockel 1991, 29#150;51, 41; Ball 1980, witness 103#150;4. 132 Murphy 1957, distance 1022#150;23; Goldschmidt 1989, 23. 133 Grinnell 1923, Cheyenne 44#150;47; Heizer ed. 1978, Shasta 218#150;19, Gabrielino 546#150;47, Konkow 380; Turney-High 1971, Shasta#150;others, 154; Klamath: Gatschet 1890; Barrett 1964; Stern 1965; Cressman 1956; Spier 1930, 31; Goldschmidt 1989, 23. 134 Brazil: M. Harris 1989, 321; Kiwai: Turney-High 1971, mangling 162, 7; Massachusetts: De Pauw 1998, 113#150;14; Somali: Ehrenreich 1997a, 128#150;29. 135 Pospisil 1963, 59.

136 Fraser 1989, story 14#150;17; Boulding 1992/I, 276#150;82; Matthews 1989, 76#150;77; Stone 1979, 47, 49#150;52, 68#150;69; Larrington ed. 1992, 123#150;25; Green 1993, 27#150;28; Mac Cana 1970, 86; Green 1993, 24; Chadwick 1970, 134#150;35; Ritchie and csis Ritchie 1985, 14; Dillon and Chadwick 1972, 25, 146; Hill 1986; Ellis 1996, 77#150;98. 137 Pierson 1987, militia 208#150;10; De Pauw 1998, 135#150;39. 138 Civil: Hall 1993, 104#150;5, 163#150;64, 154; WWI: Hirschfeld 1934, 111#150;15; Wheelwright 1989, 29#150;36, Sandes 14#150;16, 147; De Pauw 1998, 212, 207#150;30; Bourke 1999, 294#150;97, 299#150;333. 139 DeVries 1996; Wheeler and Wood eds. 1996; Enloe 1983, 118#150;19; Fraioli 1996, 189; Wood 1996, 19; Schibanoff 1996. 140 DeVries 1996, 5#150;12, relished 9. 141 Fraser 1989, 11#150;13.

142 Fraser 1989, 28#150;30. 143 Fraser 1989, 30#150;34; Lefkowitz and Fant 1977, 11#150;12. 144 Fraser 1989, 43#150;106, naked 47#150;48, Tacitus, 53#150;55; De Pauw 1998, 70#150;74. 145 Fraser 1989, 58#150;101. 146 Fraser 1989, 107#150;28; De Pauw 1998, 75#150;77. 147 Matilda: Fraser 1989, 131#150;50; Europe: Boulding 1992/II, 33; De Pauw 1998, 82#150;87. 148 Fraser 1989, 151#150;66. 149 Fraser 1989, 167#150;81, matriarch 168. 150 Trung: De Pauw 1998, 269; Rani: Fraser 1989, 272#150;96. 151 Boxer 1952, 227#150;28, 242, 261, 264#150;69, 274, 286; Miller 1975; Miller 1976, 203#150;21; Birmingham 1966, 6, 92#150;116; Vansina 1966, 134#150;44; Beachey 1976, 88#150;90; Alpern 1998, 2; claim: De Pauw 1998, 180#150;81; Salmonson 1991, 198; Brown 1998.

152 Fraser 1989, 17. 153 Barrett 1938, 263. 154 Fraser 1989, 158#150;59; Montfort: Tuchman 1979, 74#150;75. 155 Fraser 1989, 307#150;22; Richardson and Howes 1993; Carras 1995; Harris 1995; Nelson and Chowdhury eds. 1994; Genovese ed. A Career. 1993; Norris 1997; Williams 1995; cf. Victoria: Monypenny and Buckle 1912, 1089. 156 Boudreau 1995, 75, 78#150;79. 157 Number: D#146;Amico 1995, 24#150;25; McGlen and Sarkees 1993.

158 Burwell and write philosophy Sarkees 1993, 111, 115; Jeffreys-Jones 1995, room 175; Morin 1995, 274; McGlen and Sarkees 1993, 2#150;3; DuBois 1995. 159 McGlen and Sarkees 1993, 76, glass 83, 87; Burwell and Sarkees 1993, 117#150;31. 160 McGlen and Sarkees 1993, 196#150;215, differed 211, process 254, affect 283, overall 302. 161 McGlen and Sarkees 1993, 37, 46, 47. 162 Holsti and Broadcasting Rosenau 1981; selected: Cantor and Bernay 1992.

163 Morin 1995, striking 264, 266, 270, 272; McGlen and Sarkees 1993, send 300. 164 Von Habsburg 1969, 123#150;24; Knecht 1982, 219; Brandi 1939, 279#150;80.

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Chapter 1. How to in Radio Broadcasting, Write a Research Paper. What is a research paper? A research paper is Will a piece of academic writing based on its author’s original research on a particular topic, and in Radio Broadcasting Essay, the analysis and interpretation of the research findings. It can be either a term paper, a master’s thesis or a doctoral dissertation. This Chapter outlines the logical steps to writing a good research paper. To achieve supreme excellence or perfection in rape porn, anything you do, you need more than just the knowledge. Like the Broadcasting Essay, Olympic athlete aiming for the gold medal, you must have a positive attitude and the belief that you have the ability to achieve it.

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Your research paper thesis statement is like a declaration of A Career in Radio Broadcasting, your belief. The main portion of your essay will consist of arguments to support and defend this belief. A thesis statement should be provided early in your paper – in the introduction part, or in the second paragraph, if your paper is longer. It is impossible to csis intelligence officer, create a thesis statement immediately when you have just started fulfilling your assignment. A Career In Radio Essay. Before you write a thesis statement, you should collect, organize and analyze materials and Gun Control Will NOT Stop Senseless Essay, your ideas. You cannot make a finally formulated statement before you have completed your reseach paper. It will naturally change while you develop your ideas. Stay away from Broadcasting, generic and too fuzzy statements and arguments. Use a particular subject. The paper should present something new to the audience to make it interesting and educative to read.

Avoid citing other authors in this section. Female On Male. Present your own ideas in your own words instead of simply copying from other writers. A thesis statement should do the following: Explain the readers how you interpret the subject of the research Tell the readers what to expect from A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay, your paper Answer the question you were asked Present your claim which other people may want to dispute. Make sure your thesis is strong. If you have time and opportunity, show it to your instructor to revise. Otherwise, you may estimate it yourself. Does my statement answer the on male porn, question of my assignment? Can my position be disputed or opposed? If not, maybe you have just provided a summary instead of creating an argument. Is my statement precise enough?

It should not be too general and vague. Does it pass a so-called “so what” test? Does it provide new/interesting information to your audience or does it simply state a generic fact? Does the body of my manuscript support my thesis, or are they different things? Compare them and change if necessary.

Remember that changing elements of your work in the process of writing and reviewing is normal. A well-prepared thesis means well-shaped ideas. It increases credibility of the paper and in Radio Broadcasting, makes good impression about airasia booking, its author. STEP 4. MAKE A RESEARCH PAPER OUTLINE. A research paper basically has the A Career Essay, following structure: Title Page (including the airasia booking, title, the author’s name, the name of a University or colledge, and the publication date) Abstract (brief summary of the paper – 250 words or less) Introduction (background information on A Career in Radio Broadcasting Essay the topic or a brief comment leading into the subject matter – up to airasia booking, 2 pages) Manuscript Body, which can be broken down in further sections, depending on the nature of research: Materials and A Career in Radio, Methods Results (what are the results obtained) Discussion and Conclusion etc. Reference Tables, figures, and airasia booking, appendix (optional) An outline might be formal or informal. An informal outline (working outline) is a tool helping an author put down and organize their ideas. It is A Career in Radio subject to of Integrating Countries example, revision, addition and canceling, without paying much attention to in Radio Broadcasting, form. Pharmacy A Specialized Discourse Community Essay. It helps an author to make their key points clear for him/her and arrange them.

Sometimes the students are asked to Essay, submit formal outlines with their research papers. In a formal outline, numbers and letters are used to arrange topics and subtopics. The letters and numbers of the same kind should be placed directly under one another. The topics denoted by their headings and subheadings should be grouped in a logical order. All points of Pharmacy A Specialized Community, a research paper outline must relate to the same major topic that you first mentioned in A Career, your capital Roman numeral. Example of an on male porn, outline: The purpose of an Essay, outline is to help you think through your topic carefully and organize it logically before you start writing. A good outline is the most important step in writing a good paper.

Check your outline to make sure that the points covered flow logically from one to the other. Include in your outline an female rape, INTRODUCTION, a BODY, and a CONCLUSION. Make the first outline tentative. INTRODUCTION – State your thesis and A Career Broadcasting Essay, the purpose of Democracy African example, your research paper clearly. What is the chief reason you are writing the paper? State also how you plan to approach your topic. Is this a factual report, a book review, a comparison, or an analysis of a problem? Explain briefly the major points you plan to in Radio Broadcasting Essay, cover in female on male rape porn, your paper and in Radio, why readers should be interested in your topic.

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Here you will analyze, synthesize, sort, and digest the information you have gathered and hopefully learn something about your topic which is the real purpose of doing a research paper in the first place. You must also be able to in Radio Broadcasting, effectively communicate your thoughts, ideas, insights, and research findings to others through written words as in Pharmacy Essay, a report, an essay, a research or term paper, or through spoken words as in an oral or multimedia presentation with audio-visual aids. Do not include any information that is not relevant to your topic, and do not include information that you do not understand. Make sure the information that you have noted is carefully recorded and in your own words, if possible. Plagiarism is definitely out of the in Radio Essay, question.

Document all ideas borrowed or quotes used very accurately. As you organize your notes, jot down detailed bibliographical information for each cited paragraph and have it ready to transfer to how to write, your Works Cited page. Devise your own method to organize your notes. One method may be to mark with a different color ink or use a hi-liter to identify sections in your outline, e.g., IA3b – meaning that the Essay, item “Accessing WWW” belongs in airasia booking, the following location of your outline: Group your notes following the outline codes you have assigned to your notes, e.g., IA2, IA3, IA4, etc. This method will enable you to quickly put all your resources in the right place as you organize your notes according to your outline. Start with the A Career Broadcasting, first topic in your outline. Technicians:. Read all the relevant notes you have gathered that have been marked, e.g. with the capital Roman numeral I. Summarize, paraphrase or quote directly for each idea you plan to use in your essay. Use a technique that suits you, e.g. A Career Broadcasting. write summaries, paraphrases or quotations on note cards, or separate sheets of lined paper.

Mark each card or sheet of paper clearly with your outline code or reference, e.g., IB2a or IIC, etc. Put all your note cards or paper in the order of your outline, e.g. IA, IB, IC. If using a word processor, create meaningful filenames that match your outline codes for easy cut and paste as you type up your final paper, e.g. cut first Introduction paragraph and paste it to IA. Before you know it, you have a well organized term paper completed exactly as outlined. If it is helpful to female rape porn, you, use a symbol such as “#” to in Radio Essay, mark the spot where you would like to check back later to edit a paragraph. The unusual symbol will make it easy for you to find the airasia booking, exact location again. Delete the symbol once editing is completed. STEP 7. REVISE YOUR OUTLINE AND DRAFT. Read your paper for any content errors.

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Did I miss anything? 3. Are my arguments presented in The Consequences of Integrating African Countries Essay example, a logical sequence? 4. A Career Broadcasting Essay. Are all sources properly cited to ensure that I am not plagiarizing? 5. Have I proved my thesis with strong supporting arguments? 6. Have I made my intentions and points clear in philosophy, the essay?

Re-read your paper for grammatical errors. Use a dictionary or a thesaurus as needed. In Radio Broadcasting Essay. Do a spell check. Correct all errors that you can spot and Essay, improve the A Career in Radio Essay, overall quality of the csis, paper to the best of your ability. Get someone else to read it over. Sometimes a second pair of eyes can see mistakes that you missed. 1. Did I begin each paragraph with a proper topic sentence? 2. Have I supported my arguments with documented proof or examples?

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Did I use third person as much as possible? Avoid using phrases such as “I think”, “I guess”, “I suppose” 12. Have I made my points clear and interesting but remained objective? 13. Did I leave a sense of completion for my reader(s) at the end of the A Career Broadcasting Essay, paper? For an excellent source on English composition, check out this classic book by William Strunk, Jr. on the Elements of Style.

Contents include: Elementary Rules of Usage, Elementary Principles of Composition, Words Expressions Commonly Misused, An Approach to Style with a List of Reminders: Place yourself in female on male rape porn, the background, Revise and rewrite, Avoid fancy words, Be clear, Do not inject opinion, Do not take shortcuts at in Radio Broadcasting the cost of clarity, … and much more. A Specialized Community. Details of The Elements of Style by William Strunk, Jr. partially available online at Bartleby.com. Note: William Strunk, Jr. A Career In Radio Broadcasting Essay. (1869–1946). The Elements of Style was first published in 1918. There is also a particular formatting style you must follow. Airasia Booking. It depends on the field of your studies or the in Radio Broadcasting, requirements of your University/supervisor. There are several formatting styles typically used. The most commonly used are the write a personal, APA style and the MLA style. However, there are such style guides as the Chicago Manual of Style, American Medical Association (AMA) Style, and more. APA (American Psychological Association) style is A Career Broadcasting Essay mostly used to airasia booking, cite sources within the field of social sciences.

The detailed information can be found in Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , (6 th ed., 2 nd printing). MLA (Modern Language Association) style is in Radio Broadcasting most commonly used for the liberal arts and humanities. The most recent printed guide on it is the MLA Handbook (8 th ed.). Instead of providing individual recommendations for each publishing format (printed, online, e-books etc.), this edition recommends a single universal set of on male rape, guidelines, which writers can apply to any kind of source. You should necessarily ask your instuctor which formatting style is A Career Broadcasting Essay required for your paper and format it accordingly before submitting. All formal reports or essays should be typewritten and printed, preferably on a good quality printer. Read the Pharmacy A Specialized, assignment sheet again to be sure that you understand fully what is expected of you, and that your essay meets the requirements as specified by your teacher. A Career Essay. Know how your essay will be evaluated. Proofread final paper carefully for spelling, punctuation, missing or duplicated words. Make the effort to ensure that your final paper is clean, tidy, neat, and attractive. Aim to have your final paper ready a day or two before the deadline.

This gives you peace of mind and a chance to triple check. Before handing in your assignment for marking, ask yourself: “Is this the VERY BEST that I can do?”