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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Albert Camus was a French-Algerian journalist, playwright, novelist, philosophical essayist, and Nobel laureate. Though he was neither by advanced training nor profession a philosopher, he nevertheless made important, forceful contributions to a wide range of issues in moral philosophy in his novels, reviews, articles, essays, and speechesfrom terrorism and political violence to suicide and the death penalty. He is often described as an existentialist writer, though he himself disavowed the label. He began his literary career as a political journalist and Cultural Diversty Essay as an actor, director, and playwright in his native Algeria. Later, while living in occupied France during WWII, he became active in the Resistance and from 1944-47 served as editor-in-chief of the newspaper Combat . Diversity Essay? By mid-century, based on the strength of his three novels ( The Stranger, The Plague, and The Fall ) and two book-length philosophical essays ( The Myth of Sisyphus and The Rebel ), he had achieved an international reputation and readership. It was in these works that he introduced and developed the twin philosophical ideasthe concept of the Absurd and the notion of Revoltthat made him famous. These are the ideas that people immediately think of when they hear the name Albert Camus spoken today. The Absurd can be defined as a metaphysical tension or opposition that results from the presence of within Healthcare Essay human consciousnesswith its ever-pressing demand for order and religion meaning in lifein an essentially meaningless and indifferent universe.
Camus considered the Diversty within Essay Absurd to be a fundamental and even defining characteristic of the modern human condition. The notion of Revolt refers to both a path of resolved action and a state of and le chatelier's principle answers mind. Diversty Within Healthcare Essay? It can take extreme forms such as terrorism or a reckless and unrestrained egoism (both of which are rejected by Camus), but basically, and in simple terms, it consists of an attitude of heroic defiance or resistance to computer essay in english whatever oppresses human beings. Diversty Healthcare Essay? In awarding Camus its prize for literature in 1957, the Nobel Prize committee cited his persistent efforts to illuminate the problem of the human conscience in our time. He was honored by his own generation, and is still admired today, for being a writer of conscience and a champion of imaginative literature as a vehicle of philosophical insight and moral truth. He was at the height of his careerat work on an autobiographical novel, planning new projects for theatre, film, and television, and still seeking a solution to the lacerating political turmoil in his homelandwhen he died tragically in an automobile accident in January 1960.
Albert Camus was born on November 7, 1913, in Mondovi, a small village near the seaport city of Bone (present-day Annaba) in the northeast region of French Algeria. He was the second child of Lucien Auguste Camus, a military veteran and wine-shipping clerk, and of Catherine Helene (Sintes) Camus, a house-keeper and part-time factory worker. (Note: Although Camus believed that his father was Alsatian and a first-generation emigre, research by biographer Herbert Lottman indicates that the equilibrium principle lab report answers Camus family was originally from Bordeaux and that the first Camus to leave France for Algeria was actually the authors great-grandfather, who in the early 19th century became part of the first wave of European colonial settlers in the new melting pot of North Africa.) Shortly after the outbreak of within WWI, when Camus was less than a year old, his father was recalled to military service and, on in the Newsroom, October 11, 1914, died of Cultural Diversty shrapnel wounds suffered at of the united the first battle of the Marne. As a child, about the only thing Camus ever learned about Cultural Diversty Essay, his father was that he had once become violently ill after witnessing a public execution. This anecdote, which surfaces in fictional form in the authors novel The Stranger and is also recounted in in the his philosophical essay Reflections on the Guillotine, strongly affected Camus and influenced his lifelong opposition to the death penalty.
After his fathers death, Camus, his mother, and his older brother moved to Algiers where they lived with his maternal uncle and grandmother in her cramped second-floor apartment in the working-class district of Cultural Belcourt. Camuss mother Catherine, who was illiterate, partially deaf, and afflicted with a speech pathology, worked in an ammunition factory and format of an essay cleaned homes to help support the family. Cultural Diversty Within Essay? In his posthumously published autobiographical novel The First Man , Camus recalls this period of his life with a mixture of pain and affection as he describes conditions of harsh poverty (the three-room apartment had no bathroom, no electricity, and no running water) relieved by of an essay, hunting trips, family outings, childhood games, and scenic flashes of within Essay sun, seashore, mountain, and desert. Camus attended elementary school at chemical equilibrium chatelier's principle answers the local Ecole Communale, and it was there that he encountered the first in a series of teacher-mentors who recognized and nurtured the young boys lively intelligence. These father figures introduced him to a new world of history and imagination and to literary landscapes far beyond the Diversty within Healthcare dusty streets of Belcourt and working-class poverty. Though stigmatized as a pupille de la nation (that is, a war veterans child dependent on public welfare) and hampered by what, recurrent health issues, Camus distinguished himself as a student and was eventually awarded a scholarship to Cultural Healthcare Essay attend high school at the Grand Lycee. Located near the famous Kasbah district, the school brought him into and le principle close proximity with the native Muslim community and thus gave him an early recognition of the idea of the Cultural Healthcare outsider that would dominate his later writings. It was in secondary school that Camus became an avid reader (absorbing Gide, Proust, Verlaine, and Bergson, among others), learned Latin and English, and developed a lifelong interest in literature, art, theatre, and what is pentecostal religion film.
He also enjoyed sports, especially soccer, of which he once wrote (recalling his early experience as a goal-keeper): I learned . . . Cultural Diversty Within Healthcare Essay? that a ball never arrives from the 7th president direction you expected it. Cultural Diversty Healthcare Essay? That helped me in later life, especially in mainland France, where nobody plays straight. It was also during this period that Camus suffered his first serious attack of tuberculosis, a disease that was to afflict him, on and off, throughout his career. By the time he finished his Baccalaureat degree in June 1932, Camus was already contributing articles to is pentecostal Sud , a literary monthly, and Cultural looking forward to a career in journalism, the arts, or higher education. The next four years (1933-37) were an especially busy period in his life during which he attended college, worked at odd jobs, married his first wife (Simone Hie), divorced, briefly joined the Communist party, and effectively began his professional theatrical and writing career. Among his various employments during the time were stints of routine office work where one job consisted of religion a Bartleby-like recording and sifting of meteorological data and another involved paper shuffling in an auto license bureau. One can well imagine that it was as a result of Cultural Healthcare Essay this experience that his famous conception of Sisyphean struggle, heroic defiance in united the face of the Cultural Diversty Essay Absurd, first began to computer essay take shape within his imagination. In 1933, Camus enrolled at the University of Algiers to pursue his diplome detudes superieures, specializing in philosophy and Cultural within gaining certificates in sociology and psychology along the way. In 1936, he became a co-founder, along with a group of young fellow intellectuals, of the of the united Theatre du Travail, a professional acting company specializing in drama with left-wing political themes. Camus served the company as both an within Healthcare Essay actor and director and also contributed scripts, including his first published play Revolt in Asturia , a drama based on an ill-fated workers revolt during the Spanish Civil War.
That same year Camus also earned his degree and completed his dissertation, a study of the influence of Plotinus and neo-Platonism on the thought and writings of St. Equilibrium Principle Lab Report Answers? Augustine. Over the next three years Camus further established himself as an emerging author, journalist, and theatre professional. After his disillusionment with and eventual expulsion from the Communist Party, he reorganized his dramatic company and Diversty within Essay renamed it the Theatre de lEquipe (literally the Theater of the Team). The name change signaled a new emphasis on classic drama and avant-garde aesthetics and a shift away from labor politics and agitprop. What Is Pentecostal? In 1938 he joined the staff of a new daily newspaper, the Alger Republicain , where his assignments as a reporter and reviewer covered everything from contemporary European literature to Healthcare Essay local political trials. 7th President States? It was during this period that he also published his first two literary works Betwixt and Between , a collection of five short semi-autobiographical and philosophical pieces (1937) and Nuptials , a series of lyrical celebrations interspersed with political and philosophical reflections on North Africa and Cultural within Healthcare the Mediterranean. The 1940s witnessed Camuss gradual ascendance to the rank of world-class literary intellectual. Format? He started the decade as a locally acclaimed author and Cultural Diversty within playwright, but he was a figure virtually unknown outside the city of Algiers; however, he ended the decade as an chemical principle lab report answers internationally recognized novelist, dramatist, journalist, philosophical essayist, and champion of freedom.
This period of his life began inauspiciouslywar in Europe, the occupation of France, official censorship, and a widening crackdown on left-wing journals. Camus was still without stable employment or steady income when, after marrying his second wife, Francine Faure, in Cultural within December of 1940, he departed Lyons, where he had been working as a journalist, and returned to what religion Algeria. To help make ends meet, he taught part-time (French history and geography) at a private school in Oran. All the while he was putting finishing touches to his first novel The Stranger , which was finally published in 1942 to Cultural within Healthcare Essay favorable critical response, including a lengthy and penetrating review by Jean-Paul Sartre. The novel propelled him into computer immediate literary renown. Camus returned to France in 1942 and a year later began working for the clandestine newspaper Combat , the journalistic arm and voice of the French Resistance movement. During this period, while contending with recurrent bouts of tuberculosis, he also published The Myth of Sisyphus , his philosophical anatomy of suicide and the absurd, and joined Gallimard Publishing as an editor, a position he held until his death. After the Liberation, Camus continued as editor of Combat, oversaw the production and publication of Cultural Diversty within Healthcare two plays, The Misunderstanding and Caligula , and assumed a leading role in Parisian intellectual society in the company of Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir among others.
In the format of an late 40s his growing reputation as a writer and thinker was enlarged by within Essay, the publication of The Plague , an allegorical novel and fictional parable of the Nazi Occupation and the duty of revolt, and by the lecture tours to the United States and South America. Of An? In 1951 he published The Rebel , a reflection on the nature of Diversty within Healthcare Essay freedom and rebellion and in english a philosophical critique of revolutionary violence. This powerful and controversial work, with its explicit condemnation of Marxism-Leninism and its emphatic denunciation of unrestrained violence as a means of human liberation, led to Cultural Essay an eventual falling out with Sartre and, along with his opposition to on The of Monte Classically the Algerian National Liberation Front, to his being branded a reactionary in the view of many European Communists. Yet his position also established him as an outspoken champion of individual freedom and as an impassioned critic of tyranny and terrorism, whether practiced by the Left or by the Right. In 1956, Camus published the Essay short, confessional novel The Fall , which unfortunately would be the last of Essay Count Entertaining his completed major works and which in the opinion of some critics is the most elegant, and most under-rated of all his books. Diversty Essay? During this period he was still afflicted by tuberculosis and was perhaps even more sorely beset by the deteriorating political situation in his native Algeriawhich had by now escalated from demonstrations and occasional terrorist and guerilla attacks into open violence and insurrection. Essay? Camus still hoped to champion some kind of rapprochement that would allow the native Muslim population and the French pied noir minority to live together peaceably in a new de-colonized and Cultural Diversty Essay largely integrated, if not fully independent, nation. Alas, by this point, as he painfully realized, the odds of of the united such an outcome were becoming increasingly unlikely. In the fall of 1957, following publication of Exile and the Kingdom, a collection of Cultural within Healthcare short fiction, Camus was shocked by news that he had been awarded the Nobel Prize for literature.
He absorbed the announcement with mixed feelings of gratitude, humility, and amazement. On the one hand, the award was obviously a tremendous honor. On the other, not only did he feel that his friend and esteemed fellow novelist Andre Malraux was more deserving, he was also aware that the Nobel itself was widely regarded as the kind of accolade usually given to of Monte Cristo: Classically Entertaining artists at the end of a long career. Yet, as he indicated in his acceptance speech at Stockholm, he considered his own career as still in mid-flight, with much yet to accomplish and even greater writing challenges ahead: Every person, and assuredly every artist, wants to be recognized. So do I. But Ive been unable to comprehend your decision without comparing its resounding impact with my own actual status. A man almost young, rich only in his doubts, and with his work still in progress how could such a man not feel a kind of Essay panic at hearing a decree that transports him all of a sudden to the center of format essay a glaring spotlight? And with what feelings could he accept this honor at a time when other writers in Europe, among them the very greatest, are condemned to silence, and Cultural Diversty even at a time when the country of his birth is going through unending misery? Of course Camus could not have known as he spoke these words that most of his writing career was in equilibrium and le lab report answers fact behind him.
Over the Diversty within Essay next two years, he published articles and continued to write, produce, and direct plays, including his own adaptation of Dostoyevskys The Possessed . He also formulated new concepts for film and 7th president of the united states television, assumed a leadership role in a new experimental national theater, and continued to campaign for peace and within Healthcare Essay a political solution in 7th president united states Algeria. Unfortunately, none of Healthcare Essay these latter projects would be brought to fulfillment. On January 4, 1960, Camus died tragically in a car accident while he was a passenger in a vehicle driven by his friend and publisher Michel Gallimard, who also suffered fatal injuries. The author was buried in the local cemetery at Lourmarin, a village in in english Provencal where he and his wife and daughters had lived for nearly a decade. Upon hearing of Camuss death, Sartre wrote a moving eulogy in the France-Observateur , saluting his former friend and Diversty within Healthcare Essay political adversary not only for his distinguished contributions to French literature but especially for the heroic moral courage and stubborn humanism which he brought to computer in english bear against the massive and deformed events of the day. According to Sartres perceptive appraisal, Camus was less a novelist and more a writer of philosophical tales and Cultural within Essay parables in the tradition of Voltaire. Essay Classically Entertaining? This assessment accords with Camuss own judgment that his fictional works were not true novels (Fr. romans ), a form he associated with the densely populated and within Healthcare Essay richly detailed social panoramas of writers like Balzac, Tolstoy, and Proust, but rather contes (tales) and recits (narratives) combining philosophical and psychological insights. In this respect, it is also worth noting that at no time in his career did Camus ever describe himself as a deep thinker or lay claim to the title of philosopher.
Instead, he nearly always referred to himself simply, yet proudly, as un ecrivain a writer. Essay? This is an important fact to keep in mind when assessing his place in intellectual history and in twentieth-century philosophy, for by no means does he qualify as a system-builder or theorist or even as a disciplined thinker. He was instead (and here again Sartres assessment is astute) a sort of Diversty within all-purpose critic and modern-day philosophe : a debunker of mythologies, a critic of fraud and superstition, an enemy of terror, a voice of reason and compassion, and an outspoken defender of religion freedomall in all a figure very much in Cultural Healthcare the Enlightenment tradition of Voltaire and Diderot. For this reason, in assessing Camuss career and work, it may be best simply to take him at his own word and characterize him first and foremost as a writer advisedly attaching the epithet philosophical for sharper accuracy and on The Count of Monte Cristo: definition. 3. Camus, Philosophical Literature, and the Novel of Diversty Healthcare Essay Ideas. To pin down exactly why and in what distinctive sense Camus may be termed a philosophical writer, we can begin by comparing him with other authors who have merited the designation.
Right away, we can eliminate any comparison with the efforts of Lucretius and Dante, who undertook to unfold entire cosmologies and philosophical systems in epic verse. Camus obviously attempted nothing of the sort. On the other hand, we can draw at least a limited comparison between Camus and writers like Pascal, Kierkegaard, and Nietzschethat is, with writers who were first of all philosophers or religious writers, but whose stylistic achievements and literary flair gained them a special place in the pantheon of world literature as well. Here we may note that Camus himself was very conscious of his debt to Kierkegaard and Nietzsche (especially in the style and structure of The Myth of Sisyphus and The Rebel ) and that he might very well have followed in their literary-philosophical footsteps if his tuberculosis had not side-tracked him into fiction and what is pentecostal journalism and prevented him from pursuing an academic career. Perhaps Camus himself best defined his own particular status as a philosophical writer when he wrote (with authors like Melville, Stendhal, Dostoyevsky, and Kafka especially in mind): The great novelists are philosophical novelists; that is, writers who eschew systematic explanation and create their discourse using images instead of arguments ( The Myth of Sisyphus 74). By his own definition then Camus is a philosophical writer in the sense that he has (a) conceived his own distinctive and Cultural Diversty original world-view and format argumentative (b) sought to Diversty Essay convey that view mainly through images, fictional characters and events, and via dramatic presentation rather than through critical analysis and of the united direct discourse. He is also both a novelist of Cultural Diversty Healthcare ideas and a psychological novelist, and in this respect, he certainly compares most closely to Dostoyevsky and Sartre, two other writers who combine a unique and distinctly philosophical outlook, acute psychological insight, and a dramatic style of presentation. (Like Camus, Sartre was a productive playwright, and Dostoyevsky remains perhaps the most dramatic of all novelists, as Camus clearly understood, having adapted both The Brothers Karamazov and The Possessed for the stage.) Camuss reputation rests largely on the three novels published during his lifetime The Stranger, The Plague, and The Fall and on his two major philosophical essays The Myth of Sisyphus and The Rebel . However, his body of work also includes a collection of short fiction, Exile and the Kingdom ; an Cristo: autobiographical novel, The First Man ; a number of dramatic works, most notably Caligula, The Misunderstanding , The State of Siege , and The Just Assassins ; several translations and adaptations, including new versions of works by Calderon, Lope de Vega, Dostoyevsky, and Faulkner; and a lengthy assortment of essays, prose pieces, critical reviews, transcribed speeches and interviews, articles, and works of journalism. A brief summary and description of the most important of Cultural Diversty Healthcare Camuss writings is presented below as preparation for a larger discussion of of the united states his philosophy and world-view, including his main ideas and recurrent philosophical themes. The Stranger ( LEtranger, 1942)From its cold opening lines, Mother died today.
Or maybe yesterday; I cant be sure, to its bleak concluding image of a public execution set to take place beneath the benign indifference of the universe, Camuss first and Diversty within Healthcare most famous novel takes the form of a terse, flat, first-person narrative by what, its main character Meursault, a very ordinary young man of unremarkable habits and unemotional affect who, inexplicably and in an almost absent-minded way, kills an Arab and then is arrested, tried, convicted, and Diversty Healthcare sentenced to death. The neutral style of the noveltypical of what the critic Roland Barthes called writing degree zeroserves as a perfect vehicle for the descriptions and commentary of its anti-hero narrator, the ultimate outsider and a person who seems to observe everything, including his own life, with almost pathological detachment. The Plague ( La Peste, 1947)Set in the coastal town of Oran, Camuss second novel is the in english story of an outbreak of plague, traced from within Essay, its subtle, insidious, unheeded beginnings and religion horrible, seemingly irresistible dominion to its eventual climax and decline, all told from the viewpoint of Diversty Essay one of the survivors. Camus made no effort to conceal the fact that his novel was partly based on and could be interpreted as an allegory or parable of the of the united rise of Nazism and the nightmare of the Occupation. However, the plague metaphor is both more complicated and more flexible than that, extending to signify the Absurd in Cultural Diversty Healthcare general as well as any calamity or disaster that tests the Newsroom Essay mettle of Diversty within Essay human beings, their endurance, their solidarity, their sense of format argumentative responsibility, their compassion, and their will. At the Diversty within Healthcare Essay end of the novel, the plague finally retreats, and the narrator reflects that a time of pestilence teaches that there is more to admire in men than to computer despise, but he also knows that the plague bacillus never dies or disappears for good, that the day would come when, for the bane and the enlightening of men, it would rouse up its rats again and send them forth yet once more to spread death and contagion into a happy and unsuspecting city. The Fall ( La Chute, 1956)Camuss third novel, and Cultural Diversty Healthcare Essay the last to be published during his lifetime, is in 7th president united states effect an extended dramatic monologue spoken by Cultural Diversty within Healthcare, M. Jean-Baptiste Clamence, a dissipated, cynical, former Parisian attorney (who now calls himself a judge-penitent) to an unnamed auditor (thus indirectly to the reader). Set in 7th president united a seedy bar in the red-light district of Amsterdam, the work is a small masterpiece of compression and style: a confessional (and semi-autobiographical) novel, an arresting character study and psychological portrait, and at the same time a wide-ranging philosophical discourse on Cultural within, guilt and Diversity in the Essay innocence, expiation and punishment, good and evil. Camus began his literary career as a playwright and theatre director and was planning new dramatic works for within, film, stage, and television at the time of his death. In addition to his four original plays, he also published several successful adaptations (including theatre pieces based on works by Faulkner, Dostoyevsky, and Calderon). He took particular pride in his work as a dramatist and man of the theatre.
However, his plays never achieved the same popularity, critical success, or level of incandescence as his more famous novels and major essays. Caligula (1938, first produced 1945)Men die and are not happy. Such is the complaint against the universe pronounced by religion, the young emperor Caligula, who in Camuss play is less the murderous lunatic, slave to incest, narcissist, and megalomaniac of Roman history than a theatrical martyr-hero of the Absurd: a man who carries his philosophical quarrel with the meaninglessness of human existence to a kind of Diversty Healthcare Essay fanatical but logical extreme. Camus described his hero as a man obsessed with the impossible willing to pervert all values, and if necessary destroy himself and all those around him in the pursuit of equilibrium chatelier's lab report answers absolute liberty. Caligula was Camuss first attempt at portraying a figure in absolute defiance of the Absurd, and through three revisions of the play over a period of several years he eventually achieved a remarkable composite by adding to Caligulas original portrait touches of Sade, of revolutionary nihilism, of the within Healthcare Essay Nietzschean Superman, of his own version of Sisyphus, and even of Mussolini and Hitler. The Misunderstanding ( Le Malentendu , 1944)In this grim exploration of the what is pentecostal religion Absurd, a son returns home while concealing his true identity from his mother and sister. The two women operate a boarding house where, in order to make ends meet, they quietly murder and rob their patrons. Through a tangle of misunderstanding and mistaken identity they wind up murdering their unrecognized visitor. Diversty Healthcare Essay? Camus has explained the 7th president of the united states drama as an attempt to capture the atmosphere of malaise, corruption, demoralization, and Diversty within Essay anonymity that he experienced while living in France during the German occupation. Despite the plays dark themes and bleak style, he described its philosophy as ultimately optimistic: It amounts to saying that in an unjust or indifferent world man can save himself, and save others, by practicing the most basic sincerity and pronouncing the most appropriate word.
State of Siege ( LEtat de Siege, 1948) This odd allegorical drama combines features of the medieval morality play with elements of Calderon and the Spanish baroque; it also has apocalyptic themes, bits of music hall comedy, and a collection of avant-garde theatrics thrown in for good measure. The work marked a significant departure from is pentecostal, Camuss normal dramatic style. It also resulted in virtually universal disapproval and negative reviews from Paris theatre-goers and critics, many of whom came expecting a play based on Camuss recent novel The Plague . The play is set in the Spanish seaport city of Cadiz, famous for its beaches, carnivals, and street musicians. By the end of the first act, the within Healthcare Essay normally laid-back and Diversity in the carefree citizens fall under the dominion of a gaudily beribboned and uniformed dictator named Plague (based on Generalissimo Franco) and his officious, clip-board wielding Secretary (who turns out to be a modern, bureaucratic incarnation of the medieval figure Death). One of the prominent concerns of the play is the Orwellian theme of the degradation of language via totalitarian politics and Diversty within Healthcare Essay bureaucracy (symbolized onstage by calls for silence, scenes in 7th president of the united pantomime, and a gagged chorus). As one character observes, we are steadily nearing that perfect moment when nothing anybody says will rouse the least echo in anothers mind. The Just Assassins ( Les Justes , 1950)First performed in Paris to largely favorable reviews, this play is based on real-life characters and an actual historical event: the 1905 assassination of the Russian Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich by Ivan Kalyayev and fellow members of the Combat Organization of the Diversty within Healthcare Essay Socialist Revolutionary Party. The play effectively dramatizes the issues that Camus would later explore in detail in The Rebel , especially the question of whether acts of terrorism and political violence can ever be morally justified (and if so, with what limitations and in what specific circumstances).
The historical Kalyayev passed up his original opportunity to equilibrium and le chatelier's principle answers bomb the Grand Dukes carriage because the Cultural Diversty within Healthcare Duke was accompanied by his wife and two young nephews. However, this was no act of conscience on Kalyayevs part but a purely practical decision based on essay, his calculation that the murder of children would prove a setback to the revolution. After the successful completion of his bombing mission and subsequent arrest, Kalyayev welcomed his execution on similarly practical and purely political grounds, believing that his death would further the cause of Cultural Healthcare revolution and social justice. Camuss Kalyayev, on the other hand, is a far more agonized and conscientious figure, neither so cold-blooded nor so calculating as his real-life counterpart. Upon seeing the what religion two children in Cultural Diversty Healthcare Essay the carriage, he refuses to computer in english toss his bomb not because doing so would be politically inexpedient but because he is overcome emotionally, temporarily unnerved by the sad expression in their eyes. Similarly, at the end of the play he embraces his death not so much because it will aid the revolution, but almost as a form of karmic penance, as if it were indeed some kind of sacred duty or metaphysical requirement that must be performed in order for true justice to be achieved. c. Essays, Letters, Prose Collections, Articles, and Reviews. Betwixt and Healthcare Between ( LEnvers et lendroit, 1937)This short collection of semi-autobiographical, semi-fictional, philosophical pieces might be dismissed as juvenilia and largely ignored if it were not for the fact that it represents Camuss first attempt to format argumentative essay formulate a coherent life-outlook and world-view.
The collection, which in a way serves as a germ or starting point for Cultural within Healthcare Essay, the authors later philosophy, consists of five lyrical essays. Chemical Principle Answers? In Irony ( LIronie ), a reflection on youth and age, Camus asserts, in the manner of a young disciple of Pascal, our essential solitariness in life and death. In Between yes and Diversty Healthcare Essay no ( Entre Oui et Non ) he suggests that to hope is as empty and as pointless as to despair, yet he goes beyond nihilism by positing a fundamental value to existence-in-the-world. In Death in the soul ( La Mort dans lame ) he supplies a sort of existential travel review, contrasting his impressions of Diversity in the Newsroom Essay central and Eastern Europe (which he views as purgatorial and morgue-like) with the more spontaneous life of Italy and Mediterranean culture. The piece thus affirms the Cultural within Essay authors lifelong preference for what is pentecostal religion, the color and vitality of the Mediterranean world, and especially North Africa, as opposed to what he perceives as the soulless cold-heartedness of modern Europe. In Love of life ( Amour de vivre ) he claims there can be no love of life without despair of life and thus largely re-asserts the essentially tragic, ancient Greek view that the very beauty of Healthcare human existence is largely contingent upon its brevity and fragility. The concluding essay, Betwixt and between ( LEnvers et lendroit ), summarizes and re-emphasizes the essay Romantic themes of the collection as a whole: our fundamental aloneness, the within Healthcare importance of imagination and openness to experience, the imperative to live as if .
Nuptials ( Noces , 1938)This collection of four rhapsodic narratives supplements and amplifies the youthful philosophy expressed in Betwixt and Diversity Newsroom Essay Between . That joy is necessarily intertwined with despair, that the shortness of life confers a premium on intense experience, and that the world is Diversty within Essay, both beautiful and violentthese are, once again, Camuss principal themes. Summer in Algiers, which is probably the best (and best-known) of the essays in the collection, is a lyrical, at times almost ecstatic, celebration of sea, sun, and the North African landscape. Affirming a defiantly atheistic creed, Camus concludes with one of the core ideas of format argumentative essay his philosophy: If there is a sin against life, it consists not so much in despairing as in within hoping for another life and in eluding the implacable grandeur of this one. The Myth of Sisyphus ( Le Mythe de Sisyphe, 1943)If there is computer essay, a single non-fiction work that can be considered an essential or fundamental statement of Cultural Diversty within Healthcare Camuss philosophy, it is this extended essay on the ethics of suicide (eventually translated and repackaged for American publication in 1955). It is chemical lab report, here that Camus formally introduces and fully articulates his most famous idea, the Essay concept of the Absurd, and Diversity his equally famous image of life as a Sisyphean struggle. From its provocative opening sentenceThere is but one truly serious philosophical problem, and that is suicideto its stirring, paradoxical conclusionThe struggle itself toward the heights is enough to fill a mans heart. One must imagine Sisyphus happythe book has something interesting and challenging on nearly every page and is shot through with brilliant aphorisms and insights. In the end, Camus rejects suicide: the Absurd must not be evaded either by religion (philosophical suicide) or by annihilation (physical suicide); the task of living should not merely be accepted, it must be embraced. The Rebel ( LHomme Revolte, 1951)Camus considered this work a continuation of the critical and philosophical investigation of the Absurd that he began with The Myth of Sisyphus . Only this time his primary concern is not suicide but murder. He takes up the question of whether acts of terrorism and Cultural within Healthcare Essay political violence can be morally justified, which is basically the same question he had addressed earlier in his play The Just Assassins . After arguing that an authentic life inevitably involves some form of conscientious moral revolt, Camus winds up concluding that only in rare and of an very narrowly defined instances is political violence justified.
Camuss critique of revolutionary violence and terror in this work, and particularly his caustic assessment of Marxism-Leninism (which he accused of Cultural within Healthcare Essay sacrificing innocent lives on the altar of History), touched nerves throughout Europe and led in part to his celebrated feud with Sartre and chatelier's lab report answers other French leftists. Resistance, Rebellion, and Death (1957)This posthumous collection is of interest to students of Camus mainly because it brings together an Diversty within Essay unusual assortment of his non-fiction writings on a wide range of topics, from art and 7th president states politics to the advantages of pessimism and Cultural Diversty Healthcare the virtues (from a non-believers standpoint) of Christianity. Of special interest are two pieces that helped secure Camuss worldwide reputation as a voice of liberty: Letters to a German Friend, a set of four letters originally written during the Nazi Occupation, and Reflections on Count Classically, the Guillotine, a denunciation of the death penalty cited for Cultural Diversty within Healthcare Essay, special mention by the Nobel committee and eventually revised and re-published as a companion essay to go with fellow death-penalty opponent Arthur Koestlers Reflections on Hanging. To re-emphasize a point made earlier, Camus considered himself first and foremost a writer ( un ecrivain ). 7th President United States? Indeed, Camuss dissertation advisor penciled onto his dissertation the Cultural assessment More a writer than a philosopher. And at various times in his career he also accepted the labels journalist, humanist, novelist, and even moralist. However, he apparently never felt comfortable identifying himself as a philosophera term he seems to have associated with rigorous academic training, systematic thinking, logical consistency, and format of an argumentative essay a coherent, carefully defined doctrine or body of ideas. This is not to suggest that Camus lacked ideas or to say that his thought cannot be considered a personal philosophy. It is within, simply to point out that he was not a systematic, or even a notably disciplined thinker and that, unlike Heidegger and Sartre, for example, he showed very little interest in metaphysics and ontology, which seems to be one of the reasons he consistently denied that he was an what existentialist. Cultural Diversty Within Healthcare? In short, he was not much given to chemical equilibrium and le chatelier's lab report answers speculative philosophy or any kind of abstract theorizing. His thought is instead nearly always related to current events (e.g., the Spanish War, revolt in Algeria) and is consistently grounded in Diversty down-to-earth moral and political reality. Though he was baptized, raised, and educated as a Catholic and invariably respectful towards the computer essay Church, Camus seems to have been a natural-born pagan who showed almost no instinct whatsoever for belief in Diversty within the supernatural.
Even as a youth, he was more of a sun-worshipper and nature lover than a boy notable for his piety or religious faith. On the other hand, there is is pentecostal religion, no denying that Christian literature and Cultural within Healthcare philosophy served as an important influence on 7th president united states, his early thought and intellectual development. As a young high school student, Camus studied the Cultural within Healthcare Essay Bible, read and savored the Spanish mystics St. Theresa of Essay Count of Monte Cristo: Avila and St. John of the Cross, and was introduced to the thought of St. Cultural Diversty Within Healthcare Essay? Augustine St. Augustine would later serve as the subject of of an argumentative essay his baccalaureate dissertation and becomeas a fellow North African writer, quasi-existentialist, and conscientious observer-critic of his own lifean important lifelong influence. In college Camus absorbed Kierkegaard, who, after Augustine, was probably the single greatest Christian influence on his thought. He also studied Schopenhauer and Nietzscheundoubtedly the two writers who did the within most to set him on argumentative, his own path of Healthcare defiant pessimism and Diversity Essay atheism.
Other notable influences include not only the major modern philosophers from the academic curriculumfrom Descartes and Diversty within Healthcare Essay Spinoza to Bergsonbut also, and just as importantly, philosophical writers like Stendhal, Melville, Dostoyevsky, and in the Kafka. The two earliest expressions of Healthcare Camuss personal philosophy are his works Betwixt and Between (1937) and Nuptials (1938). Here he unfolds what is essentially a hedonistic, indeed almost primitivistic, celebration of nature and the life of the senses. 7th President Of The United? In the Romantic poetic tradition of Diversty within Healthcare writers like Rilke and Wallace Stevens, he offers a forceful rejection of all hereafters and an emphatic embrace of the here and now. There is no salvation, he argues, no transcendence; there is only the enjoyment of format of an argumentative consciousness and natural being.
One life, this life, is enough. Sky and sea, mountain and desert, have their own beauty and within Healthcare magnificence and constitute a sufficient heaven. The critic John Cruikshank termed this stage in Camuss thinking naive atheism and attributed it to his ecstatic and somewhat immature Mediterraneanism. Naive seems an what religion apt characterization for a philosophy that is Cultural Diversty within Healthcare Essay, romantically bold and uncomplicated yet somewhat lacking in sophistication and logical clarity. On the other hand, if we keep in mind Camuss theatrical background and preference for dramatic presentation, there may actually be more depth and complexity to his thought here than meets the chemical chatelier's eye. That is to say, just as it would be simplistic and reductive to equate Camuss philosophy of revolt with that of his character Caligula (who is at Cultural Healthcare best a kind of extreme or mad spokesperson for the author), so in the same way it is possible that the what pensees and opinions presented in Nuptials and Betwixt and within Essay Between are not so much the views of Camus as they are poetically heightened observations of an artfully crafted narratoran exuberant alter ego who is far more spontaneous and free-spirited than his more naturally reserved and sober-minded author. In any case, regardless of this assessment of the ideas expressed in Betwixt and Between and Nuptials , it is clear that these early writings represent an important, if comparatively raw and simple, beginning stage in Camuss development as a thinker where his views differ markedly from his more mature philosophy in several noteworthy respects. In the first place, the Camus of Nuptials is still a young man of twenty-five, aflame with youthful joie de vivre.
He favors a life of computer in english impulse and Essay daring as it was honored and practiced in both Romantic literature and in the streets of Belcourt. Recently married and divorced, raised in poverty and in close quarters, beset with health problems, this young man develops an understandable passion for clear air, open space, colorful dreams, panoramic vistas, and the breath-taking prospects and challenges of the larger world. Consequently, the Camus of the period 1937-38 is a decidedly different writer from the Camus who will ascend the dais at Stockholm nearly twenty years later. The young Camus is more of a sensualist and pleasure-seeker, more of a dandy and aesthete, than the more hardened and austere figure who will endure the Occupation while serving in the French underground. He is a writer passionate in his conviction that life ought to be lived vividly and Essay on The Count of Monte Classically Entertaining intenselyindeed rebelliously (to use the term that will take on within, increasing importance in his thought). He is of an essay, also a writer attracted to causes, though he is not yet the author who will become world-famous for within Essay, his moral seriousness and passionate commitment to in english justice and freedom.
All of which is understandable. After all, the Camus of the middle 1930s had not yet witnessed and absorbed the shattering spectacle and disillusioning effects of the Spanish Civil War, the rise of Fascism, Hitlerism, and Cultural Essay Stalinism, the coming into being of total war and essay weapons of mass destruction, and the terrible reign of genocide and terror that would characterize the Cultural within Healthcare period 1938-1945. It was under the is pentecostal pressure and in direct response to Cultural Diversty the events of this period that Camuss mature philosophywith its core set of humanistic themes and format essay ideasemerged and gradually took shape. That mature philosophy is Cultural Diversty Essay, no longer a naive atheism but a very reflective and critical brand of unbelief. And Le Chatelier's? It is proudly and inconsolably pessimistic, but not in within a polemical or overbearing way. It is unbending, hardheaded, determinedly skeptical. It is in the Newsroom, tolerant and respectful of world religious creeds, but at the same time wholly unsympathetic to them. Cultural Healthcare Essay? In the end it is an affirmative philosophy that accepts and approves, and in format of an argumentative essay its own way blesses, our dreadful mortality and our fundamental isolation in the world. Regardless of whether he is producing drama, fiction, or non-fiction, Camus in his mature writings nearly always takes up and re-explores the same basic philosophical issues.
These recurrent topoi constitute the key components of his thought. They include themes like the Absurd, alienation, suicide, and rebellion that almost automatically come to mind whenever his name is mentioned. Hence any summary of his place in Diversty within modern philosophy would be incomplete without at least a brief discussion of these ideas and how they fit together to Essay on The of Monte Entertaining form a distinctive and original world-view. Even readers not closely acquainted with Camuss works are aware of his reputation as the philosophical expositor, anatomist, and poet-apostle of the Absurd. Indeed, as even sitcom writers and stand-up comics apparently understand (odd fact: the comic-bleak final episode of Seinfeld has been compared to The Stranger , and Cultural Diversty within Healthcare Camuss thought has been used to explain episodes of The Simpsons ), it is largely through the of an thought and writings of the French-Algerian author that the concept of absurdity has become a part not only of world literature and within Essay twentieth-century philosophy but also of chatelier's principle lab report modern popular culture. What then is meant by the notion of the Absurd? Contrary to the view conveyed by popular culture, the Absurd, (at least in Camuss terms) does not simply refer to some vague perception that modern life is fraught with paradoxes, incongruities, and intellectual confusion. Diversty Within Healthcare Essay? (Although that perception is certainly consistent with his formula.) Instead, as he emphasizes and tries to make clear, the Absurd expresses a fundamental disharmony, a tragic incompatibility, in our existence. In effect, he argues that the Absurd is the product of a collision or confrontation between our human desire for order, meaning, and purpose in life and the blank, indifferent silence of the universe: The absurd is not in man nor in the world, Camus explains, but in format of an argumentative their presence together it is the only bond uniting them. So here we are: poor creatures desperately seeking hope and meaning in a hopeless, meaningless world.
Sartre, in Healthcare Essay his essay-review of The Stranger provides an additional gloss on the idea: The absurd, to be sure, resides neither in man nor in the world, if you consider each separately. But since mans dominant characteristic is being in the world, the absurd is, in the end, an inseparable part of the of an argumentative human condition. The Absurd, then, presents itself in the form of an existential opposition. It arises from the human demand for clarity and transcendence on the one hand and a cosmos that offers nothing of the kind on Diversty within Essay, the other. Such is our fate: we inhabit a world that is indifferent to Essay Classically our sufferings and deaf to our protests. In Camuss view there are three possible philosophical responses to this predicament. Two of these he condemns as evasions, and the other he puts forward as a proper solution. The first choice is blunt and within simple: physical suicide. If we decide that a life without some essential purpose or meaning is not worth living, we can simply choose to in the Essay kill ourselves. Camus rejects this choice as cowardly. In his terms it is a repudiation or renunciation of Diversty within Essay life, not a true revolt.
The second choice is the religious solution of positing a transcendent world of essay solace and meaning beyond the Absurd. Camus calls this solution philosophical suicide and rejects it as transparently evasive and fraudulent. To adopt a supernatural solution to the problem of the Absurd (for example, through some type of mysticism or leap of faith) is to annihilate reason, which in Camuss view is as fatal and Healthcare self-destructive as physical suicide. In effect, instead of removing himself from the absurd confrontation of self and 7th president united states world like the physical suicide, the Diversty religious believer simply removes the offending world and replaces it, via a kind of metaphysical abracadabra, with a more agreeable alternative. The third choicein Camuss view the what is pentecostal religion only authentic and valid solutionis simply to accept absurdity, or better yet to Diversty Essay embrace it, and to continue living.
Since the Absurd in his view is an unavoidable, indeed defining, characteristic of the human condition, the only proper response to it is format of an essay, full, unflinching, courageous acceptance. Life, he says, can be lived all the better if it has no meaning. The example par excellence of this option of spiritual courage and metaphysical revolt is the mythical Sisyphus of Cultural Diversty Healthcare Essay Camuss philosophical essay. Doomed to eternal labor at his rock, fully conscious of the essential hopelessness of in english his plight, Sisyphus nevertheless pushes on. In doing so he becomes for Camus a superb icon of the spirit of Cultural within Healthcare revolt and of the 7th president of the united states human condition. To rise each day to fight a battle you know you cannot win, and to do this with wit, grace, compassion for others, and even a sense of mission, is to face the Absurd in a spirit of true heroism. Over the course of his career, Camus examines the Cultural Diversty Absurd from multiple perspectives and through the eyes of Diversity Newsroom Essay many different charactersfrom the Cultural Diversty mad Caligula, who is obsessed with the essay problem, to within Healthcare Essay the strangely aloof and yet simultaneously self-absorbed Meursault, who seems indifferent to it even as he exemplifies and essay is finally victimized by it. In The Myth of Sisyphus, Camus traces it in specific characters of legend and literature (Don Juan, Ivan Karamazov) and also in Healthcare Essay certain character types (the Actor, the Conqueror), all of who may be understood as in some way a version or manifestation of Sisyphus, the archetypal absurd hero. [Note: A rather different, yet possibly related, notion of the Absurd is proposed and analyzed in the work of Kierkegaard, especially in is pentecostal Fear and Trembling and Repetition . Cultural Within Essay? For Kierkegaard, however, the Absurd describes not an essential and Essay of Monte Cristo: Entertaining universal human condition, but the special condition and nature of religious faitha paradoxical state in which matters of will and perception that are objectively impossible can nevertheless be ultimately true. Diversty? Though it is hard to Newsroom Essay say whether Camus had Kierkegaard particularly in mind when he developed his own concept of the absurd, there can be little doubt that Kierkegaards knight of faith is in certain ways an important predecessor of Camuss Sisyphus: both figures are involved in impossible and endlessly agonizing tasks, which they nevertheless confidently and even cheerfully pursue.
In the knights quixotic defiance and solipsism, Camus found a model for his own ideal of heroic affirmation and philosophical revolt.] The companion theme to the Absurd in Camuss oeuvre (and the only other philosophical topic to which he devoted an Diversty Healthcare Essay entire book) is the what idea of Cultural within Healthcare Revolt. What is 7th president states, revolt? Simply defined, it is the Sisyphean spirit of defiance in the face of the Absurd. More technically and less metaphorically, it is a spirit of opposition against any perceived unfairness, oppression, or indignity in Healthcare Essay the human condition.
Rebellion in Camuss sense begins with a recognition of boundaries, of limits that define ones essential selfhood and core sense of being and thus must not be infringedas when a slave stands up to his master and says in effect thus far, and no further, shall I be commanded. This defining of the self as at some point inviolable appears to be an act of pure egoism and Essay of Monte Entertaining individualism, but it is not. In fact Camus argues at considerable length to show that an act of conscientious revolt is ultimately far more than just an individual gesture or an act of solitary protest. The rebel, he writes, holds that there is a common good more important than his own destiny and that there are rights more important than himself. He acts in the name of certain values which are still indeterminate but which he feels are common to himself and to all men ( The Rebel 15-16). Camus then goes on to assert that an analysis of rebellion leads at least to the suspicion that, contrary to the postulates of Diversty within contemporary thought, a human nature does exist, as the Greeks believed. After all, Why rebel, he asks, if there is nothing permanent in the self worth preserving? The slave who stands up and of Monte Cristo: Entertaining asserts himself actually does so for Cultural Diversty within Essay, the sake of everyone in religion the world. He declares in effect that all meneven the man who insults and oppresses himhave a natural community. Here we may note that the idea that there may indeed be an essential human nature is actually more than a suspicion as far as Camus himself was concerned. Indeed for him it was more like a fundamental article of his humanist faith. In any case it represents one of the core principles of his ethics and is one of the tenets that sets his philosophy apart from existentialism. True revolt, then, is performed not just for the self but also in Cultural within Healthcare Essay solidarity with and out of compassion for others. And for this reason, Camus is led to conclude that revolt too has its limits.
If it begins with and necessarily involves a recognition of human community and a common human dignity, it cannot, without betraying its own true character, treat others as if they were lacking in that dignity or not a part of that community. In the end it is remarkable, and indeed surprising, how closely Camuss philosophy of revolt, despite the authors fervent atheism and individualism, echoes Kantian ethics with its prohibition against treating human beings as means and computer essay its ideal of the human community as a kingdom of ends. A recurrent theme in Camuss literary works, which also shows up in his moral and political writings, is the character or perspective of the stranger or outsider. Meursault, the laconic narrator of The Stranger , is the Cultural Diversty Healthcare most obvious example. In The Newsroom Essay? He seems to observe everything, even his own behavior, from an outside perspective. Like an anthropologist, he records his observations with clinical detachment at the same time that he is warily observed by the community around him. Camus came by this perspective naturally. As a European in Africa, an African in Europe, an infidel among Muslims, a lapsed Catholic, a Communist Party drop-out, an underground resister (who at times had to use code names and false identities), a child of the state raised by a widowed mother (who was illiterate and virtually deaf and Diversty Healthcare Essay dumb), Camus lived most of his life in various groups and communities without really being integrated within them. Diversity? This outside view, the perspective of the exile, became his characteristic stance as a writer. Cultural Within Essay? It explains both the cool, objective (zero-degree) precision of much of his work and also the high value he assigned to longed-for ideals of format of an argumentative friendship, community, solidarity, and Cultural Diversty within Healthcare Essay brotherhood.
Throughout his writing career, Camus showed a deep interest in questions of guilt and in english innocence. Once again Meursault in Cultural Diversty within The Stranger provides a striking example. Is he legally innocent of the murder he is charged with? Or is he technically guilty? On the one hand, there seems to have been no conscious intention behind his action.
Indeed the killing takes place almost as if by on The, accident, with Meursault in a kind of absent-minded daze, distracted by the sun. From this point of view, his crime seems surreal and his trial and subsequent conviction a travesty. Cultural Diversty Essay? On the other hand, it is hard for of the united states, the reader not to Healthcare share the view of other characters in the novel, especially Meursaults accusers, witnesses, and jury, in format of an argumentative essay whose eyes he seems to be a seriously defective human beingat best, a kind of hollow man and at Diversty within worst, a monster of equilibrium chatelier's self-centeredness and insularity. That the character has evoked such a wide range of responses from critics and readersfrom sympathy to horroris a tribute to within Essay the psychological complexity and subtlety of 7th president united states Camuss portrait. Camuss brilliantly crafted final novel, The Fall , continues his keen interest in the theme of guilt, this time via a narrator who is virtually obsessed with it. Diversty Healthcare? The significantly named Jean-Baptiste Clamence (a voice in of the united the wilderness calling for Essay, clemency and forgiveness) is tortured by guilt in the wake of is pentecostal a seemingly casual incident. While strolling home one drizzly November evening, he shows little concern and almost no emotional reaction at all to the suicidal plunge of a young woman into the Seine. But afterwards the incident begins to gnaw at him, and eventually he comes to view his inaction as typical of a long pattern of personal vanity and as a colossal failure of human sympathy on his part. Wracked by remorse and self-loathing, he gradually descends into a figurative hell.
Formerly an attorney, he is now a self-described judge-penitent (a combination sinner, tempter, prosecutor, and father-confessor) who shows up each night at Diversty within Healthcare Essay his local haunt, a sailors bar near Amsterdams red light district, where, somewhat in the manner of Coleridges Ancient Mariner, he recounts his story to whoever will hear it. In the Essay Count Classically Entertaining final sections of the Cultural within Healthcare novel, amid distinctly Christian imagery and equilibrium lab report symbolism, he declares his crucial insight that, despite our pretensions to righteousness, we are all guilty . Hence no human being has the right to pass final moral judgment on another. In a final twist, Clamence asserts that his acid self-portrait is also a mirror for Cultural Diversty Healthcare Essay, his contemporaries. Hence his confession is also an accusationnot only of his nameless companion (who serves as the mute auditor for what is pentecostal religion, his monologue) but ultimately of the hypocrite lecteur as well. The theme of guilt and innocence in Camuss writings relates closely to another recurrent tension in his thought: the opposition of Cultural Diversty within Healthcare Essay Christian and equilibrium and le answers pagan ideas and influences.
At heart a nature-worshipper, and by instinct a skeptic and Cultural Diversty within Healthcare Essay non-believer, Camus nevertheless retained a lifelong interest and respect for Christian philosophy and literature. In particular, he seems to have recognized St. Essay? Augustine and Kierkegaard as intellectual kinsmen and writers with whom he shared a common passion for controversy, literary flourish, self-scrutiny, and self-dramatization. Christian images, symbols, and allusions abound in all his work (probably more so than in the writing of any other avowed atheist in modern literature), and Christian themesjudgment, forgiveness, despair, sacrifice, passion, and so forthpermeate the within Essay novels. Argumentative Essay? (Meursault and Clamence, it is worth noting, are presented not just as sinners, devils, and outcasts, but in Cultural Diversty Healthcare several instances explicitly, and not entirely ironically, as Christ figures.) Meanwhile alongside and against this leitmotif of Christian images and themes, Camus sets the main components of his essentially pagan worldview. Argumentative Essay? Like Nietzsche, he maintains a special admiration for Greek heroic values and pessimism and for classical virtues like courage and Cultural Healthcare honor. What might be termed Romantic values also merit particular esteem within his philosophy: passion, absorption in pure being, an appreciation for and indeed a willingness to revel in raw sensory experience, the glory of the moment, the beauty of the world.
As a result of this duality of chemical and le chatelier's lab report influence, Camuss basic philosophical problem becomes how to reconcile his Augustinian sense of original sin (universal guilt) and Cultural Healthcare Essay rampant moral evil with his personal ideal of pagan primitivism (universal innocence) and united with his conviction that the natural world and Cultural our life in it have intrinsic beauty and value. Can an absurd world have intrinsic value? Is authentic pessimism compatible with the view that there is an essential dignity to human life? Such questions raise the possibility that there may be deep logical inconsistencies within Camuss philosophy, and some critics (notably Sartre) have suggested that these inconsistencies cannot be surmounted except through some sort of Kierkegaardian leap of faith on Camuss partin this case a leap leading to essay a belief not in God but in man. Such a leap is certainly implied in an oft-quoted remark from Camuss Letter to a German Friend, where he wrote: I continue to believe that this world has no supernatural meaning But I know that something in the world has meaningman. One can find similar affirmations and protestations on behalf of humanity throughout Camuss writings. They are almost a hallmark of his philosophical style. Oracular and high-flown, they clearly have more rhetorical force than logical potency. On the other hand, if we are trying to locate Camuss place in European philosophical tradition, they provide a strong clue as to where he properly belongs. Surprisingly, the Cultural Diversty Essay sentiment here, a commonplace of the Enlightenment and of traditional liberalism, is much closer in spirit to the exuberant secular humanism of the Italian Renaissance than to chemical answers the agnostic skepticism of contemporary post-modernism. vi. Essay? Individual vs.
History and Mass Culture. A primary theme of early twentieth-century European literature and critical thought is the rise of Count Cristo: modern mass civilization and its suffocating effects of alienation and dehumanization. This became a pervasive theme by the time Camus was establishing his literary reputation. Anxiety over the fate of Western culture, already intense, escalated to apocalyptic levels with the sudden emergence of fascism, totalitarianism, and new technologies of coercion and death. Here then was a subject ready-made for a writer of Camuss political and humanistic views. He responded to the occasion with typical force and eloquence. In one way or another, the themes of Healthcare alienation and dehumanization as by-products of an increasingly technical and automated world enter into essay nearly all of Camuss works.
Even his concept of the Absurd becomes multiplied by a social and economic world in Diversty within which meaningless routines and mind-numbing repetitions predominate. The drudgery of Sisyphus is Newsroom, mirrored and Cultural Diversty Essay amplified in the assembly line, the business office, the government bureau, and especially in the penal colony and concentration camp. In line with this theme, the ever-ambiguous Meursault in The Stranger can be understood as both a depressing manifestation of the newly emerging mass personality (that is, as a figure devoid of basic human feelings and passions) and, conversely, as a lone hold-out, a last remaining specimen of the old Romanticismand hence a figure who is essay in english, viewed as both dangerous and alien by the robotic majority. Similarly, The Plague can be interpreted, on at least one level, as an allegory in which humanity must be preserved from the fatal pestilence of Cultural mass culture, which converts formerly free, autonomous, independent-minded human beings into a soulless new species. At various times in the novel, Camuss narrator describes the plague as if it were a dull but highly capable public official or bureaucrat: It was, above all, a shrewd, unflagging adversary; a skilled organizer, doing his work thoroughly and well. (180) But it seemed the plague had settled in for good at its most virulent, and it took its daily toll of deaths with the punctual zeal of a good civil servant. (235)
This identification of the plague with oppressive civil bureaucracy and the routinization of charisma looks forward to the authors play The State of equilibrium and le chatelier's principle lab report Siege , where plague is used once again as a symbol for totalitarianismonly this time it is personified in an almost cartoonish way as a kind of overbearing government functionary or office manager from hell. Clad in Diversty within Essay a gaudy military uniform bedecked with ribbons and decorations, the chemical equilibrium and le chatelier's lab report answers character Plague (a satirical portrait of Generalissimo Francisco Francoor El Caudillo as he liked to style himself) is within Healthcare, closely attended by his personal Secretary and loyal assistant Death, depicted as a prim, officious female bureaucrat who also favors military garb and who carries an ever-present clipboard and notebook. So Plague is a fascist dictator, and Death a solicitous commissar. Of Monte? Together these figures represent a system of pervasive control and micro-management that threatens the future of Cultural Diversty within Essay mass society. In his reflections on this theme of Essay on The Count Classically post-industrial dehumanization, Camus differs from most other European writers (and especially from those on the Left) in Cultural Essay viewing mass reform and revolutionary movements, including Marxism, as representing at in the Essay least as great a threat to individual freedom as late-stage capitalism. Cultural Healthcare Essay? Throughout his career he continued to cherish and defend old-fashioned virtues like personal courage and honor that other Left-wing intellectuals tended to view as reactionary or bourgeois.
Suicide is the central subject of The Myth of Sisyphus and serves as a background theme in united Caligula and The Fall . In Caligula the mad title character, in a fit of Essay horror and revulsion at the meaninglessness of life, would rather dieand bring the is pentecostal religion world down with himthan accept a cosmos that is indifferent to human fate or that will not submit to his individual will. In The Fall , a strangers act of suicide serves as the starting point for a bitter ritual of self-scrutiny and remorse on the part of the narrator. Like Wittgenstein (who had a family history of suicide and suffered from bouts of depression), Camus considered suicide the fundamental issue for Diversty within Essay, moral philosophy. 7th President? However, unlike other philosophers who have written on the subject (from Cicero and Seneca to Cultural Diversty Essay Montaigne and Schopenhauer), Camus seems uninterested in assessing the traditional motives and justifications for suicide (for instance, to avoid a long, painful, and debilitating illness or as a response to personal tragedy or scandal). Indeed, he seems interested in the problem only to the extent that it represents one possible response to the Absurd. His verdict on the matter is unqualified and clear: The only courageous and morally valid response to the Absurd is to continue livingSuicide is not an option. From the time he first heard the story of his fathers literal nausea and revulsion after witnessing a public execution, Camus began a vocal and lifelong opposition to Essay of Monte Cristo: Classically Entertaining the death penalty. Executions by guillotine were a common public spectacle in Algeria during his lifetime, but he refused to attend them and recoiled bitterly at their very mention. Condemnation of capital punishment is both explicit and implicit in his writings.
For example, in The Stranger Meursaults long confinement during his trial and his eventual execution are presented as part of an elaborate, ceremonial ritual involving both public and religious authorities. The grim rationality of this process of legalized murder contrasts markedly with the Cultural Diversty Healthcare Essay sudden, irrational, almost accidental nature of is pentecostal his actual crime. Diversty? Similarly, in The Myth of Sisyphus , the would-be suicide is contrasted with his fatal opposite, the man condemned to death, and we are continually reminded that a sentence of death is our common fate in equilibrium principle lab report answers an absurd universe. Camuss opposition to Diversty within Healthcare the death penalty is not specifically philosophical. That is, it is not based on a particular moral theory or principle (such as Cesare Beccarias utilitarian objection that capital punishment is wrong because it has not been proven to chemical equilibrium and le principle have a deterrent effect greater than life imprisonment). Camuss opposition, in contrast, is humanitarian, conscientious, almost visceral. Like Victor Hugo, his great predecessor on this issue, he views the death penalty as an egregious barbarisman act of blood riot and vengeance covered over with a thin veneer of law and civility to make it acceptable to modern sensibilities. That it is also an act of vengeance aimed primarily at Cultural the poor and oppressed, and that it is Diversity Essay, given religious sanction, makes it even more hideous and indefensible in his view.
Camuss essay Reflections on the Guillotine supplies a detailed examination of the issue. An eloquent personal statement with compelling psychological and philosophical insights, it includes the Diversty within Essay authors direct rebuttal to traditional retributionist arguments in favor of chemical lab report capital punishment (such as Kants claim that death is the legally appropriate, indeed morally required, penalty for murder). To all who argue that murder must be punished in Cultural within Healthcare Essay kind, Camus replies: Capital punishment is the most premeditated of murders, to which no criminals deed, however calculated, can be compared. For there to be an equivalency, the death penalty would have to punish a criminal who had warned his victim of the date on which he would inflict a horrible death on him and essay in english who, from that moment onward, had confined him at his mercy for Cultural within, months. Such a monster is not to computer in english be encountered in private life. Camus concludes his essay by arguing that, at the very least, France should abolish the savage spectacle of the guillotine and replace it with a more humane procedure (such as lethal injection).
But he still retains a scant hope that capital punishment will be completely abolished at Cultural Diversty Healthcare Essay some point in the time to come: In the unified Europe of the future the in the Essay solemn abolition of the death penalty ought to be the first article of the European Code we all hope for. Camus himself did not live to see the Healthcare day, but he would no doubt be gratified to know that abolition of of the states capital punishment is now an essential prerequisite for membership in the European Union. Camus is often classified as an existentialist writer, and it is easy to see why. Affinities with Kierkegaard and Sartre are patent. He shares with these philosophers (and with the other major writers in the existentialist tradition, from Augustine and Pascal to Dostoyevsky and Nietzsche) an within Healthcare Essay habitual and intense interest in the active human psyche, in the life of conscience or spirit as it is actually experienced and lived. Like these writers, he aims at nothing less than a thorough, candid exegesis of the human condition, and like them he exhibits not just a philosophical attraction but also a personal commitment to 7th president united such values as individualism, free choice, inner strength, authenticity, personal responsibility, and self-determination.
However, one troublesome fact remains: throughout his career Camus repeatedly denied that he was an existentialist. Was this an accurate and honest self-assessment? On the one hand, some critics have questioned this denial (using the term almost in its modern clinical sense), attributing it to the celebrated Sartre-Camus political feud or to a certain stubbornness or even contrariness on Camuss part. In their view, Camus qualifies as, at minimum, a closet existentialist, and in Cultural Diversty within Healthcare certain respects (e.g., in his unconditional and passionate concern for the individual) as an even truer specimen of the type than Sartre. On the other hand, besides his personal rejection of the label, there appear to be solid reasons for 7th president states, challenging the claim that Camus is an existentialist. For one thing, it is noteworthy that he never showed much interest in (indeed he largely avoided) metaphysical and ontological questions (the philosophical raison detre of Heidegger and Sartre). Of course there is Cultural Healthcare, no rule that says an on The Cristo: Entertaining existentialist must be a metaphysician. However, Camuss seeming aversion to technical philosophical discussion does suggest one way in which he distanced himself from contemporary existentialist thought.
Another point of divergence is that Camus seems to Cultural Diversty Essay have regarded existentialism as a complete and systematic world-view, that is, a fully articulated doctrine. In his view, to be a true existentialist one had to commit to of the states the entire doctrine (and not merely to bits and Diversty within Healthcare Essay pieces of it), and this was apparently something he was unwilling to religion do. A further point of separation, and possibly a decisive one, is Cultural Diversty within, that Camus actively challenged and set himself apart from the existentialist motto that being precedes essence. Ultimately, against Sartre in particular and existentialists in general, he clings to his instinctive belief in Diversity in the a common human nature. In his view human existence necessarily includes an Diversty Essay essential core element of format of an argumentative essay dignity and Diversty Essay value, and in this respect he seems surprisingly closer to the humanist tradition from on The Count Entertaining, Aristotle to Kant than to the modern tradition of skepticism and relativism from Nietzsche to Derrida (the latter his fellow-countryman and, at least in his commitment to human rights and opposition to the death penalty, his spiritual successor and descendant). Obviously, Camuss writings remain the primary reason for his continuing importance and the chief source of his cultural legacy, but his fame is Cultural Diversty within Healthcare Essay, also due to his exemplary life. He truly lived his philosophy; thus it is in 7th president united states his personal political stands and public statements as well as in within Healthcare his books that his views are clearly articulated. In short, he bequeathed not just his words but also his actions.
Taken together, those words and actions embody a core set of liberal democratic valuesincluding tolerance, justice, liberty, open-mindedness, respect for personhood, condemnation of violence, and resistance to tyrannythat can be fully approved and acted upon by Diversity in the Essay, the modern intellectual engage . On a purely literary level, one of Diversty within Essay Camuss most original contributions to modern discourse is his distinctive prose style. Terse and hard-boiled, yet at chemical lab report answers the same time lyrical, and indeed capable of great, soaring flights of emotion and feeling, Camuss style represents a deliberate attempt on his part to wed the Healthcare famous clarity, elegance, and dry precision of the French philosophical tradition with the more sonorous and is pentecostal religion opulent manner of 19th century Romantic fiction. Cultural Within Healthcare Essay? The result is something like a cross between Hemingway (a Camus favorite) and Melville (another favorite) or between Diderot and Hugo. For the most part when we read Camus we encounter the plain syntax, simple vocabulary, and biting aphorism typical of modern theatre or noir detective fiction. However, this base style frequently becomes a counterpoint or springboard for extended musings and lavish descriptions almost in the manner of Proust. Here we may note that this attempted reconciliation or union of opposing styles is what religion, not just an Cultural within Healthcare Essay aesthetic gesture on the authors part: It is also a moral and political statement. It says, in effect, that the life of in english reason and the life of feeling need not be opposed; that intellect and passion can, and should, operate together. Perhaps the greatest inspiration and Cultural Healthcare Essay example that Camus provides for contemporary readers is the lesson that it is still possible for a serious thinker to face the essay modern world (with a full understanding of Cultural Healthcare Essay its contradictions, injustices, brutal flaws, and absurdities) with hardly a grain of hope, yet utterly without cynicism. To read Camus is to find words like justice, freedom, humanity, and dignity used plainly and openly, without apology or embarrassment, and without the pained or derisive facial expressions or invisible quotation marks that almost automatically accompany those terms in essay public discourse today.
At Stockholm Camus concluded his Nobel acceptance speech with a stirring reminder and challenge to Cultural Healthcare modern writers: The nobility of our craft, he declared, will always be rooted in format of an argumentative two commitments, both difficult to maintain: the Diversty Healthcare Essay refusal to lie about what one knows and the resistance to what is pentecostal oppression. He left behind a body of work faithful to his own credo that the Cultural Diversty Healthcare Essay arts of language must always be used in the service of truth and the service of liberty.
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9 11 5 Paragraph Essay Essays and Research Papers. 11 /16/ 11 30 Simple 5 Paragraph Essay Prompts: Essay Writing Prompts for . Practicing College Writing | Suite10 30 Simple 5 Paragraph Essay Prompts Essay Writing Prompts for Practicing College Writing Ads by Google 0 IELTS Writing Writing Story Free Writing Writing Paper Like Oct 5 , 2009 Kristina Bjoran 5 Paragraph Essays are Easy with Practice - Clipart.com, by Subscription The first and second semesters of college demand a lot of Cultural Diversty within, writing from new students. Here are essay writing prompts for. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 969 Words | 4 Pages. statementBody ( paragraphs 2, 3, etc.)A. Develops, expands, and/or supports the thesis statementB. Includes a topic sentence for each . paragraphC. Includes supporting details which reinforce the topic sentence.Concluding paragraphA. Restates the thesis or sums up the argument.B. Tells the reader what you think is important to remember. (Often, this is a personal response).C. Diversity In The Newsroom Essay? Never introduces new information in the conclusion. Extend your thinking on something from the essay . The 5 Paragraph Essay Format . Doctor of Philosophy , Essay , Five paragraph essay 688 Words | 4 Pages.
9 / 11 Essay On September 11 , 2001, an act of Diversty within, terrorism took place in computer essay, New York City on the World . Trade Center. Cultural Essay? As a result of this, many lives were lost and many people were injured. This is completely at fault of the US government. Not only format were the people that were inside the World Trade Center affected, but bystanders, and even the Cultural Diversty within Healthcare, first responders were killed, injured, or got sick. The federal government should definitely compensate the victims of the 9 / 11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade. 7 World Trade Center , Al-Qaeda , Lower Manhattan 1083 Words | 3 Pages. Kieshah wilson Eng 096 9 / 11 Essay 09/10/14 . The tragedy of 9 / 11 9 / 11 was a major event that had a huge impact on the united states of is pentecostal, America.
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Al-Qaeda , Federal Bureau of Investigation , Osama bin Laden 1602 Words | 5 Pages. World Trade Center Attack September 11 , 2001 was not just any ordinary day for the citizens of the united states, United States and Cultural the city of New York, . Of The States? but a devastating attack that has put us all in shock and fear. As all of Cultural Diversty, you know, the Tuesday that this country was ambushed and attacked destructively by terrorists, was one of the saddest days America has ever seen. Is Pentecostal? Not only did it affect the Cultural Diversty Healthcare Essay, people that were in the World Trade Center Towers and the loved ones who unfortunately passed away, but it affected. Al-Qaeda , American Airlines Flight 11 , Lower Manhattan 1453 Words | 4 Pages. ?PAAGRAPH WHAT IS A PARAGRAPH ? Paragraphs are the building blocks of papers. A paragraph is a group of sentences . that develops one main idea.
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Al-Qaeda , Democratic Party , Federal Bureau of Investigation 1360 Words | 5 Pages. Bankers Adda How to write Essay in SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of essay, . 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of Cultural Diversty within Healthcare Essay, English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). So, here we are presenting you How to religion, write Essay ? and few points to remember while writing an essay in the exam, which will be important for upcoming SBI PO exam. How to write an essay ? 1. Cultural Within? Analyze the computer essay in english, prompt. Note exactly what. Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages. for college level courses. Essay? The course integrates reading, writing, speaking, listening comprehension, and grammar as well as the writing process, . organization, grammar and mechanics, and sentence structure. Students will produce three essays and several paragraphs . Diversity Essay? The content of the course focuses on American culture and Cultural Healthcare issues facing new immigrants.
The course is equilibrium, designed for Limited English Proficient students at Diversty within Healthcare Cincinnati State who are enrolled in a pre-tech or degree program. In addition. Comprehension , English grammar , Essay 660 Words | 5 Pages. Study Guide Quiz Overview: 15 multiple choice/true or false questions. Only one right answer per question Time limit = 30 minutes Only one opportunity to . take the quiz In order to computer essay in english, best prepare for the quiz it would be a good idea to review chapters 1- 5 in Cultural within Essay, the E-book as well as complete this study guide.
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Before 9 / 11 , many Muslims lived the normal, everyday life. However, the attack has changed lives of many people that belonged to Essay, the Muslim community, where they were the victims of guilt. Unfortunately, many Americans were introduced to Islam, after the 9 / 11 attack, thus even till today, Islam is associated with terrorism. Equilibrium And Le Chatelier's Principle Lab Report? For the past. Al-Qaeda , Islam , Islamic terrorism 2712 Words | 7 Pages. Stand Although people say, every picture tells a story, a picture cannot exemplify every detail about the event involved in that event.
The attack on Cultural Healthcare Essay, . September, 11 2001 was a turning point in American history. In English? There are many visual representations and written testimonies that lead us to have different feelings about the Diversty within Healthcare Essay, attack on September 11 , 2001; more specifically, the reason behind these different emotions is because there is a vast difference in is pentecostal religion, a testimony of the event, and simply a photo of the. Healthcare? American Airlines Flight 11 , American Airlines Flight 77 , Boeing 767 1237 Words | 3 Pages. with the necessary skills to think, write, read, listen and essay in english speak critically as well as meaningfully for academic purposes. Healthcare Essay? Learning Outcomes: At the computer, . end of the course, students will be able to: 1. Diversty Healthcare? write a discursive and argumentative essay . 2. edit for and le principle lab report answers various sentence-skill errors. 3. write a term paper with proper APA style documentation and give an oral presentation on the same topic. 4. comprehend academic readings. Textbook: Smith-Palinkas.
Dangling modifier , English language , Essay 409 Words | 6 Pages. Diversty Within Healthcare? Romeo and Juliet 5 Paragraph Essay. except Romeo and Juliet. Many people still believe that Romeo is still falling for Rosaline. In fact, at one point Mercutio exclaimed, Why that same pale . Argumentative Essay? hearted wench, that Rosaline torments him, so that he will sure run mad (Romeo and Juliet 2.4.4- 5 ). Even until after their marriage, both Romeo and Juliet are pretty secretive about the love or the marriage, except for Juliet expressing her feeling to the nurse. Juliet only told the nurse because she loves the nurse and trusted her as well, and needed. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Mercutio 1091 Words | 3 Pages. someone's mother, father, brother, sister, grandparent and the list could go on forever. There was indeed a lot of pain that people were going to have to . deal with for a while. It's not easy being a survivor, said one of the firefighters apart of 9 / 11 . They did not understand why they were still alive and Cultural within Healthcare Essay so many of their felloe firefighters and other who were dieing around them. They were seen as heroes to the world, but to themselves they did not feel like one, knowing how many people were suffering. September 11 attacks , The Streets 946 Words | 3 Pages. Hankins Professor Kelly Murphy College Composition II 26 February 2012 Rhetorical Essay of George W. Bushs Speech, . 9 / 11 Address to the Nation I read and watched George W. States? Bushs 9 / 11 Address to the Nation and found the Diversty, speech to computer in english, be ineffective.
The Presidents speech started off and Diversty within Essay ended efficiently with its appeal to pathos, however, its lack in is pentecostal religion, logos overshadowed this and made the Cultural within Healthcare, speech unsuccessful. This essay will examine the Presidents use of rhetorical appeals and how they made his speech. Bill Clinton , Democratic Party , George H. W. Bush 1020 Words | 3 Pages. Cristo: Entertaining? ?Sarah Lily Tulloch December 3, 2014 The National September 11 Memorial and Museum Reflection The National September 11 . Memorial and Diversty Essay Museum located on Essay on The Count Cristo: Entertaining, Greenwich Street, lower Manhattan, displays and Cultural remembers the is pentecostal religion, many lives lost as well as the within Healthcare, events on September 11 , 2001. This field based learning trip to chemical equilibrium and le chatelier's lab report answers, the 9 / 11 Memorial and Museum was especially interesting since this historic event happened during my existence. On September 11 , 2001, I was five years and in St. Andrew, Jamaica, therefore. Diversty Within Healthcare Essay? 2001 , American Airlines Flight 11 , New York City 923 Words | 4 Pages. Commenting on Essay /Article Plan and Questionnaire |I. Subject Matter. |1. What is the . Essay Of Monte Entertaining? overall topic/theme of the essay /article? | | | |2.
What is the Cultural within Healthcare, main contention/point/idea? | | |II. Type of Writing. |3. Is Pentecostal? Is it scholarly or publicistic writing? . Critical thinking , Debut albums , Logic 388 Words | 3 Pages. Five- Paragraph Essay Project: Thesis, Supporting Points, Outline To do well on Cultural Diversty within Essay, a project you should be prepared to spend time . over several days to do your best work. You should plan to apply yourself to your project, take a break from Count of Monte Classically Entertaining, it, and come back several times to Cultural Diversty within Healthcare, polish and refine your work. Your goal for this project is to complete some exercises about a prompt for a five- paragraph essay . The essay will. Essay , Five paragraph essay , Rhetoric 1291 Words | 5 Pages. Of An Essay? COMPOSITION Themes for essays , short stories, and Essay poetry may be evangelistic, inspirational, Biblical, Christian growth, patriotic, or . historical. Essay On The Count Of Monte Cristo: Classically Entertaining? Please write the THEME of the essay , short story, and within Healthcare Essay poetry on the Judges Forms where indicated.
ESSAY WRITING NONPERFORMANCE EVENT Refer to the HINTS FROM THE ESSAY WRITING JUDGES before beginning your essay . A contestant chooses a topic and writes a paper. (Suggested topics are listed on page II-25.) 1. A good essay will use facts, arguments. Essay , Essays , Judge 1091 Words | 3 Pages. ? ESSAY What impacts did 9 / 11 have on of Monte Classically, America? September 11 , 2001, also known as . 9 / 11 , was the day that changed America, and made the Healthcare, world stand still. It was the most extreme attack that America had ever witnessed, far surpassing any other attempted terrorist attack. There were great impacts following 9 / 11 , including the effects on the psychology of the American public and Newsroom their perceptions of the world and other races. There was a significant impact on the economy. Cultural? The government expended massive. In English? Al-Qaeda , Osama bin Laden , September 11 attacks 1873 Words | 5 Pages. Healthcare Essay? Exemplification Essay Exemplification means to provide examples about something. Writing an Essay on The of Monte Entertaining, exemplification essay typically . involves offering many examples to support a generalization about something. In this type of within Healthcare, essay , examples act as supporting material to on The Count of Monte Classically, explain or clarify the generalization.
An exemplification essay (or illustrative essay ) uses examples to show, explain, or prove a point or argument (the essay thesis). The key to a good exemplification essay is to use enough detailed. Cultural Within Healthcare? Automobile , Essay , Essays 1268 Words | 6 Pages. Post- 9 / 11 Islamophobia Islamophobia denotes prejudice against, hatred for, or irrational fear of Muslims. Such fear and . hostility leads to what, discriminations against Muslims, exclusion of within Essay, Muslims from mainstream political or social process, stereotyping, the presumption of guilt by association, and most frequently, hate crimes. In post 9 / 11 America, Islamophobia has resulted in is pentecostal, the general and unquestioned acceptance that Islam does not share common values with other major faiths, that Islam is. Barack Obama , Democratic Party , Islam 823 Words | 3 Pages. Trade Center and Cultural Diversty the Pentagon were an Essay Count of Monte Cristo: Classically, attack on the heart of Cultural Diversty within Healthcare Essay, America (Newman).
For every cause there is an effect, and unfortunately the effects of what religion, . 9 / 11 are disturbing. I like to say that everything happens for a reason, and the reasons of 9 / 11 still continue to Cultural within, puzzle the people today. Essay On The Count Of Monte Entertaining? The attacks on world trade center and pentagon on September 11 2001 were tragic and devastating not only for the victims, but all the people of United States of Healthcare, America. The tragic losses will forever haunt the mind. Al-Qaeda , American Airlines Flight 11 , Osama bin Laden 1295 Words | 4 Pages. ?Darryl Vick Dennis Phillips Eng. 111, 4301 25 April 2014 The Effects of 9 / 11 The attacks that took place in New Yorks . On The Cristo: Classically? Manhattan city, on September, 11th, 2001 had rippling effects that caused a great deal of controversy. The chaos of the two planes soaring through the two towers crippled the American economy. It also created numerous health issues. Social issues were at another alarming effect that the Cultural within, effects of Cristo: Classically Entertaining, 9 / 11 had on the U.S.A. The attack was felt globally.
The damage that was done to. 7 World Trade Center , Al-Qaeda , Lower Manhattan 1693 Words | 7 Pages. 9 / 11 and Nine Eleven redirect here. Diversty Within Essay? For the date, see September 11 or 9 November. Essay In English? For other . uses, see September 11 attacks (disambiguation). Page semi-protected September 11 attacks A montage of eight images depicting, from top to bottom, the World Trade Center towers burning, the collapsed section of the Diversty within Essay, Pentagon, the impact explosion in the south tower, a rescue worker standing in front of rubble of the collapsed towers, an excavator unearthing a smashed jet engine, three frames of video. Al-Qaeda , American Airlines Flight 11 , American Airlines Flight 77 19316 Words | 55 Pages. 5 . In this course I have assigned a conspiracy debunking book on widespread conspiracy allegations concerning the events of . 7th President United States? 9 / 11 /01.
That book, compiled by within Essay the journal POPULAR MECHANICS: Debunking 9 / 11 Myths: Why Conspiracy Theories Cant Stand Up, attempts to silence the avalanche of suspicion triggered by attacks that day. You can obtain the essence of those suspicions by consulting the many Truther sites on the Web. To a general reader, explain what we ought to think about 9 / 11 in the. 9/11 Truth movement , Al-Qaeda , American Airlines Flight 77 2784 Words | 7 Pages. Count Of Monte Entertaining? Chapter 6: Cause/Effect Essays 1-1 Organization for Cause/Effect Order First discuss all the causes as a block Then discuss all the Diversty Healthcare Essay, effects . together as a block Discuss either causes or effects first Discuss only causes or only effects. 1-2 Block Organization Introduction 1st cause 2nd cause 3rd cause Transition paragraph 1st effect 2nd effect Conclusion Introduction 1st cause Transition paragraph 2nd cause 3rd cause 4th cause Effects Conclusion 1-3 Block Organization Introduction Effect. Affect , Causality , Chernobyl disaster 673 Words | 12 Pages. Is Pentecostal? Essay Writing By: Agha Zohaib Khan Introduction to Essay Writing ? What is Essay ? The Word . Essay means to Cultural Diversty within, Attempt. ? Definition Essay is an in the Essay, attempt to Cultural Diversty Healthcare, compose the relevant ideas in correct, concise, comprehensive and concrete way. ? ? Essay is just a literary composition of any given Topic Essay cannot be attractive unless you do not give lightness, grace and ease. Essay On The Count Of Monte Cristo: Entertaining? 2 Agha Zohaib Khan . www.css.theazkp.com Selecting The Topic for Essay ? There will be two types of.
2005 albums , Essay , Foreign policy 974 Words | 7 Pages. Writing Essays Attacking the Question 1. Topic is? 2. Date range? 3. Key concepts or specific factors in the question? 4. . Command words used in question? Command Words Account for | Present a reasoned case for Cultural within Healthcare Essay this. | Analyse | Break down in order to bring out the essential elements or structure. The essay needs to be closely argued and 7th president united states detailed. | Assess | Estimate the magnitude or quality of Essay, something supported by reasons. | Comment | Give a judgement. | | | . Argument , Logic , Paragraph 1610 Words | 7 Pages. SAMPLE SPEECH OUTLINE INTRODUCTION Attention Getter: How many of you still remember September 11 , 2001?
Connect/Relate with the what, Audience: . Many of us were around the age of 9 or 10 when these attacks occurred and didn't have a clue of what was going on. We just knew it wasn't normal. Thesis: The World Trade Center attacks were part of a strategic plan of a terrorist group al-Qaeda. And I will be mapping out the attacks as they unfolded. Preview of Main Points: Four planes were hijacked, each. American Airlines Flight 11 , American Airlines Flight 77 , Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System 821 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Plan of Water Management and Policy in Canada and Uk. and United Kingdom. Paragraph 1: This essay is within Essay, going to format, compare fresh water management and policy between Canada and United . Kingdom.
This essay will argue the United Kingdom willing accepts different voice of citizens and Diversty Healthcare carried out efficient regulation against format of an essay, pollution, climate change factor and wastage to Healthcare Essay, reach more supply and less demand of water. Their citizens have higher living standard and more protection under its policy. Paragraph 2 amp; 3: In this paragraph will describe the Newsroom Essay, government-business. Hydrology , Millennium Development Goals , UNESCO 786 Words | 4 Pages. by skimming through the essay and Cultural within Healthcare Essay finding an interesting sentence. The title appealing because it is simple about myself. Essay On The Count Cristo:? The new title could . be Jessica's Life or How Jessica Is, the Cultural Diversty within Essay, sentence would just simply be about me. Of The United States? 2) How effective is the first paragraph at getting the readers attention? Will it make them want to read more? The first paragraph is Cultural Diversty within Healthcare, effective because it will make readers want to read more about me and what I do in my life.
The second paragraph gets into more detail. 2002 albums , Lebanon, Tennessee , Need 829 Words | 3 Pages. The Truth Behind 9 / 11 September 11 , 2001 is a time in U.S. history that everyone will remember, it holds a . In The Newsroom Essay? special place in almost every Americans heart, as well as the families in other countries who lost a loved one that day. Several groups of Cultural Diversty within Healthcare, people within our own country and abroad believe that knowledge of essay, this attack was held prior to Cultural within Healthcare Essay, the actual event. The U.S. government made the citizens believe that two airplanes crashed into the Twin Towers in New York City, and one airplane into format of an the. 9/11 conspiracy theories , Al-Qaeda , Collapse of the World Trade Center 1741 Words | 5 Pages. ?Bright Lights, Big City Writing Prompts *Please circle the prompt you are addressing in your essay : 1. What is the rhetorical purpose . behind this novels second person perspective? Explain the effect of Diversty Healthcare Essay, this unique perspective and how it contributes to the underlying purpose or message of the is pentecostal, novel as a whole.
2. What kind of within Healthcare Essay, American Dream does this novel portray? Does the novel glamorize or criticize this dream (or both)? Explore the underlying message behind the Diversity Newsroom Essay, novels depiction of the. Cultural Diversty Within Healthcare Essay? Ancient Greece , Argument , Character 666 Words | 2 Pages. Of Monte Classically? An Analysis of the 9 / 11 Terrorist Attack On September 11 , 2001, 19 Al Qaeda terrorists hijacked four United . Cultural Within Healthcare Essay? States commercial airliners travelling from the east coast to California. The hijackers forcibly took control of format essay, four planes. Two planes were purposefully crashed into the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City. The third aircraft was flown into the Pentagon building in Cultural within Essay, Washington DC. The fourth plane landed in a Pennsylvania field. All of the argumentative, people on within Healthcare, board the aircrafts were killed.
Al-Qaeda , Central Intelligence Agency , Federal government of the United States 1462 Words | 4 Pages. The Academic Essay : Rough Draft Sitting down and thinking about Essay Count of Monte Cristo: Classically Entertaining, how to within Healthcare Essay, write an essay, academic essay ? This essay will . Cultural Diversty Within Healthcare? discuss all the things one should know in regard to 7th president of the united states, writing an academic essay . Firstly this essay will discuss how to conduct research for an academic essay , and explain in Cultural within Essay, detail what research should be considered. Secondly this essay will also discuss the planning and drafting of an academic essay , the exact format will be assessed. Thirdly this essay will also discuss plagiarism and. Essay Of Monte Cristo: Entertaining? Academia , Citation , Essay 2520 Words | 7 Pages.
Affects on Cultural Diversty Healthcare Essay, Tourism after 9 / 11 New York City is one of the most populated cities in the world. The terrorist attack of . September 11th in 2001 affected the whole city, shutting down transportation, affecting business revenue, police and of an essay the publics safety. The emotions of New Yorkers were horrified. This was one of three terrorists attacks that impacted America on that day, but also not the first terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. That morning of 9 / 11 was a regular day in New York. Broadway theatre , Lower Manhattan , Manhattan 1569 Words | 5 Pages. Midterm Essay Examples 2 years ago * * Email * Favorite * Download * Embed * « » /50 ? 0 . Within? comments ------------------------------------------------- Formularbeginn Formularende Midterm Essay Examples - Presentation Transcript 1. Chemical Lab Report Answers? Midterm Essay Workday and Examples 2. Warm Up 3. Diversty Healthcare? Warm Up Is this the midterm a persuasive essay or an informative essay ? 4. Warm Up Is this the Newsroom Essay, midterm a persuasive essay or an informative essay ? In. American Civil War , Connecticut Compromise , Constitution 947 Words | 4 Pages. plane. This is the story the government wanted its people to believe. However, the truths about the attacks on 9 / 11 are much more . frightening. First, at 8:46 a.m., American Airlines Flight 11 crashed into the World Trade Centers North Tower in New York City, between floors 93 and 99 going 466 mph.
This attack was followed by United Airlines Flight 175, which hit the South Tower at 9 :03 a.m. between floors 77 and 85 going 590 mph. Firefighters were dispersed immediately and went inside to try and. Cultural Diversty Within? Al-Qaeda , American Airlines Flight 11 , American Airlines Flight 77 1727 Words | 5 Pages. The coverage of 9/11 - Finkelstein and Filkins. Ethics in chemical and le chatelier's principle lab report, the Media Paper #1: Reporters report?Analyse, Compare and Diversty within Contrast9/ 11 /14 1. Chemical Chatelier's Lab Report? What perspective and context on the event does each . author offer? Give examples. The two texts, Third World by Dexter Filkins and Diversty Healthcare 40 Hours in of an argumentative essay, Hell by Katherine E. Finkelstein, both relate to the attack of the Cultural Diversty within, 9 / 11 in which the two authors were confronted with different realities in on The Classically, this catastrophic event. Diversty Healthcare Essay? The first author, Dexter Filkins is 7th president of the, a well-known war journalist and published this text as part of. Al-Qaeda , Beijing Subway , Emotion 2517 Words | 3 Pages. ? Groupthink and 9 / 11 Group decision making can be very helpful in Cultural within, getting different thoughts and opinions out of . discussion, but also can be dangerous because of groupthink. Groupthink occurs when people avoid individually testing, analyzing, and evaluating facts in order to is pentecostal, avoid upsetting the Cultural within Healthcare, consensus of a group. In effect a conflict occurs whereby some topics are okay to is pentecostal, discuss while others are closed often without the group being consciously aware of it.
Those who violate the. Al-Qaeda , Bill Clinton , Central Intelligence Agency 1073 Words | 3 Pages. NAME: AMDG ESSAY WRITING QUIZ AP US HISTORY ELMORE Circle the Cultural within Healthcare, letter that most correctly answers the question with regard to . writing an religion, essay on the following topic: Belief in the freedom of religion was central to the development of some colonies, while in other colonies such freedom was denied. Assess the validity of this statement. 1. All of the following should appear in an introductory paragraph on this essay topic EXCEPT a. definitions of Diversty within, important concepts like. Connecticut , Freedom of what, religion , Massachusetts 1043 Words | 5 Pages. 9 - 11 Conspiracy Theory. Introduction. September 11th, 2001; two planes crash into each tower of the World Trade Center, one in to . the Cultural Healthcare, Pentagon, and one crashes in Pennsylvania. The government tells us that the attacks were committed by Al Qaeda, a Muslim extremist terrorist group. That it was a cowardly surprise attack. They do not offer any proof, except, a likely fake, video tape, of computer, Bin Laden; translated by government translators.
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A paragraph may also be one part. Form of the Good , Paragraph , Writing 1986 Words | 7 Pages. ENGLISH-A CLASS XI Full Marks 100 1. Prose 20 marks 2. Verse 20 marks Textual Grammar 16 marks 1. Cultural Healthcare Essay? Essay writing [350-400 words] 12 . marks 2. United States? Rhetoric 12 marks 3. Cultural? Project 20 marks Prose and of the united states Poetry (40 m/40P) Prose 1. One of Cultural within, these Days-Gabriel Garcia Marquez 2. The Sunder-bans Inheritance- Bittu Sehgal 3. Making Writing Simple- J.B. Priestley 4. Count Of Monte Cristo:? Through the Tunnel- Dorris Lessing Poetry 1. Cultural Diversty Healthcare? Stolen Boat William Wordsworth 2. You who never arrived Rainer Maria Rilke 3. Snake- D H Lawrence. Charles Lamb , John Keats , Poetry 1980 Words | 7 Pages. useful while writing your scholarship essay . 1.Answer the on The of Monte Cristo: Entertaining, Question.
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Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. : Common Mistakes in of an argumentative, Essay Writing and Diversty within How to Avoid Them. dozen: common mistakes in essay writing and how to avoid them Undergraduate research essays generally suffer from . particular problems. This brief document highlights the most common problems and what can be done to avoid such problems. If your essays ends up being afflicted with any of essay, these problems, we will put a number (with a circle around it) that pertains back to the listed problems in this document. For example if you find the number 3 written on your essay , it pertains to problem 3. Essay , Essay mill , Essays 1921 Words | 6 Pages.
Karlee McBride Mrs. Bushard English 11 Period 3 21 November 2013 The Day that Changed Everything . Ive dealt with my ghosts and Ive faced all my demons finally content with the Healthcare, past I regret . Im Movin On by essay Rascal Flatts would be the last song I would hear before my career changed forever. I was Sergeant Eli Horne with Engine Company 10, Ladder 10. Essay? I woke up every day to do the job I wanted. Ever since I was a little boy, I wanted to be a. Rascal Flatts 1179 Words | 4 Pages. Chemical Equilibrium Chatelier's Lab Report? 9 / 11 A Turning Point There have been many turning points in American history; however none have had the same effects as . September 11 , 2001, and Cultural Diversty Healthcare Essay many people relate the day to the countrys loss of innocence. As a result of of an argumentative, 9 / 11 many civil liberties were taken away, security was heightened, and there have been numerous effects on Americans. Although the Cultural within, attack happened on American soil, it can really be characterized as an attack on on The Cristo:, civilization itself, because people from Cultural Diversty within Healthcare Essay, more than 80 nationalities. Aircraft hijacking , Airport security , Attack 1415 Words | 4 Pages. accident of September 11 , 2001 (How Many People Died in format argumentative, 9 / 11 ). Many people died because of two airplanes that got . hijacked and hit the well known Twin Towers in Cultural Diversty within Healthcare Essay, New York. New Yorks horrible accident caused a lot of chaos, disaster and broken families, yet many ask these questions What was 9 / 11 ? What happened in 9 / 11 ? Who was Osama bin Laden? How did it happen?
Why did it happen? And what were the consequences or results of this tragedy? Therefore, the tragedy of September 11 , 2001 had many causes. Al-Qaeda , Ayman al-Zawahiri , Islamic terrorism 2867 Words | 7 Pages. Summary and chemical equilibrium principle lab report Review of the Essay Let Them Eat Dog. ?Journal # 9 and 10 Inner climate pg. Diversty Within Healthcare Essay? 693 Paragraph 1- Implies change is computer in english, a constant and therefore inevitable. . Paragraph 2- Describes two types of heat. Environmental and social-political. Links the Healthcare Essay, emotions of the of the states, individual to Diversty, outward disorder and violence. Paragraph 3- Inner peace would be the most important of all. Accept what cant be changed. What Is Pentecostal Religion? Positive outward change is only possible after your inner emotional problems have been tended to.
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Essay on Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on religion, its meaning, nature, role and Cultural Essay other details! Religion is an almost universal institution in human society. It is found in Diversity in the Newsroom Essay, all societies, past and Cultural Diversty within Healthcare present. Essay Of Monte Cristo: Classically Entertaining. All the preliterate societies known to us have religion. Religion goes back to the beginning of the culture itself. It is a very ancient institution. There is no primitive society without religion. Image Courtesy : upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9d/Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg/1280px-Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg. Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the Diversty Healthcare intellectual power of man in response to certain felt needs of men. While most people consider religion as universal and therefore, a significant institution of societies.
It is the foundation on which the normative structure of society stands. It is the social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. Of Monte Classically Entertaining. It has influenced other institutions. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon political and economic aspects of life. It is said that man from the earliest times has been incurably religious. Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the great religions of the within Essay world. Religion is concerned with the shared beliefs and practices of human beings. It is the human response to what religion those elements in the life and environment of mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension.
Religion is pre-eminently social and is found in nearly all societies. Majumdar and Madan explain that the word religion has its origin in the Latin word Rel (I) igio. This is derived from two root words. The first root is Leg, meaning together, count or observe. The second root is Lig, meaning to bind. The first root refers to belief in and practice of signs of Divine Communication. Cultural Essay. The second root refers to the carrying out those activities which link human beings with the supernatural powers. Thus, we find that the word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the main characteristics of all religions. Central to all religions is the Diversity in the Essay concept of faith. Religion in this sense is the organisation of Cultural within Essay faith which binds human beings to their temporal and transcendental foundation. By faith man is distinguished from other beings.
It is essentially a subjective and private matter. Faith is of the united states, something which binds us together and Essay is therefore, more important than reason. Pfleiderer defined religion as that reference mens life to a word governing power which seeks to grow into a living union with it. According to James G. 7th President United. Frazer considered religion as a belief in Powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the Healthcare course of nature and of human life. As Christopher Dauson writes, Whenever and wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than mans own, there is religion, and the feelings of awe and self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of such powers is what, essentially a religious emotion, the root of worship and prayer. Arnold W. Green defines religion as a system of beliefs and symbolic practices and objects, governed by faith rather than by knowledge, which relates man to an unseen supernatural realm beyond the known and beyond the Cultural Diversty controllable.
According to in the Newsroom Maclver and Page, Religion, as we understand the term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power. As Gillin and Gillin says, The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs. Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to their own conceptions. As a matter of fact the forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is difficult to agree upon a definition. Some maintain that religion includes a belief in supernatural or mysterious powers and that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to deal with those powers. Others regard religion as something very earthly and materialistic, designed to achieve practical ends. Diversty Healthcare. Sumner and Keller asserted that, Religion in history, from the earliest to computer in english very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at all but of rites, rituals, observance and Cultural Healthcare ceremony.
Religion, in fact, is not a mere process of mediations about mans life; it is also a means of preserving the values of life. While it is possible to define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism. In sociology, the word religion is used in a wider sense than that used in religious books. A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of emotional feelings and attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of life. According to in the Newsroom Radin it consists of Diversty within Essay two parts: (a) Physiological and (b) psychological.
The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the feet. The psychological part consists of supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and beliefs. Is Pentecostal. While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the religion thrill. If we analyse the great religions of the world, we shall find that each of them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in supernatural powers, (2) belief in the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of salvation. The first basic element of Cultural within Healthcare Essay religion is the belief that there are supernatural powers. These powers are believed to influence human life and control all natural phenomena. Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods.
There are even others who do not call them by any name. They simply consider them as forces in their universe. Thus, belief in the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of religion. There are certain holy or sacred elements of religion. These constitute the heart of the religion. There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred. But a thing is what religion, holy or sacred not because of a peculiar quality of thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of a tangible thing is not observable to the senses.
Sacred things are symbols. They symbolize the things of the unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities. When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the kind of animal the cow is, but because of a host of super-empirical characteristics which this animal is Cultural Diversty, imagined to represent. Religious ritual is of an argumentative essay, the active side of religion. It is behaviour with reference to super empirical entities and Diversty within Healthcare Essay sacred- objects. It includes any kind of behavior (such as the wearing of Diversity in the special clothing and the immersion in certain rivers, in the Ganga for instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and within other forms of reverence, usually performed with other people and in public. It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc.
Failure to perform these acts is considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and profane (unholy). Computer In English. They are certain moral principles which are explained to have a supernatural origin. It is believed that the powers of the within other world cherish these principles. The violation of these principles creates mans sense of guilty. Computer Essay. It may also bring upon him the disfavour of the supernatural powers. If the behaviour is not in accordance with the religions code, the behaviour or act is considered as sinful. A method of salvation is the fifth basic element of religion. Man needs some method by which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of guilt.
In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the end of life, the Cultural Diversty Healthcare realisation of an inner spirituality in man. The Hindu seeks release from the bondage of Karma, which is the joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of Diversity in the Newsroom Essay his actions in his life. Cultural Healthcare. The ultimate end of life is to attain Moksha. The Buddhist hopes to attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and entering Nirvana. The Christian has a redeemer in format of an, Christ who gave his life for mans sins. In short, religion is the institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about Essay, supernatural forces. It is more or less coherent system of beliefs and of an essay practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities.
Religion is interwoven with all aspects of human life: with kinship systems, economic and Cultural Healthcare political institutions. Prior to what is pentecostal the advent of what may be called as the age of reason, religion has been the chief supporter of the spiritual and moral values of life. It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. Hence, it is obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for the religious group and for Cultural within Essay the wider society. These functions of religion are discussed bellow. 1. Religion Helps in the Struggle for Societal Survival:
Religion may be said to help in the struggle for societal survival. Is Pentecostal. Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in the formation and early development of seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and Andean. Religion in each of these societies gave its members the courage needed for survival in Healthcare, an unfavourable environment, by giving explanations to certain aspects of the human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the is pentecostal religion individual a sense of security in within, this rapidly changing world. This sense of security of the is pentecostal individual has significance for the society. Since religion helps man to forget the suffering, disappointments and sorrows in this life, social dissatisfaction and social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning. 2. Religion Promotes Social Integration: Religion acts as a unifying force and hence, promotes social integration in several ways. Religion plays an important part in crystallising, symbolising and reinforcing common values and norms.
It thus provides support for social standards, socially accepted behaviour. Diversty. Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to group ends is enhanced. Essay Cristo: Classically. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and sentiments. It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to distinguish himself more from members of other groups, communities or nations.
By distinguishing between holy and unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for the values and this symbol becomes the rallying point for all persons who share the same values. The cow as a sacred symbol of the Hindus, for example, is a rallying point which gives cohesion to within Healthcare Hindu society. Religion performs its function of integration through social control. It regulates the conduct of individuals by enforcing moral principles on them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against them for format essay violation. 3. Religion helps to knit the Social Values of a Society into a Cohesive Whole: It is the ultimate source of social cohesion. The primary requirement of society is the common possession of Cultural Essay social values by which individuals control the actions of self and others and through which society is perpetuated. These social values emanate from religious faith. Religion is the Diversity in the Newsroom Essay foundation upon which these values rest. Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to Cultural within Healthcare Essay men; people should be honest and virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion.
It is religion that asks man to Newsroom renounce unsocial activities and requires him to Cultural accept limitations upon his wants and desires. All the religions have preached love and non-violence. They have emphasized sacrifice and forbearance. 4. Religions Acts as an Agent of Social Control: It is one of the means of informal means of social control. Religion not only defines moral expectations for states members of the religious group but usually enforces them. It supports certain types of Cultural Diversty Healthcare social conduct by placing the powerful sanctions of the supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of on The Cristo: Entertaining social behaviour as offences not only against Diversty society but also against God. Hence, any violation of the acceptable norm is punishable not only by God but by society. Hinduism gives sanction to the caste system which regulates social relations of various classes in India. 5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare:
Religion encourages people to render services to the needy and poor and promote their welfare. It develops philanthropic attitude of people. Help and assistance are rendered to format of an essay poor and destitute persons due to Cultural within Healthcare Essay religion inspiration. It is believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of religion by way of giving alms and assistance to the helpless and computer in english needy persons. In this way religion promotes the welfare of Cultural Diversty within Essay individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to art and culture. The priests laid the foundations of medicine. Magic supplied the roots of observation and experimentation from which science developed. Chemical Equilibrium Chatelier's Principle. It also inculcated the habit of charity among the people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to help the needy and the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and Makes bearable Individual Suffering in Diversty within Essay, the known World:
Religion serves to soothe the man in times of his suffering and disappointment. In this world man often suffers disappointment even in the midst of all hopes and achievements. The things for which he strives are in format of an argumentative, some measure always denied to him. When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and striven for Cultural within Healthcare has been swept away, man naturally wants something to console and compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to assuage his grief in ritualistic exchanges of condolence. On God he puts faith and entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in mysterious ways to make even his loss meaningful. Faith in equilibrium and le lab report, God compensates him and sustains his interest in life and makes it bearable. Cultural Within Healthcare. In this way religion helps man to bear his frustrations and encourages him to chemical equilibrium and le principle answers accept his lot on Cultural Healthcare earth. 8. Religion Enhances Self-importance:
It expands ones self to infinite proportions. Man unites himself with the infinite and feels ennobled. Through unity with the infinite the self is of an argumentative essay, made majestic and triumphant. Man considers himself the noblest work of God with whom he shall be united and his self thus becomes grand and luminous. Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions.
Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. All the great religions of the world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and Cultural Healthcare family. Political institutions are often sanctioned by religion: the computer emperor of China or Japan was sacred; the ruling caste of India was sanctioned by Brahmanism; the kings of France were supposed to rule by divine right. Religious rites are performed on many occasions in relation to vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and so on; and they are intimately concerned with family and kinship interests and with political institutions. Religion is the Diversty central element in the life of civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to humanity among which Sumner and Count of Monte Cristo: Classically Keller included the provision of work, the Cultural Diversty Healthcare spread of education, the accumulation of capital and format of an argumentative the creation of a leisure class. For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and Diversty within Healthcare Essay political life. Chemical Principle Lab Report Answers. Even today religion is called upon to support rulers, contacts and Healthcare other legal procedures.
In addition to positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of its social functions. Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for the society as a whole. Sumner and Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. O Dea and others have pointed the dysfunctions of essay in english religion. The dysfunctions of religion are as follows. 1. Religion Inhibits Protests and Cultural Diversty within Essay Hinders Social Changes: According to Thomas F. O Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to be beneficial to the welfare of the society. Newsroom. All protests and conflicts are not always negative. Protests and conflicts often become necessary for bringing out changes. Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms.
By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms. 2. Hampers the Adaptation of Society to Changed Conditions: Social values and norms emanate from Cultural Healthcare Essay religious faith. Some of the Count Cristo: Classically Entertaining norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by Healthcare Essay, religion. This can impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of computer essay in english society to Healthcare Essay changing conditions.
For example, during the format of an argumentative medieval Europe, the Church refused to grant the ethical legitimacy of money lending at interest, despite the great functional need of Essay this activity in a situation of developing capitalism. Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking. Similar social conflict is evident in the case of birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and Irresponsibility: Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and leaders. But it does not develop an ability in them to chemical equilibrium chatelier's assume individual responsibility. For example, a good number of people in India prefer to take the advises of priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures. But they do not take the suggestion of those who are competent in the field. In its course of development religion has supported and promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and Cultural Diversty within Healthcare Essay animal sacrifice etc. As religion interprets misfortune and suffering in this world as manifestations of the supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the existing social structure.
Religion preaches submission to the existing socio-economic condition and to of the fate. It is this control function of religion that caused Marx to call religion as the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world, and Cultural Diversty within Healthcare the soul of what is pentecostal soulless conditions. It is the opiate of the people. By sanctifying norms and legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the status quo. Religion is the Cultural within source of many superstitions. These superstitions have caused harm to what is pentecostal human being. Superstitions like evil spirits and Diversty within Healthcare ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the God etc. hinder the chemical principle lab report welfare of human beings. Religion results in inter-group conflicts by dividing people along religious lines. It is deeply related with conflicts. Wars and battles have been fought in the name of religion.
Sumner and Keller are of the opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. For example, investing huge sums of money on building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on religious fairs, festivals and ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in the name offerings. It leads to waste of human labour, energy and time. Religion creates diversities among people. Cultural Diversty Healthcare. It creates a gap among them. In the name of God and religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and other cruel and inhuman treatments have been meted out to people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and deaf to the reality.
They have faith without reasoning which is blind. On the contrary, it has often made people to computer become bigots and fanatics. Bigotry and fanaticism have led to Diversty within Healthcare persecution, inhuman treatment and misery in the past. Religion preserves traditions. It preaches submission to the existing conditions and maintenance of status quo. Argumentative. Religion is not readily amenable to social change and within Healthcare progress. 12. Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to prevent the scientists from discovering new facts.
For example, it tried to suppress the doctrines of Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on divine power religion has made people fatalistic. They think that all events in life is due to some divine power and hence due to fate. As a result, his power and potentiality is undermined. Thus, religion affects the creativity of man. Marx has strongly criticised religion. For Marx all that was fundamental in the science of society proceeded from the material and especially the economic sphere. For him therefore religion is, to be sure, superstition, but to stop at this point is to limit religion to merely abstract belief.
It leaves the impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief. Marxs sense of the matter is more profound. Merely changing beliefs is not enough. The transformation of an entire social order is required, for belief is deeply rooted in of an essay, the social relations of men. Religion, writes Marx, is the self-consciousness and self-feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the Cultural Diversty within world. Man is the world of man, the state, and society.
This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world. Religion is the compendium of that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and justification. It is the format of an argumentative essay fantastic realization of the human essence because the Diversty Healthcare Essay human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to God in the form of worship, he takes from Diversity in the himself. That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to project what is his to Cultural Diversty within Healthcare a supernatural being. But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is fundamental is not religious forms against which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the economic forms of existence. The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the 7th president of the states people is required for their real happiness, declared Marx. Within Healthcare. But before religion can be abolished the conditions which nurture it must be done away with. The demand to give up the illusions about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusion. Marxs criticism of religion is thus deeply connected with the criticism of right and the criticism of politics.
As Marx put it The criticism of heaven transforms itself into the criticism of earth, the criticism of religion into the criticism of law and the criticism of theology into the criticism of politics. Marx was an atheist as well as a great humanist. He had profound sympathy for all who look up to religion for salvation. Chemical Chatelier's Principle. This is amply clear from his following observation: The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the highest essence of man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in which man is debased, enslaved abandoned Change is the very essence of a living thing. A living religion must grow, must advance and must change.
No form of Diversty within Essay religion is static. In some cases the change may be slow and minor, in others relatively rapid and major. Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and argumentative eternal. Hence, there is also an element of censure for within Healthcare Essay change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in religion: (i) from simple to complex, (ii) from complex to simple and Diversity (iii) mixing forms. Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in the simple form of tribal religion. For example, with the gradual spread of Diversty within Healthcare Vaishnavism in chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in that region, began to and le lab report reorganise traditional faith.
There are also examples of Cultural Diversty Healthcare simplification of complex form of religion, specially of rituals and ceremonies. Buddhism for instance, came as a revolt against computer essay in english the Vedic ritual which was both complex and expensive, and also beyond the common mans reach. In the 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to simplify the complex nature of Brahmanic Hinduism. Mixing of more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation. The most excellent example is of Sophism. It has evolved from Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism. Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by within Healthcare Essay, Buddhism and Suphism. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of essay religion the primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of life, played a dominant part.
As mans knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of within Essay their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (such as politics, education, art and Count of Monte Classically Entertaining music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as a power over man and his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. In Europe, secularisation is held to be the outcome of the social changes brought about by Cultural Diversty within Essay, urban, industrial society. It means that religious beliefs and practices have tended to decline in modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the working class in Western societies. Religion in Western societies has tended to place less emphasis on dogma and more on social values. It has tried to reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge. As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to our changed conditions of life is worth preserving and it must seek to organise. The masses and guide their activities for essay in english the benefit of the society rather than for the purpose of pleasing the God.
Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of Cultural within religion and the rise of rationalism. However, the process of secularisation has affected the domination of religious institutions and symbols. The process of secularisation was started in India during the British rule. But the process of of the united states secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and Essay secular education gradually affected various aspects of what religion religion in India. Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and communication contributed towards decline in religiosity among the Cultural within Hindus.
No doubt we are moving from religiosity to 7th president united secular way of life. But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in West as well as in our society. First, organised Christianity plays an important political force in Europe and North America. Second, the vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and communalism in India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed. Cultural Diversty Essay. But it should be noted that the diversity of religious sects and in the cults in modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and not a dominant feature of social life. It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in ideological struggles against colonialism (as in Iran), in the long run modernisation of society brings about secularisation. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the influence of religion on man and Cultural Diversty within Essay his life changes. In the earlier phases of computer religion the primary needs of Diversty Essay mankind were very much influenced by it. As mans knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and computer essay conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (politics, education, art and Diversty Essay music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of Diversity in the Newsroom Essay God as power over man and his society loses its importance.
This movement is sometimes referred to as secularization. Secularism as an within Healthcare ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from a simple repudiation of religion and of an essay the rise of rationalism. Secularisation, in the words of Peter Berger, refers to the process by which sectors of society and culture are removed from the domination of religious institutions and symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the following factors encouraged the development of rational thinking and Diversty Healthcare a rational world view. Chemical Chatelier's Principle Lab Report Answers. Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and anti-emotional. Secondly, the Cultural Diversty within rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the State which impose rational behaviour upon them. Thirdly, the greater knowledge of social and physical world which results from the development of physical, biological and social sciences. He says that this knowledge is based on chemical chatelier's reason rather than faith.
He claims that science not only explained many facts of life and the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of its explanation in practical results. The term secularisation has been used in different ways. Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the meaning of the concept. Others have included discrete and Cultural Diversty separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. The range of meaning attached to the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the sociological vocabulary. There are two meanings of the word current in modern and modernizing India and even in the whole of this subcontinent.
One of the two meanings is essay, found by Essay, consulting any standard dictionary. But there is the difficulty in finding the other, for it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to believe, is typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian. The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of of the states secular trends in history or economics, or when they speak of secularizing the State. The word secular has been used in this sense, at least in the English-speaking West, for more than three hundred years. This secularism chalks out an area in public life where religion is not admitted. One can have religion in Cultural Diversty within Essay, ones private life. One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within ones home or at ones place of worship. What Is Pentecostal. But when one enters public life, one is expected to leave ones faith behind.
In contrast, the non-Western meaning of secularism revolves round equal respect for all religions. In the Indian context the word has very different meaning from its standard use in the English language. Within. It is held that India is not Europe and hence secularism in India cannot mean the same thing as it does in Europe. What does it matter if secularism means something else in Europe and American political discourse? As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for the world in the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to the specifically Indian meaning of secularism. Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of secularism did not emerge in ignorance of the European or American meanings of the word.
Indian meaning of secularism is debated in its Western genealogies. New meaning is acquired by the word secularism in India. The original concept is named by the English words, Secular and secularism in the Indian languages, by neologisms such as Dharma-nirapekshata. Chemical Equilibrium And Le Chatelier's Principle. This is translation of those English words and dharma-nirapekshata is used to refer to the range of meanings indicated by Cultural Diversty, the English term. The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is standardly used in talking about the role of religion in a modern State or society. Dharma-nirapekshata is the outcome of vested interests inherent in our political system. Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in what, terms of practice of any religion by any citizen. Besides, the State is not to give preference to any religion over Diversty Healthcare Essay, another. But this term is irrelevant in a democratic structure and it bears no application in reality because three principles are mentioned in the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the State, permits the practice of any religion, equality which requires that State not to give preference to any religion and what the principle of Cultural within Healthcare Essay neutrality). Indian secularism has been inadequately defined attitude of goodwill towards all religions, Sarvadharma Sadbhava. In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on the part of the State.
Hence, the original concept will not admit the Indian case with its range of in english references. Well-established and well-defined concept of secularism cannot be explained differently in terms of Western or Indian model. To Herberg, authentic religion means an emphasis on the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of supernatural power, a serious commitment to religious teaching, a strong element of the theological doctrine and a refusal to compromise religious beliefs and values with those of the wider society. If there is Diversty, any trend of decline in any aspect of religion mentioned above, then it is indicative of the chemical and le lab report answers process of secularisation. Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance.
Religion in America is subordinated to the American way of Cultural Diversty Essay life. It means that religious belief and practices have tended to decline. Secularism is taken to mean that ones religious ideals and format argumentative beliefs should not interfere in Healthcare Essay, general with social, economic and political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism. There are other aspects of secularism. Secularism is related to rationalism and empiricism.
Secularisation involves reduction of religious influence on men, elimination of some aspects of it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of superstitions and religion blind beliefs. In this manner, the process of secularisation implies the following assumptions. The process of Cultural secularisation implies the transformation of religious institutions as a whole. There is the need to secularise the religious institutions. This means less emphasis on supernatural power, lack of theological doctrine, and desirability to Newsroom compromise with religious beliefs and values.
The religious institutions undergo a process of change in Cultural Healthcare, the context of changing society. In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of desacrilisation . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the essay world. Action is not directed by religious beliefs. People in a modern society increasingly look upon the world and their own lives without the benefit of religious interpretation. As a result there is a secularisation of Diversty within Healthcare consciousness. Berger argues that the Cristo: decisive variable for secularisation is the process of rationalisation. That is the pre-requisite for Cultural Diversty within Essay any industrial society of the modern type. Secularisation also implies rationality.
Wilson argues that a rational world view is the energy of religion. It is based on Essay of Monte Classically testing of arguments and Cultural Diversty Essay beliefs by rational procedure, on asserting truth by means of factors which can be quantified and objectively measured. Religion is based on faith. Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. A rational world view rejects faith which is the basis of religion. It removes the mystery, magic and authority of religion.
A secular man lays more emphasis on physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of secularisation as the most important component of the process of modernisation is occurring in different forms in various contemporary societies. Like modernisation, this process is good and desirable for the welfare of what mankind. Finally, it is both a product and a process. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
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