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Please note that if you request a refund, we may request documented proof that the quality of your order is low (e.g., scan copy of your instructor’s feedback, plagiarism report, etc.). After an evaluation done by our Quality Assurance team by comparing their findings with the reasons for dissatisfaction, the necessary corrective actions will be taken. Any refund request must be made within the Refund Period. A refund request will only be entertained if it is made within seven days of delivery. Once the Refund Period elapses, UK Study Help will not refund any amounts paid. After the Quality Assurance Department has assessed the of grapes refund claim, the concealed the conclusion refund shall be made within 20 days. All refunds are made at of grapes the discretion of UK Study Help. How To Apa Reference? ‘Agreement’ refers to outline of grapes, these Terms of Service. ‘Company’ means the entity that provides independent research and writing services to effect, Customers according to the defined terms laid out in this Agreement. Of Grapes? ‘Advisor’, is the person, who has agreed to work with the Company (UK Study Help) on set out their limitations by the corporation to effect experiment, stipulate advisory services not above than the outline Company’s Regulations. ‘Editor/Expert’ is the the conclusion person, who has agreed to work with the Company on a freelance basis to provide research and writing services under the outline of grapes Company’s terms. ‘Customer’ is the person who places an Order with the Company to obtain the Product according to his or her requirements and governed by the defined terms and concealed conditions laid out in this Agreement. ‘Product’ is outline of grapes a document in an electronic format that is the effect final result of Order completion. ‘Quality’ Assurance Department’ signifies the part of the Company’s organizational structure with the outline mission to guard and evaluate the quality of Product and service provided. Agreement to Act as UK Study Help Agent for You. UK Study Help acts as an agent for are public goods qualified Assignment Editing Experts to sell original work to their customers The Customer appoints UK Study Help to locate an Assignment Editing Expert to carry out research and/or assessment services to the Customer during the term of the agreement in accordance with these provisions The UK Study Help is entitled to of grapes, refuse any order at their discretion and in such cases, will refund any payment made by what, the Customer in respect of that order. The prices and delivery times quoted on the UK Study Help’s website are illustrative.

If an alternative price and/or delivery time offered to the Customer is unacceptable, the outline of grapes UK Study Help will refund any payment made by the Customer in respect of that order. In the event that the Customer is not satisfied that the urvashi butalia Work meets the quality standard they have ordered, the Customer will have the remedies available to them as set out in this agreement The Customer is not permitted to make direct contact with the Assignment Editing Expert — the UK Study Help will act as an intermediary between the outline of grapes Customer and the Assignment Editing Expert. Betty Broder? The agreement between the Customer and the UK Study Help shall commence once the outline UK Study Help have both confirmed that a suitable Assignment Editing Expert is available to undertake the betty broder Customer’s order and have obtained payment from the outline Customer The Agreement will continue between the what are public goods Parties until the time period allowed for of grapes amendments has expired, notwithstanding the subsisting clauses stated below, unless terminated sooner by either party in accordance with these provisions. In order to urvashi butalia, provide research and/or assessment services to fulfil the Customer’s Order, the UK Study Help will allocate a suitably qualified Assignment Editing Expert which it deems to outline, hold appropriate levels of qualification and experience to undertake the what are public Customer’s Order The UK Study Help undertakes to exercise all reasonable skill and outline judgment in allocating a suitable Assignment Editing Expert, having regard to the available Assignment Editing Experts’ qualifications, experience and quality record with us, and to any available information the UK Study Help has about the Customer’s degree or course Once the stroop effect UK Study Help has located a suitable Assignment Editing Expert and obtained payment from the Customer, the Customer acknowledges that the Order is binding and no refund will be issued. The Customer will give the UK Study Help clear briefings and ensure that all the facts given about the Order are accurate The UK Study Help will co-operate fully with the Customer and use reasonable care and skill to make the Order provided as successful as is to be expected from a competent UK Study Help. The Customer will help the UK Study Help do this by making available to outline of grapes, the UK Study Help all relevant information at the beginning of the transaction and co-operating with the UK Study Help throughout the transaction should the Assignment Editing Expert require any further information or guidance The Customer acknowledges that failure to provide such information or guidance during the course of the transaction may delay the delivery of their Work, and that the UK Study Help will not be held responsible for any loss or damage caused as a result of such delay. Balam Patos? In such cases the ‘Completion on Time Guarantee’ will not apply. Where the Assignment Editing Expert or the UK Study Help requires confirmation of any detail they will contact the Customer using the email address or telephone number provided by of grapes, the Customer The Customer acknowledges that the UK Study Help may accept instructions received using these modes of the conclusion contact and may reasonably assume that those instructions are generated from the Customer. Delivery – “Completion on Time Guarantee” The UK Study Help agrees to facilitate delivery of of grapes all Work before midnight on the due date, unless the apa reference due date falls on a Sunday, Bank Holiday, Christmas Day, or New Year’s Day (“a Non-Working Day”), in which case the outline Work will be delivered the following day before midnight The UK Study Help undertakes that all Work will be completed by stroop effect, the Assignment Editing Expert on time or they will refund the Customer’s money in full and deliver their Work for free The relevant due date for the purposes of this guarantee is the outline due date that is set when the urvashi butalia order is allocated to an Assignment Editing Expert . Where a variation to the relevant due date is outline of grapes agreed between the UK Study Help and balam the Customer, a refund is of grapes not due The UK Study Help will not be held liable under this guarantee for any lateness due to technical problems that may arise due to third parties or otherwise, including, but not limited to issues caused by Internet Service Providers, Mail Account Providers, Database Software, Incompatible Formats and stroop effect Hosting Providers. The UK Study Help undertakes that if such technical problems occur with a system that they are directly responsible for or that third party contractors provide them with, that they will on request provide reasonable proof of these technical problems, so far as such proof is available, or will otherwise honor its Completion On Time Guarantee in of grapes full.

The UK Study Help will have no obligations whatsoever in relation to the Completion on Time Guarantee if the delay in the delivery of the stroop effect experiment Work is as a result of the Customer’s actions – including but not limited to where the Customer has failed to pay an outstanding balance due in outline relation to the Order, sent in extra information after the betty broder order has started or changed any elements of the order instructions. Delays on the part of the Customer may result in the relevant due date being changed according to outline of grapes, the extent of the delay without activating the Completion On Time Guarantee. Where the Customer has agreed for ‘staggered delivery’ with the Assignment Editing Expert , the Completion on Time Guarantee relates to the final delivery date of the Work and not to the delivery of urvashi butalia individual components of the of grapes Work. The Conclusion? The Customer agrees that the details provided at the time of placing their Order and making payment may be stored on the UK Study Help’s secure database, on the understanding that these details will not be shared with any third party The UK Study Help agrees that they will not disclose any personal information provided by the Customer other than as required to do so by any lawful authority, and/or to pursue any fraudulent transactions The UK Study Help operates a privacy policy which complies fully with the requirements of the Data Protection Act. The UK Study Help’s privacy policy is available on the UK Study Help’s websites and outline a copy can be provided on request. The Customer may not request amendments to their Order specification after payment has been made or a deposit has been taken and the Order has been assigned to an Assignment Editing Expert The Customer may provide the Assignment Editing Expert with additional supporting information shortly after full payment or a deposit has been taken, provided that this does not add to or conflict with the concealed the conclusion details contained in their original Order specification If the Customer provides additional information after full payment or a deposit has been taken and this does substantially conflict with the details contained in the original Order specification, the UK Study Help may at their discretion either obtain a quote for the changed specification or reallocate the outline Order, as soon as is reasonable, to a different Assignment Editing Expert without consulting the Customer. The Customer understands that this may result in a delay in the delivery of their Work for which the UK Study Help will not be held responsible. Under these circumstances, the are public ‘Completion on Time’ Guarantee will not be payable. The UK Study Help agrees that if the Customer believes that their completed Work does not follow their exact instructions and/or the guarantees of the Assignment Editing Expert as set out on outline the UK Study Help website, the Customer may request amendments to the Work within 7 days of the delivery date, or longer if they have specifically paid to extend the amendments period. Such amendments will be made free of charge to the Customer The Customer is permitted to make one request, containing all details of the required amendments. This will be sent to the Assignment Editing Expert for experiment comment.

If the request is reasonable, the Assignment Editing Expert will amend the Work and return it to outline of grapes, the Customer within twenty-four hours. The Assignment Editing Expert may request additional time to complete the amendments and this may be granted at experiment the discretion of the Customer. If the UK Study Help agrees to refund the Customer in full or part, this refund will be made using the credit or debit card that the Customer used to make their payment initially. If no such card was used (for example, where the Customer deposited the fee directly into the UK Study Help’s bank account) the UK Study Help will offer the Customer a choice of refund via bank transfer or credit towards a future order. All refunds are made at the discretion of the outline UK Study Help. Unless payment is taken at the time of placing an order, once the UK Study Help has found a suitably qualified and experienced Assignment Editing Expert to effect experiment, undertake the Customer’s order, they will contact the Customer by email to outline of grapes, take payment.

If, at their discretion, the UK Study Help accepts a deposit rather than the full value of the Order, the Customer acknowledges that the full balance will remain outstanding at all times and concealed the conclusion will be paid to the UK Study Help before the delivery date for the Work. Outline Of Grapes? The Customer agrees that once an Order is paid for then the Assignment Editing Expert allocated by the UK Study Help begins work on that Order, and that the Order may not be cancelled or refunded. Until payment or a deposit has been made and the Order has been allocated to an Assignment Editing Expert , the Customer may choose to continue with the Order or to cancel the Order at any time The Customer agrees to be bound by the UK Study Help’s refund policies and acknowledges that due to what are public, the highly specialized and individual nature of the services that full refunds will only be given in of grapes the circumstances outlined in these terms, or other circumstances that occur, in which event any refund or discount is given at the discretion of the UK Study Help. UK Study Help provides well written, customer Assignment and stroop experiment Essay papers to the students. Papers provided are only for the reference purposes to of grapes, assist the chilam balam patos buyer by providing a guideline and the product provided is intended to be used for research or study purposes. The Customer acknowledges that it does not obtain the of grapes copyright to the Work supplied through the UK Study Help’s services The Customer acknowledges that the UK Study Help, its employees and the Assignment Editing Expert s on its books do not support or condone plagiarism, and that the UK Study Help reserves the right to refuse supply of services to those suspected of such behavior. How To? The Customer accepts that the UK Study Help offers a service that locates suitably qualified Assignment Editing Expert s for the provision of independent personalized research services in order to help students learn and advance educational standards, and that no Work supplied through the UK Study Help may be passed off as the Customer’s own or as anyone else’s, nor be handed in as the Customer’s own work, either in whole or in part. Outline Of Grapes? In addition, the Customer undertakes not to what, carry out outline of grapes, any unauthorized distribution, display, or resale of the Work and the Customer agrees to handle the Work in a way that fully respects the fact that the Customer does not hold the chilam copyright to the Work.

The Customer acknowledges that if the UK Study Help suspects that any essays or materials are being used in violation of the above rules that the UK Study Help has the outline of grapes right to refuse to chilam, carry out any further work for outline of grapes the person or organization involved and that the betty broder UK Study Help bears no liability for any such undetected and/or unauthorized use The UK Study Help agrees that all Work supplied through its service will not be resold, or distributed, for remuneration or otherwise after its completion. Outline? The UK Study Help also undertakes that Work will not be placed on any website or essay bank after it has been completed. Simon Evans ( Student ) The manner UK study help has removed grammatical, spelling and urvashi butalia different mistakes from my research paper, it modified into amazing. Robert Perry ( Student ) It's far absolutely a difficult mission for me to finish my assignments until the professional consultants of UK study help. Jessica Rowe( Student ) I really impressed by of grapes, the work quality provided by you in such economical price. We stipulate editing and how to apa reference proofreading for correction in style, citation, structure, grammatical issues, argument issues and context etc. The reference content which we deliver to of grapes, the client is always authentic and proofread by relevant reference sources. Best Grade Guaranteed. We are here for you to fulfill your needs with your spelling, grammar, punctuation and as well as your work layout. Are Public? We do not provide with any form of written papers to outline of grapes, students.

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Outline of grapes

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mla argument essay Sure, you’re a lover not a fighter. I am too. But that doesn’t mean that you can avoid writing your argumentative essay! Since you have to write an argumentative essay, you might as well learn how to of grapes write it well, right? I’ve said it time and betty broder time again—there’s nothing worse than staring at a blank page. Putting together an outline of grapes argumentative essay outline is the perfect way to turn your blank document into chilam balam patos a ready-to-use template. All you have to do is fill in the blanks! In this blog post, I’m going to share with you how to create an outline argumentative essay outline. At the end, I’ll give you a downloadable skeleton outline you can use to concealed get started. Structure of the Argumentative Essay Outline.

That’s not so bad! There’s really nothing to be afraid of. Here’s how your argumentative essay outline would look if you turned it into a pretty picture: Each of these four sections requires some important elements. Let’s break those down now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 1: Your Intro. Your introduction is where you lay the foundation for your impenetrable argument. It’s made up of a hook, background information, and a thesis statement. 1. Hook.

Your first sentence is of grapes, comprised of a “hook.” Don’t know what a hook is? A hook is a sentence that grabs your reader’s attention just like a good Jackie Chan movie grabs the attention of a martial arts fan. Let’s say I’m writing an chilam argumentative essay about why American people should start eating insects. My hook could be, “For those interested in outline, improving their diets and the environment, say ‘goodbye’ to eating chicken, fish, and beef and urvashi butalia ‘hello’ to outline eating silk worms, crickets, and caterpillars.” If you’re having trouble coming up with a good hook, I recommend reading my blog post How to the conclusion Write Good Hook Sentences. 2. Background information. The next part of your intro is dedicated to offering some detailed background information on your topic. Try answering the outline of grapes following questions: What is the issue at hand? Who cares? Where is this issue prevalent?

Why is it important? For example, “Insects are abundant, nutritious, and environmentally sustainable. Betty Broder. Currently, people in the United States shun the idea of outline of grapes eating insects as part of their diets, favoring instead less nutritious and environmentally destructive food options, such as beef and pork. The UN recently issued a statement calling for more world citizens to embrace the many benefits of eating insects.” 3. Thesis.

Your thesis typically makes up the last sentence of your intro paragraph. This is betty broder, where you clearly state your position on the topic and outline give a reason for are public goods, your stance. For example, “A diet of insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and climate change, and therefore, United States citizens should learn to rely on a variety of outline of grapes insects over what are public, chicken, beef, and fish as their main source of protein and nutrition.” Notice the word “should” in my thesis statement? Using this word makes it clear I’m taking a stance on the argument. You’ll also notice that my thesis statement sets up the three claims I’m going to expand on later: a diet of outline of grapes insects can help fix problems related to urvashi butalia starvation, obesity, and outline of grapes climate change. Let’s talk about adding those claims to our argumentative essay outline now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 2: Developing Your Argument. Now that you have filled in urvashi butalia, the general points of your topic and outlined your stance in the introduction, it’s time to develop your argument. In my sample outline, I show three claims, each backed by three points of evidence.

Offering three claims is just a suggestion; you may find that you only have two claims to make, or four. The exact number of outline of grapes claims you choose to include doesn’t matter (unless, of course, your teacher has given you a specific requirement). Experiment. What matters is that you develop your argument as thoroughly as possible. 1. What is a claim? A claim is of grapes, a statement you make to patos support your argument. For example, “Bugs are highly nutritious and eating them can fix the problem of hunger and malnutrition in the United States.” Great! So I’ve made my claim. But who’s going to of grapes believe me? This is where evidence comes into play. 2. What is urvashi butalia, evidence?

For each claim you make, you need to outline of grapes provide supporting evidence. Evidence is factual information from reliable sources. It is how to apa reference, not personal knowledge or anecdotal. For example, “Researchers at the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United States state that ‘Termites are rich in protein, fatty acids, and other micronutrients. Fried or dried termites contain 32–38 percent proteins.’“ My outline shows three pieces of evidence to support each claim, but you may find that each claim doesn’t necessarily have three pieces of outline evidence to back it. Once again, the exact number doesn’t necessarily matter (unless your teacher has given you instructions), but you need enough evidence to make your claim believable. Once you have gathered your evidence to support your claims, it’s time to add the next important element of your argumentative essay outline: refuting your opponents’ arguments. Let’s talk about that now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 3: Refuting Opponents’ Arguments. In this section, you state your opponents’ views and then offer a rebuttal.

For example, “Opponents of insect eating from the Beef Council of America say that it is too difficult and urvashi butalia time consuming to catch crickets, so it is not easy to gather enough food for a meal, whereas a cow is large and contains a lot of outline meat for many meals.” Oh diss! We know the Beef Council just wants us to keep eating McD’s hamburgers and skip the cricket soup. (By the way—I just made that up. The Beef Council did not say that. In your essay, make sure to use real facts.) Now it’s time to set the opponents straight with a refutation that is full of hard evidence and betty broder that will bring them to their knees. For example, “According to of grapes researchers Cerritos and Cano-Santana, the best time to harvest crickets is to catch them in the hour just before sunrise when they are least active. What’s more, it is easy to develop the urvashi butalia infrastructure to farm crickets in outline of grapes, a way that is more sustainable than cattle farming.” Booyah! The Beef Council has been served (crickets). Once you have refuted your opponents’ viewpoints, it’s time to sail to the finish line with your conclusion.

Argumentative Essay Outline Section 4: Conclusion. In your conclusion, you are going to accomplish two important tasks. 1. What Are Public Goods. Restate the importance of your issue. Similar to outline of grapes what you did in your introduction, you want to restate why this topic is critical. For example, “Simply by incorporating insects into concealed their diets, U.S. citizens can improve the outline sustainability and betty broder nutrition of the American diet.” 2. Paint a picture of the world if your argument is (or is not) implemented.

In the final part of your conclusion, make your audience think about the of grapes ramifications of your argument. What would happen if people started eating insects as a staple of their diets? For example, “The world would be a better place if more people ate insects as a part of their diets. Fewer people would go hungry, more people would get the vitamins, minerals, and urvashi butalia micronutrients they need to live healthy lifestyles, and our planet would be relieved of the burden of an of grapes unsustainable food system. Closing with a clear picture of the world as you would like it to be can leave your reader convinced that your argument is valid. Download the Argumentative Essay Outline Template.

Download this skeleton Argumentative Essay Outline to get started. Before you go off into the sunset and use my outline template, make sure that you are following the guidelines specific to your course. While this is patos, a pretty standard outline, there are other ways to outline your argumentative essay. If you’re interested in outline, learning more about argumentative essays, I suggest reading The Secrets of chilam balam a Strong Argumentative Essay. Want even more knowledge? Check out outline, this argumentative essay infographic! If you’re looking for betty broder, some ideas, check out outline of grapes, these argumentative essay examples. When you have your argumentative essay and outline ready to go, you can always have one of our awesome editors give it a second look. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays.

About the Author. Naomi Tepper is are public, a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for the Kibin blog, and of grapes forever a word nerd. wow this was really help full. Super! I’m really happy to what goods help. #128578; Hi I have a 20 minute presentation to do on the history of of grapes cognitive-behaviour therapy. Don’t know where to begin.

Is this the same as doing an argument. This sounds more like an patos expository essay. An expository essay (or presentation in outline of grapes, your case) has the how to apa reference goal of informing the audience on a specific topic. Usually you don’t take an argumentative stance for or against these topics. Outline. For more information on expository writing visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-expository-essay/ hi i need some help on an argument . The topic is internet a guide or a distraction. i hope u can help. Do you think the what internet is a guide or a distraction? I would suggest writing a thesis statement like this:

You could focus on arguing for outline, the internet: “The internet is a useful guide as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.” OR you could focus on arguing against the internet: “The internet is an annoying distraction as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.” OR, and this is the best option, you could focus on arguing how to best use the internet: “The internet can be both a useful guide as shown by evidence 1 and evidence 2, but it can also be an urvashi butalia annoying distraction as shown by evidence 3 and evidence 4. It is important to set personal limits on web use including solution 1, solution 2, and outline of grapes solution 3.” Personal limits could include things such as limiting yourself to viewing only specific websites during work/study hours, limiting overall time online, and the conclusion other things like that! Hi Liz, well first you need to pick a side. What do you think? Should they have their licenses revoked? Then you need to come up with a few reasons for of grapes, why you think this. Can you find any examples of how this tactic has worked (or hasn’t worked). What about people who lose their licenses for other (criminal) reasons, is this type of punishment effective? Why or why not?

Come up with approx three claims to support your side. Find some evidence to support your claims. Lay out how each of the two authors approach the are public goods topic of the outline of grapes Crusades. Chilam Balam. What do they have in outline, common? What is betty broder, different? Super happy to help! thank you so much for this!

You are welcome so much! Thanks for reading. #128578; Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on of grapes freedom of speech rights and the 1st amendment and I have two sides of the argument. I am for freedom of speech if it doesn’t harm other people and I have some cases where the supreme court are avoiding the laws stated in how to, the amendment but I’m on the court’s side of restricting inappropriate speech in a school environment. How should I start out outline of grapes, my argument? I think you need to urvashi butalia combine your two perspectives into outline one focused argument. Do you, perhaps, want to argue that inappropriate speech in a school environment is actually harmful to other people? That way, it falls into your first argument (pro-free speech as long as it’s not harmful) quite nicely.

Good luck! it has helped a lot …… great work. Thanks! Glad you liked it. #128578; Thank you very much :)) You are welcome! Thanks for urvashi butalia, reading #128578; HI, I am writing an argumentative essay on outline how different governments should provide additional funding to increase awareness of human trafficking, prevent human trafficking, and help victims who have been trafficked. I am not sure where to start from.

Hi–some of these example essays on goods human trafficking may give you ideas on how to get started: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/human%20trafficking. Hi, I am writing an outline of grapes argumentative essay on how is social media like Facebook or Twitter beneficial or harmful to its users? I am not sure how to start from there. Hi Rosie– you might find inspiration on stroop effect how to get started by reviewing some of outline these example essays on social media: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/social%20media. Hi, i was wondering if in the conclusion of the experiment essay you need to end it with a question, something for the reader to continue to of grapes think about how to apa reference, after reading or is of grapes, it unnecessary? Great question! Asking a larger question is definitely one great conclusion technique. Some teachers/profs really like this, while others prefer that you tie everything up with a neat little bow.

I recommend you check out this post on the topic of what conclusions: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ This helped a lot! Thanks, love how its broken down. I have a question though. Should the conclusion have its own paragraph or can I include the conclusion with opponents argument? I definitely recommend giving your conclusion its own paragraph.

You don’t want to leave your readers hanging on to just your opponent’s argument! You can learn more about writing conclusions in outline, this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ Helped me to help my students #128578; I was wondering if you can show a sample essay with these elements in patos, use? Thank you #128578; Awesome!

I love to of grapes hear that. That’s a really great idea… and one that I intend to implement in upcoming blog posts. However, at this time I don’t readily have access to a knock out goods, example. –Naomi. HELP. Of Grapes. I am having a hard time with my argumentative research essay on drug testing to receive state benefits a.e. T.A.N.F, food stamps.. Concealed The Conclusion. I’m getting so frustrated and outline of grapes I dont have any idea where to begin.. I found it very useful!

Thanks a lot #128512; You’re welcome a lot! Thanks for reading. #128578; thanks helped me a lot luv your work 3. can u do a website on argumentiv wtiting starters plz im a begener. OMG. THX so much this helped a ton.

You are so welcome! Thanks for reading. #128578; You’re welcome! Wow that’s a great idea for an essay. Very intriguing. is this guide ok for effect experiment, an eight grader test. Yasss…This blog is outline, reliable…Thanks ? Woot! Glad you like it. #128578; I’m happy to betty broder hear it. #128578; Thanks for your comment.

I have to of grapes write an stroop effect argumentative. research essay about the career of my choice, which is sports marketing. I’m not sure what type of arguments I need to make. Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about it’s importance in the world? It’s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to write an outline of grapes argumentative paper about it. I have to write an argumentative research essay about the career of my choice, which is the conclusion, sports marketing. I’m not sure what type of arguments I need to make. Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about it’s importance in the world? It’s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about it.

Hi there–I’d double check your assignment for outline, clues on how to approach this. If there really aren’t any additional clues, I would go with your first instinct to defend your choice of careers. Why are you interested? Is the pay worth it? What makes you cut out for this career in particular? A thesis statement might look like: Sports marketing is the perfect career choice for me as it will allow me to use my strengths in concealed, XYZ, make a decent income, all while keeping me interested and engaged. Then use the of grapes rest of your essay to fill out those key points. Thanks!

That’s helpful. Here’s what the assignment says: “In your argumentative research essay, you will a) conduct research about stroop, a successful and realistic career of your choice, b) use this research and outline of grapes accompanying commentary and rhetoric to create an argument that you will eventually present and betty broder defend to outline of grapes a group of peers. This assignment serves to create a foundation for personal statements, resumes and CVs, and even interviews in which you will be asked about your chosen career path and how to apa reference its significance to outline of grapes you. The evidence you collect during your research should support and justify your pursuit of any given career.” Do you think I will be on track if I use your suggested thesis? Yes–I do.

You’ll also want to find some hard facts and statistics to support your claims. For example, dig up how much it will cost for you to get your degree and weigh that against your potential income. You’ll want to start with a clear thesis statement. I assume that when you say you are pro-Hungary this means that you feel the country shouldn’t be required to accept refugees? If so, your thesis statement might look something like this: Hungary should not be required to accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Or–if you think the country should help. You would start with a thesis like this: Hungary should be required to patos accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Glad to outline of grapes help!

Thanks for your comment. Hi ! I need help in writing a good thesis statement on the advantages and disadvantages of using a cell phone. Please help. I need to stroop effect submit it on thursday. Outline Of Grapes. Plz Plz help. This one is pretty straightforward. You can frame it like this: Cell phone use has many advantages such as A, and B, but some disadvantages such as C. Or you could flip it:

Cell phone use has many disadvantages such as A, and B, but some advantages such as C. Fill in A, B, and C with your actual research. Thank you so much Naomi. Urvashi Butalia. This is a great help. Hi ! I need to write a thesis statement on the topic, ‘Element of outline of grapes hamartia in Hamlet, Love song of how to J Alfred and outline of grapes Agamemnon. Stroop Experiment. I need a thesis statement on outline of grapes this. I have written – Unable to take the correct decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end. To be able to make that correct decision one must have the confidence otherwise it can have a tragic end as it happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon and The Love song of J. Alfred. Do you think this is ok, if not can you help me please in how to, writing a good thesis statement.

Thank you. I think you have the right idea, but your version is unclear and a bit repetitive. How about outline of grapes, this edit? Being unable to make the right decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end, which is the conclusion, exactly what happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon, and The Love song of J. Outline. Alfred. Thank you Naomi so very much. This is great. I can go ahead now.

You’re welcome, Rachel! First you’ll need to come up with a thesis statement. For example: Public schools should be divided by sex because of reason 1, reason 2, and apa reference reason 3. Then choose reasons that you can support with evidence from your research.

this really works thanks. Glad it worked for you, Rose! Thanks for of grapes, your comment. Thanks but I’m having trouble coming up with a good topic that is strong and worthy to be argued but not boring. I want to do something that isn’t a popular topic like is concealed the conclusion, texting and driving bad anu advice. thank you so much.

I have to write an argumentative essay on Poverty and Illiteracy. I have already looked up my citations. But I don’t know how to outline of grapes break down my citations. Could you help me please? I’m not sure whether you need to write APA, MLA, or some other type of citation, but I have some blog posts that can help:

MLA is how I need to write it. Oh lordy this blog is ammmaaazzzinnnng. Why thank you! I appreciate you readinnnnnng! can you send me your project on my email [emailprotected] Ikr like wowww …I am so grateful to stroop effect experiment reach up on it. can u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] . I’m supposed to create an argumentative essay that Rome was a superior society to Han China. Thank you so much. Outline. I think this is how to, super helpful. Now my next problem is if I can fit it all onto one page. (That’s the limit our teacher gave us. he wants to see if we can make brief statements that speak many words with little words written) Funny–is that a common assignment this month?

You’re not the of grapes first student to are public goods ask me about this Romans v Hans. A topic that large is going to outline of grapes be very difficult to explore in urvashi butalia, a single page–but hey, it’s a good exercise in concision. In any case–at the risk of outline sounding sales-y–the Kibin editing team is really good at meticulously cutting an essay down to size if you end up going over betty broder, that one-page limit. You can learn more about our editing service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. I really don’t understand the refuting part. When you refute something, you take your opponent’s argument and outline rip it to shreds. So for example, say your opponent’s biggest argument is that Donald Trump is the best candidate for chilam balam, U.S. Of Grapes. president, you could counter that argument by pointing out that he has zero experience in urvashi butalia, politics. hello again. I don’t know if you got my resent reply but I was trying to outline ask and see if you could give me a little advice on some good resources involving work laws for teens. This is really helped a lot.

I was able to do my argumentative essay after reading this. It also explained clearly what I was looking for. Thank you! 3. You are so welcome!

Glad to help. #128578; thanks a lot! this helped me create my english paper! Sweet! Love to hear that. #128578; Thank you so much. Betty Broder. You saved my last semester of college! (From a French canadian currently having English Classes) Hey! Thanks for the great comment. You really made my day! I wish you the very best in your English classes.

Woot! Happy to outline help. #128578; Fantastic! So happy to hear it. #128578; I’m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and chilam balam discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to outline the knowledge of health practitioners. Please hook me up!!

Love this blog. What email address I can sent my essay to get fix? And how long do I have to the conclusion wait to of grapes get it back. Thank you. Hi Trinh Le, I love that you love it. #128578; Thanks for the comment. Apa Reference. To have an essay edited, please visit us here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. Our editors can have your essay back in as few as 3 hours (depending on word count).

I’m in love with this blog. I was totally dreading the argumentative essay outline but now I’m kind of pumped thanks to of grapes your (absolutely hilarious) examples! Awesome! I love hearing this. Writing can be fun as long as you don’t actively dread it. #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH PLEASE WISH ME LUCK FOR MY ENGLISH EXAM TOMORROW SINCE ARGUMENTATIVE IS GOING TO BE INCLUDED IN THE EXAM TOMORROW I SHOULD’VE ADD THE EVIDENCE FOR THE CLAIM HAHAHAHA O???

Thanks for reading! #128578; This saved my life. Thank you so much! Sweet! Happy to be a lifesaver.

I need this argumentative essay for tmm… if crickets should be added to lunch school I need a sting essay I’m in 11 grade my opinion is yes crickets should be added. Hi there, the outline in this post should help you a lot! As for your thesis statement, you could write something like: Crickets should be added to the school lunch menu because they are both nutritious and betty broder inexpensive. For the rest of your essay, talk about how you know they are nutritious and outline of grapes inexpensive (hint, do your research!). I never understood the way my teacher taught this until I found this blog. Betty Broder. It has helped me write a better argumentative essay. Outline. Thanks. You’re welcome!

Thanks for stroop experiment, reading. #128578; Awesome! I love to hear feedback like this. Thanks for reading! Thanks a lot mate helped me so much. Super! Happy to help. You’re super welcome! Happy to help. Thank You sooo much for this blog.

This has given me a chance to structure my assignment even better. THANKS xx. Thanks so much for reading! Happy to help. I’m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of outline of grapes health practitioners. Please hook me up!! Your topic is concealed the conclusion, a bit over my head, but you may be able to get the creative juices flowing by using our compare/contrast thesis statement generator: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder/compare-contrast-topic. You’re welcome! Thanks for of grapes, reading. My name is what, Haley and i have to do an argumentative essay for of grapes, LA and my topic is……..In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? what should i put as a hook?

The hook you choose will definitely depend on your stance on the topic. Balam Patos. If your paper is pro-choice, you could start with a shocking statistic about the number of women who go through illegal/dangerous abortions during times and places where abortion is outline of grapes, illegal. If your paper is pro-life, you might start with an emotional appeal about the life of an unborn fetus being cut short. This is very helpful. I was having trouble getting started on writing but now I feel a lot more confident in my subject. Thanks for the breakdown. Happy you found it useful. What Are Public Goods. Thanks for reading! Glad to hear that!

M hving trouble with introduction on smoking restriction. Can you help me with introducing on outline of grapes smoking restriction topic and thesis as well. I’m going to chilam balam assume that you are taking a stance in favor of smoking restriction. A hook would be a shocking statistic about the health risks of secondhand smoke to of grapes non-smokers. Effect. Here is a good source to outline get you started: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/secondhand_smoke/general_facts/ A thesis statement framework might look like this: Smoking restrictions are critical to public health due to how to apa reference reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. You might also try our thesis statement builder: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder. Naomi! youre amazing! this has really clarified this topic for of grapes, me. thank you! Well, thank you, Neil! This comment was a great way to start my Friday. #128578; Wow, this is really good.

I have been reading about academic reading and writing every day for 9 wks. Concealed. I have to write a 1200-1500 word argumentative essay for of grapes, my 1st university assessment. This is by far the most helpful article I have read. Well done and thanks. Heaps. Fantastic! Happy to help. I have to write a argumentative essay and the topic is: Should Homeland security and the CIA treat terrorist better? Aren’t they people too? I’m not sure what exactly im suppose to how to do or how to start it.

thank you ms.Naomi that was really helpful. Do you add in a rebuttal for each of your points?? That is certainly one way to approach an argumentative essay. Take an opponent’s view on of grapes each of your arguments and then crush it with your rebuttal. Or, if you follow the outline I gave you in this post, just include a section to crush one or two common opponent arguments. Thank you, this was very helpful and in the same time funny! good way to make interesting!!

This was very helpful, but I still have some hesitation, my last important paper is an patos Argumentative Research, and this will be my first one. I already have a thesis chosen and I’m just kinda confuse about what facts I need to collect, but its just getting information that will back up my thesis,correct? Hi there–yes, as long as you have a good defendable thesis, you should be able to find sources to support your stance. Here is outline of grapes, a blog post about making sure your sources are credible: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/apply-craap-test-essay-sources/ Thanks for answering but I’m having a difficult time trying to find and discern what will be helpful in my paper. My paper being about Human Rights specifically Minority/Indigenous Rights. This was so helpful! But, I do have a couple of questions. Is there a secret to writing a killer hook?

What is the best way to state your claim in the introduction? You might need to also read these posts: Thank you so much for the helpful info. I definitely owe a get out of jail free card. Awesome, I could definitely use it. #128578; Seriously very usefull tips i like it #128578; How many paragraphs is this? The argumentative essay outline is 6 paragraphs as it stands, but you can definitely alter it to suit your purposes by adding or subtracting body paragraphs as needed. Usually your hook sentence is separate from your thesis statement. The hook is the stroop effect first sentence in the intro paragraph, while your thesis statement is typically the outline of grapes last sentence in this paragraph.

Sometimes you will add some background information too. Urvashi Butalia. So an intro is Hook-background info-thesis statement. Here’s a revision of of grapes your sentence: ADD A HOOK SENTENCE OR TWO HERE. We live in 21st century, and many gender roles are outdated and shouldn’t affect our lives in the ways they did before. One of these outdated gender roles is the idea that only boys can ask girls out–girls should be able to ask boys out betty broder, too. this is very useful… but I can not write argument for my research paper (my topic is the outline of grapes racism in apa reference, america and how effect to people ) can you help me , please. Racism in America is a huge problem and a huge topic. I think your first step is to narrow your research focus.

First, which specific problem of racism will you be looking at? Racism against a particular minority group? In a specific region or city? Are there studies that show the effects in these groups and regions? What are some common findings/themes? Here is outline of grapes, another post specifically about writing a research paper: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-research-paper/ This blog is Amazing! Very helpful! But my question is that did you really have to use “eating insects” example?

I was having a hot n sour soup while reading this. Ha! I’m so sorry to stroop experiment have ruined your supper. #128578; I think I was inspired to write this post after a bug flew into my mouth while I was riding my bike to work… nutty and a bit bitter. Thanks for reading! This is absolutely incredible! I greatly admire your work and accomplishment! I am a teacher that is outline of grapes, writing a textbook with Creative Commons licensing for my school district using CK-12 as the betty broder platform. Outline. With all due respect, I would really love to speak with you about urvashi butalia, possibly including some of the outline information on the Kibin site, particularly this post, as a properly attributed contribution to my 6th Grade Reading Language Arts textbook. Are Public Goods. If you would not mind getting in contact with me, my email is outline of grapes, [emailprotected] or simply reply to this comment. @naomi_tepper:disqus. Hi Alisha–Thanks for your kind comment. I’m totally in favor of you using the content from this post in your textbook with attribution.

Best of luck on this very important project, and if you need to betty broder discuss, you can easily reach me at [emailprotected] You’re going to have to take a stance for or against school uniforms and offer credible evidence to outline of grapes support your stance. I’d suggest reading this post on balam how to write a thesis statement : https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ Thank you for writing all these helpful hints! I’m currently writing one for of grapes, college with the topic of legalizing lane splitting for chilam, motorcycles. I just finished writing found your blog which is of grapes, helping me make sure I did everything correctly #128578; thank you!! Fantastic! Happy to help. this is what, amazing and funny as hell. this should help with my exam. tqvm #128578; Thanks so much!

Best of outline of grapes luck with your exam. #128578; it’s very useful. thanks a lot. You’re welcome! Thanks for commenting. I’ll be thankfull to you #128578; You just made my time. You’re welcome!

Thanks for the comment. #128578; Thank you very much for making this easy to understand, this helped me ace my English final exam. You are the best #128578; So happy to hear it! Thanks for the comment. Hi ?. Thanks for this wonderful guidelines. What Goods. Your article really makes my day more easier. Outline. Wish me luck. Inny. Sweet! Good luck on your project!

What a great tips. Thank you #128578; Happy you think so! Thanks for betty broder, the comment. woooow this blog had helped me lotssssssss , thanks for your efforts. Happy to outline of grapes help! Thanks for chilam, the comment. This seems to be very helpful! I have an English final tmrw and I am really scared. Our teacher is outline of grapes, giving us four random articles and we have to create an argumentative essay on a question he provided us.

Do you know what I can do because I’m really bad at writing and reading. Urvashi Butalia. Like what else can I do rather than read this blog? First off, relax, deep breath, no need to be scared! As intimidating as this final seems right now, it will be over soon and you’ll barely remember it happened. #128578; I know you said that you want advice more than just this blog, but it happens that my best advice happens to be on the blog. I have a post that I think will help you make a game plan for tackling an in-class essay. Here it is: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-timed-essay/ wowwwwwwww niiiiiiiiiiice. This really help a lot keeeep uuuuuup the good woooork. Great! Glad you thought it was helpful. #128578; This blog is awesome and so helpful!

Thank you thank you thank you. Thanks for outline of grapes, the sweet comment! Happy to help. #128578; may u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] thank you so muuch #128512; Thanks for reading! Glad we could help. Soo good it helped me a lot! Great! Happy to betty broder help. Of Grapes. #128578; Thanks for the clear outline, was very confused about how to start my paper after reading this made me crystal clear, don’t know how I started and didn’t know I had ended just went off like a flash. How To Apa Reference. very very useful.

I’m so glad you found it useful, Ram. Outline. Thanks for reading! Thank you so much for the outline!! I used it all morning to what help start my essay for outline of grapes, college English over Big Box vs Small Businesses! Fantastic! Happy to are public goods hear it. #128578; i am writing a argumentative essay for “being competent in of grapes, English Language is necessary for urvashi butalia, successful academic achievement” cloud you plx give me a best introduction for outline of grapes, this essay … An interesting fact or statistic that shows the how to correlation between learning English and academic success might be your best choice, if you can find something from a reputable source. Or, if you could start with a story about yourself or someone you know who achieved something great because of knowing how to speak English. Can anyone give me a good hook for same sex marriage . I’m writing an argumentative paper for my adv. comp class. Your hook will depend on the stance you are taking.

For example, if you are arguing in favor of of grapes same sex marriage you could start with an experiment interesting statistic that shines a light on the success of same sex marriages or you could start with a heartwarming story or anecdote about a successful same sex marriage. This was really funny! (and useful) Thanks #128578; Awesome! Glad you liked it. Thanks for the comment. Of Grapes. #128578; Hey!!

This page was rlly helpful but I still need help with making an intro for are public goods, “Why Teenager Should Not Have TVs In Their Bedrooms” I would really appreciate it if u could help ASAP plz!!O That will help you write a strong intro — including a strong thesis #128578; Ths for this it helped a lot. Awesome! Thanks for the comment. #128578; I really appreciate your help.

didnt help at outline of grapes, all sorry. Sorry that it wasn’t more helpful, Trent. Let us know if you have any questions that are still unanswered! I’m going to write about experiment, how humanity should strive for immortality. Do you think the topic is outline, too hard and broad for a 10th grader like me? May I know your thoughts and suggestions, please? Thanks! Nah, you can totally handle that topic! I don’t think it’s too broad, either, and I really like that it take a strong stance. Urvashi Butalia. Just make sure that you have 2-3 solid and of grapes specific reasons to back up your claim that we should strive for immortality, as you’ll want to include those reasons in your thesis and defend them throughout your paper.

So the first question to answer as you write your thesis is “Why do I believe this?” Hi, there. I saw your question asking for advice on the difficulty of writing a paper on urvashi butalia immortality. I have a few views on that myself but of of grapes the opposite point. I would be very interested in reading your thoughts on betty broder the matter. So perhaps you would be inclined to outline of grapes email me your assignment once it’s finished. thanks this blog was very helpful.

Awesome! We’re happy you think so and thanks for the conclusion, the comment. #128578; Super helpful! About to of grapes write a 6-7 page paper for my college professor and I needed advice on an effective argumentative structure outline. This is exactly what I needed to betty broder look at. Of Grapes. Well designed. Sweet! Love to hear that it helped. Thanks for the kind comment. #128578; Is Misdiagnoses of Mental Disorders a good topic to write about?

And is it too broad? I want to include toxic thinking as a huge contribution and stroop experiment impact to mental illness. I need direction– Please help!! It is outline, a bit broad, yes. The Conclusion. I would suggest narrowing it down to just one mental disorder. Maybe depression or ADD. You could narrow it down even further to talk about these diagnoses in young adults or children rather than everyone. Finally, make sure you have some evidence to outline of grapes support your argument that toxic thinking is the contributing factor here! That’s a pretty big statement and apa reference you’ll definitely need to back it up.

I COULD KISS YOU RIGHT NOW YOU SAVED MY LIFE. 3. can u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] nice .. great work you have done.. thanks for help Naomi… Thanks for of grapes, reading and for your kind comment! Thanks for your comment! Argumentative essay known as a task challenging somehow but the thing you break it up, that was a sick info. Thanks so so much.

P.S. loved your sense of humour. Aww, shucks. Thanks for your sweet comment! #128578; bless you!! i have a paper due and this helps so much ^^ Woot! So glad to hear it. Thanks for reading! Thank you so much for apa reference, the helpful outline. This is by far one of the most detailed and useful outline I have used. Keep up the good work. Thanks for your kind comment! Happy the outline helped you.

Hehe love this comment. Thanks for outline of grapes, your kind words and happy to help. #128578; You’re super welcome! Thanks for the kind comment! A history paper isn’t necessarily the same as an argumentative essay, though it *can* be. Chilam Patos. It really depends on how you approach your topic. Read that suggested post though, it should help you get started! man, i think you dont no what you did to me. thank U a lot. Hehe hopefully it was a good thing. Outline. Thanks for the thank you. #128578; this helped me so much.

Thank you . Sweet! Happy to hear it. Thanks, very helpful. Yay! Happy you think so. The Conclusion. #128578; i love this blog … you are an of grapes awesome teacher … Aww, shucks. Thanks so much for reading. #128578; Hehe I’m 100% positive you could be as smart as me. Happy this helped and thanks for the kind comment! #128578; I’m not the best at writing essays, especially argumentative ones… This is urvashi butalia, a huge help!

Thank you so very much!! #128578; Sweet! Happy to help out. #128578; Thank you so so so so so so so so much Naomi!! I was having trouble writing an argumentative essay from avid elective class you are greatly appreciated! *bows down to of grapes you* You will be a great writer I promise #128578; P.S. have you made any more of these? Haha, thanks for the super kind comment.

I really appreciate it! Yes, I’ve written quite a few other posts for this blog (though not so much any more since I manage it now). Here are a few that you might like: Yay! Final complete! Congrats and happy this helped. Thanks for the kind comment. #128578; I was stumped in class by the prompt for betty broder, a six paragraph essay. This article is great. THANK YOU! Noiiice!

Happy this helped you. Outline Of Grapes. Thanks for the comment. Congratulations on how to apa reference your upcoming graduation! So happy that this post helped you get to the finish line. Thanks for of grapes, the kind comment #128578; Naomi. omg you just saved my life i could kiss you 3. What if you are writing at school and they don’t allow you to use your computer to look up information for the text. In that case you’ll want to prepare in advance as best you can by becoming as familiar as possible with the what are public goods type of essay you’ll be writing and the type of material you need to know for outline of grapes, the essay. You might check out this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-timed-essay/ if you reply to me ill be so happy. You’re awesome! Thanks a lot for this excellent blog post Naomi.

Thanks so much for the comment! #128578; Wow i love this. Thanks Naomi for the educative piece. That’s great! Thanks for the kind comment. I’m in what goods, love with this phenomenal blogger.*SIGHS* Aww! Your comment totally made my day. xoxo! Muah! #128578; Happy to help. Hi Naomi, this is an amazing article, yet I have some questions I hope you can answer.

I’m about to sit for the FCE in two days, and it’s mandatory that I write an essay. Of Grapes. I don’t know the type of essay nor the topic of urvashi butalia it. How would you recommend me to study for of grapes, it? Thanks in advance #128578; Ooh! You must be feeling the pressure. Betty Broder. I’m sure you’ll do great, especially since you are reaching out for advice. It’s about outline, writing a timed (in-class) essay, and a lot of the advice can apply to other types of timed essay tests too.

Point #5 is especially important: “If you’re really nervous, practice writing under pressure before your test. Set a timer for the same amount of time you’ll have during the the conclusion actual test, and work on outline of grapes writing a coherent essay about chilam, a sample prompt or an important topic.” I’d also research the different types of outline essay prompts that they’ve given in the past to patos use for your practice writing session. Outline Of Grapes. Maybe this resource will help? http://www.firstcertificatewriting.co.uk/live/paper-2-writing-part-1-essays/ I wish you the stroop best on your FCE!

Thanks for outline of grapes, the comment. #128578; So glad you think it’s helpful! Thanks for reading! xoxo. i really like the explanation bcoz it’s clear and it’s not explained in stroop effect experiment, a boring way like how most people did. Outline Of Grapes. thanks a lot! this really helped my homework :)) Great! That’s exactly what I was going for. The Conclusion. So happy it helped you. Thanks for the comment! #128578; You’re awesome! Thanks for reading. Very helpful article!

Thank you so much! Great! Happy to help. Hi, it is really a clear and outline detailed graph. Could I cite it in my assignment? Sure, you’re welcome to cite it #128578; Thanks for reading. OK I need help I have two argumentative essays due Wednesday and chilam I looked at of grapes, your website and it helped me a ton i never could have done it without you. thx so much. now i just need to effect experiment make one… You’ve totally got this!! THANK YOU SO MUCH. I am already almost done and it is mostly because of of grapes this page!

Thanks for the words of encouragement! U guys are the best. So glad it was helpful! Thanks for reading #128578; Ma’am you are such a saviour. #128536;#128536;#128536; Thank you for chilam balam patos, reading! Loved the explanation! Thanks a lot for outline of grapes, being that graphic.

So glad you liked it! Thanks for the comment #128578; Hey there, Michael #128578; Thanks for stopping by! thanks for saving my life :-):-) Woot! Glad we could help. saving time and getting ultra information… We’re all about saving you time! #128578; Thanks for betty broder, reading. I have Exams tomorrow and this really helped me alot…Thanks Naomi #128578;

Glad you found it useful #128578; Thank you for of grapes, reading! Oh thank goodness! I always have trouble on how to apa reference the thesis and hook, thank you so much, you saved meee! Awesome! So glad we could help #128578; Amazing. Helped me like hell.

So glad you found it useful, Dana! Thanks for reading. Thank you this saved my butt. Sweet! So glad we could help #128578; Is this good for of grapes, an argumentative essay titled ( Animals in Captivity )?? Have you thought why animals roar,cry, weak, looking upset? And why caged birds sing? In 2014 a research from Harvard University showed that 10,000 animals from different species around the world.

die every year out of loneliness, violence, shortage of food and air and lack of freedom. Animals are living organisms as humans and plants and need a lot of rights that we should put them in consideration.

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The Limits of Modernity in outline, Shakespeare#039;s King John - Essay. Steve Longstaffe, S. Martin's College Lancaster. Deborah Curren-Aquino, summing up fifty years of critical engagement with Shakespeare's King John, identifies a radical break with earlier views of the play in the tendency in post 1940 scholarship to balam describe John as ambivalent, ambiguous, suspicious, sceptical, questioning and ideologically subversive. 1 The form and tone of John, in other words, are recognisably modern. Few critics have gone as far as Sigurd Burckhardt, who in the 1960s asserted that the play documented Shakespeare's own modernity, defined as the recognition that order, or justice and truth at outline the heart of things, was of human, rather than divine, origin. Experiment. 2 Burckhardt's position, though not his confidence that he could show that when he wrote King John, or quite possibly in writing it, Shakespeare became a 'modern', is echoed in Virginia Vaughan's claim of outline, 1989 that the betty broder, play like Shakespeare's other history plays depicts a crucial point in the inauguration of the relativism of the modern age. 3 But for the most part, writers on John have avoided such grand narratives of outline, epistemological shifts, and found the play's modernity to be historically produced in a much more local way: as part of a Shakespearian negotiation with chronicle, source play, or the history play genre. What John is sceptical about, in other words, is other historical accounts of John's reign, especially regarding their relationship to what might still be termed Tudor ideology.

For many critics, Shakespeare's John is in antagonistic relation to such sources as the anonymous Queen's Men's play The Troublesome Reign of King John and the 1587 Holinshed, interrogating the writing of history of which these two texts, and betty broder the history play as a genre, were part. Such a John appears our contemporary, teasing out aporias and contradictions in Renaissance writings of outline of grapes, legitimacy, faith, or patriotism. Betty Broder. For Phyllis Rackin, it is a 'problem history' where the audience has no sure guide through the ideological ambiguities. 4 Larry Champion identifies it as an open-ended chronicle play with historical process transformed into human process, stripped bare of Tudor providentialism and reduced to an individual self-interest that only in its best moments might be communally enlightened. 5 Guy Hamel argues that Shakespeare's assault on formulas [ . . Of Grapes. . Patos. ] reveals itself in almost every departure from The Troublesome Reign. 6 To situate Shakespeare's play in of grapes, a sceptical relation to ideology or generic formulas is, of course, profoundly unsubversive of the continuing critical imperative to speak with the Bard. The modern Shakespeare, as Stephen Greenblatt has pointed out, must subvert only effect experiment that which is outline of grapes no longer subversive. The John worthy of modern critics' engagement is produced by a common critical strategy, which is most clearly visible in the conclusion of one of the play's editors that it would be a crippling limitation of the power of King John to chilam balam patos tie it too closely to the situation of the 1590s. 7 It is in outline of grapes, its implication in the religious politics of the period of the Spanish war that John is most clearly un-modern; it is the conclusion part of the wartime anti-Catholic polemic, something which has been played down in order to produce a modernity which legitimates a continual critical return to the play, and to a lesser extent, to Shakespeare. It is not surprising that there has been relatively little interest in outline, John's brand of Protestant nationalism of late, for, as David Aers has pointed out, many influential contemporary critics of how to, early modern writing display a marked lack of interest in Christian traditions, Christian practices and Christian institutions. 8 Mid-century critics, following E. M. W. Tillyard's characterisation of the outline, play as but Mildly Protestant in tone, stressed the stroop effect, moderation of the play's anti-Catholic sentiments, whilst identifying an assertion of Protestant nationalism.

9 Recent critics have gone further, identifying a play-world where all religious utterances are just further examples of debased political rhetoric in a world with no consistent values, not even Protestant nationalism. 10. But how debased is this rhetoric? Specifically, did the kind of language with which John defies the Papal legate Pandulph on his first encounter with him circulate in post-Armada London as a somehow debased version of of grapes, earlier, more sincere, Tudor coinages? To stretch the 1980s monetary rhetoric further, I suggest that, on the contrary, play rhetoric directed against foreign Catholics wishing to overthrow an English monarch was on urvashi butalia the gold standard during this period of of grapes, war with Spain. John's words themselves are direct as he responds to Pandulph's demands in apa reference, the name of the Pope:

Thou canst not, cardinal, devise a name. So slight, unworthy and ridiculous, To charge me to an answer, as the pope. Tell him this tale; and from the mouth of England. Add thus more, that no Italian priest. Shall tithe or toll in our dominions; But as we, under God, are supreme head, So under Him that great supremacy, Where we do reign, we will alone uphold.

Without th' assistance of a mortal hand: So tell the pope, all reverence set apart. To him and his usurp'd authority. 11. And on being accused of blasphemy by the French king, John amplifies his declaration with a piece of Foxean anti-Catholicism:

Though you and outline of grapes all the kings of Christendom. Are led so grossly by this meddling priest, Dreading the curse that money may buy out; And by the merit of vild gold, dross, dust, Purchase corrupted pardon of a man, Who in that sale sells pardon from himself, Though you and urvashi butalia all the rest so grossly led. This juggling witchcraft with revenue cherish, Yet I alone, alone do me oppose. Against the of grapes, pope, and count his friends my foes. This speech is immediately followed by John's excommunication, and by Pandulph encouraging both rebellion and assassination.

As Lily Campbell has pointed out, John is presented here as standing in the same relationship to the Catholic church as Elizabeth, even appropriating her own title of supreme governor in his use of Henry VIII's formulation supreme head. The clarity of John's position here is momentary, however; he does not reach these vituperative heights again. Indeed, he resigns his crown to betty broder Pandulph later on. But it is important not to underrate the legitimating power of John's rhetoric. Such defiance, in of grapes, the post-Armada period, places John firmly as a properly patriotic Englishman engaged in the same struggle as Elizabeth. The Protestant nationalism that supported Elizabeth's land and sea campaigns against betty broder the Spanish would thus have been engaged in John's case. Furthermore, it could have been so powerfully engaged as decisively to affect interpretation of the play. Outline Of Grapes. In the stroop, post-Armada context, John is a true English king primarily because of the 'true' rhetoric he employs; his anti-Catholicism is of grapes central to the play's politics. King John is consensually dated to the period between 1587, when the second edition of Holinshed appeared, and 1598, when Francis Meres mentioned in print a Shakespearian King John, though it is impossible to know whether that play was the one first printed in 1623.

13 It thus belongs within the core years of the Spanish war, and probably to the post-Armada period. After 1588, however, the national mood was certainly not conducive to a relaxed and sceptical investigation of the possible hypocrisy of religious nationalism. The defeat of the Armada, far from concealed, engendering a lasting sense of invulnerability to foreign Catholic invasion, fed a sometimes apocalyptic wartime paranoia. Outline Of Grapes. 14 Even in 1588, the official London festivities to celebrate the victory were subsumed into the queen's thirtieth anniversary shows. Elsewhere in the country, David Cressy informs us, the Armada celebrations in 1588 were more solemn than jubilant [ . . . How To Apa Reference. ] the festivities were conducted in a minor key. 15 London, though its strategic importance meant that it was carefully governed, had its share of hardship, and outline of grapes had to cope with returning soldiers threatening to loot Bartholomew Fair in urvashi butalia, 1589, and with royal demands for men, ships, and money at outline of grapes a time when the capital was also struggling with plague and dearth. 16 Thousands were conscripted in concealed the conclusion, the early 1590s, and City trained bands were often mustered. 17 In southern England there were general anti-invasion musters in 1590 and 1596. In the latter year, the Spanish cannon besieging Calais could be heard in outline, Greenwich, the capture of which prompted Sir Henry Knyvett to write his civil defence tract The Defence of the Realm. The Spanish raided Cornwall in 1595, and sent another Armada in 1597. 18.

Although English Catholics protested their loyalty, and towards the end of Elizabeth's reign did so vociferously, Cardinal Allen's assurance to Philip II that they would rise to urvashi butalia support an invasion was impossible for the authorities to ignore. Outline Of Grapes. 19 The early 1590s saw the final addition to Elizabeth's anti-Catholic laws. After the legislation of 1593 obstinate recusants were not permitted to travel more than five miles from their homes without severe penalties. Stroop. New anti-Jesuit provisions were also added to the 1581 Act to retain the Queen's Majesty's subjects in their true obedience. 20 Though these measures were moderated in committee, and were not applied completely rigorously, they do indicate that the government were worried about Catholic invasion preparations. The church, naturally, was hardly irenic at this time.

Even before the war, anti-Catholic rhetoric proliferated as a discourse which structured, by way of reappropriations, most of the controversies that developed [ . . . ] between contending positions in the English church itself, especially those between Puritan radicals and the church establishment. 21 For the Protestant divine, anti-Roman polemic was at once an expression of Protestant zeal and an implicit gesture of loyalty to a national church, the Protestantism of whose doctrine was generally acknowledged. 22 Anti-Catholicism seems to of grapes have been one of the media through which the urvashi butalia, English church talked to itself; it functioned at least partly to of grapes legitimate what was being said. War against a Catholic enemy, and apa reference the anti-Catholicism of the English church, both would have both provided a context for interpreting John's defiance of Pandulph. In addition, anyone familiar with recent historical accounts of John's reign would have expected to see him presented as a legitimate king undermined by circumstances and Catholic conspiracy. John's use in outline of grapes, this context by anti-Catholic polemicists has been well documented. 23 Foxe's account in the Acts and Monuments limits itself to religious matters, and places John within the perspective of the struggle between the goods, true church and antichrist. Holinshed's account emphasises that the contemporary sources are Catholic and outline therefore biased, scarselle can they afoord him a good word [ . . . ] the occasion whereof [ . . . ] was, that he was no great freend to the clergie, before criticising John for his great crueltie, and unreasonable avarice. 24 But Holinshed's John, like Foxe's, is a worthy pre-Protestant religious patriot.

Even those not well versed in the chronicles would have heard of John, and how after his submission to Pandulph most miserable tyrannie, raveny and spoyle of the most greedie Romish wolves ensued, through the deployment of this reign in the 1571 Homily against Disobedience. 25 Anyone aware of these versions of the historical John would have come to the play expecting to see a proleptically Protestant king subverted by the Roman church. Though Polydore Vergil and betty broder John Stow did not write within this representative tradition, their impact on public opinion was likely during the immediate post-Armada period to have been negligible. John does appear in the Huntington plays of the later 1590s as a wicked tyrant, but in of grapes, these plays there is no attempt to address the political agenda of apa reference, King John. There is no indication that a Protestant nationalist audience would have taken such plays seriously as historical accounts directly addressing the political concerns of the early-to-mid 1590s. Significantly, the Huntington plays were first performed in 1598, and thus may well have post-dated a realisation that the crucial phase of the struggle for western Europe was to all intents and purposes over. 26. The repertory in the post-Armada years was dominated by of grapes, serious matters with an urvashi butalia immediate gut appeal to [. Outline. . . The Conclusion. ] militarism, in the words of Andrew Gurr. 27 The growth of the English history play was due, according to David Bevington, to a need for relevant, but indirect, appeals to outline war fever. 28 Anti-Spanish and anti-Catholic sentiments were common across a range of plays.

John's resistance to Pandulph in Shakespeare's drama would have functioned metonymically to link him to contemporary anti-Spanish and anti-Catholic sentiment, and to the Protestant histories and other polemical deployments of the historical John's reign. The ubiquity and strength of anti-Spanish and urvashi butalia anti-Catholic sentiment, furthermore, could well have operated so as to produce a strong cathexis for these sentiments and their utterer in outline, the play, conditioning responses to, and interpretations of, it. In other words, the intellectual or emotional reactions to John's religious nationalism would not be qualified by elements elsewhere in stroop effect, the play; John's words in 3.1 would themselves qualify the responses to the rest of the play, including some of its ambiguities, suspicions, scepticisms and outline questions. Recent critics read John's rhetoric very differently. For many, the urvashi butalia, religious nationalism of his speeches function not to mobilise anti-Catholic and anti-Spanish sentiment, but to indicate that such a rhetoric, and such a mobilisation, is more fully present elsewhere, in the The Troublesome Reign. The fact that this play has more anti-Catholic material than King John has often been taken to mean that the latter play fails to cross some (qualitative? quantitative?) threshold whereby it might be deemed to outline mobilise popular religious xenophobia. Thus, Phyllis Rackin sees the effect, play compressing and marginalizing John's dispute with Rome.

29 For M. M. Reese, Shakespeare's play eliminates the crude anti-Catholic bias of the anonymous play. 30 Robert Ornstein explains that Shakespeare lacked the outline of grapes, temperament to betty broder exploit religious prejudices and hysterias [ . . . ] the religious issue very nearly disappears in King John, and John completely loses his stature as a 'reformation' hero. Outline. 31 John Blanpied agrees that Shakespeare neutralises the anti-Papal material, leaving John without a polemical base from which to borrow his authority. 32. For many, the result of stroop, this compression, and consequent neutralisation and marginalization, is a play which, in the words of Virginia Vaughan, presents politics, not polemics. 33 As long ago as 1962 Geoffrey Bullough drew this distinction, stating that Shakespeare turned away from [ . . . Of Grapes. ] sectarian propaganda to concealed emphasise more purely political motives. 34 Such a construction of Shakespeare's John (and, of course, John's Shakespeare) as drawing a distinction between real politics and un-sophisticated (and explicitly anti-Catholic) rabble-rousing has received much critical support, though earlier writers attribute it to a Shakespearian distaste for bias or rant, or a preference for complexity over simplicity, and later ones more to a textual refusal of the easy closure which a more foregrounded religious element would have allowed or perhaps necessitated. 35 The dominance of Christianity in Renaissance England is perhaps the most effective reminder of Renaissance difference; conveniently, Shakespeare manages to play down that difference and provide a transcendent scepticism for outline our age of suspicious reading. As can be seen from Blanpied and Ornstein, the betty broder, playing down of the religious element also means a John robbed of the legitimating power of religious nationalism.

John's words to Pandulph are read as attenuated by John's compromised moral or legal status. Deborah Kehler states that in the light of his false claim, John's use of divinity to serve his own ends is transparent, while for Philip Edwards what seems an admirable quality of outline, sturdy national courage is questioned by the moral quality of the chilam, speaker, and by his eventual fate in outline, the play. 36 Responses to chilam patos John's words are conditioned not by their deployment of of grapes, a powerfully cathected sentiment, but by stroop, character. Even those critics recognising the outline of grapes, power of John's words conclude that they are an isolated and anomalous moment, occasional choric greatness, or an affect of efficiency, not magnanimity. 37 At best, for Larry Champion, the anti-Catholic John is just one of the equally persuasive views of the usurper, the wouldbe murderer, the terror-stricken capitulator, the sufferer, the patriot, and the kingly defender of his nation.

38 Without a rousing crudely religious centre, the play's politics are nicely modern: for character within the how to, play, there is no clear royal authority. For the audience watching it, there is outline no unblemished cause and no unquestioned authority to claim their allegiance, in Phyllis Rackin's formulation. David Womersley, though he sees the play as clearly conservative in its conclusions, agrees that it confronts the question of how one lives in a world without value. 39 Without wishing to play down the play's contradictions, I think that there is at least one value discernible. The play is concealed the conclusion clearly dialectical, with many causes and claims directly challenged. 40 Falconbridge has long been read as a sceptical outsider, who has a complex relationship to of grapes the politics of what goods, commodity he describes, and perhaps practises. Outline. 41 More recently, readings of the play as oppositional and are public enquiring have been strengthened by feminist revaluations of Eleanor and Constance as subversive voices. 42 Equally clearly, John's involvement in Arthur's death may be perceived as moral weakness, just as Hubert's refusal to do the deed shows moral strength.

43 None of this, however, directly undermines John's unblemished cause of resisting Pandulph. Of Grapes. Although he is criticised for much else within the play, the only voices raised against John's defiance are Pandulph's and those foreign kings' loyal to him, which is only to be expected, as they are the targets of John's ire. The main reasons for the widespread critical perception of the play as modern in concealed, its politics are mentioned by Kehler and Edwards above: that John is of grapes illegitimate, that he is lacking in moral quality, and that he later gives his crown, effectively, to the Pope. Balam. Of these, the moral argument is least persuasive. Machiavellianism does not preclude sincerity, especially with such an outline of grapes affective topic. Renaissance history plays often portray monarchs as complex, and attempt to goods manipulate audience responses via this complexity. Holinshed recognises John's faults, but does not allow them to reflect on of grapes his status as proto-Protestant martyr.

William Camden, writing in 1605 of the Tudor bugbear Richard III, recognised that albeit hee lived wickedly, yet made good laws. Concealed. 44 The other two points require more detailed engagement. John's submission to the Papacy at of grapes the end of the play could well have cancelled his earlier robust anti-Papalism. Through an analysis of the representative strategies used for John's cession I will argue that it may not have done so. If he is not a legitimate king, then he is employing anti-Catholic rhetoric to bolster his position. He need not be shown to believe his own words. If this were so, John's use of religious rhetoric is on a par as a cynical manipulation of language with Richard Ill's political use of witchcraft accusations in Shakespeare's play and effect the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III. John is not illegitimate just because his opponents say he is.

The challenges of Constance or the Dauphin have no particular power on their own. Yet for many critics, whether or not they engage with John's modernity, it is axiomatic that John is an illegitimate king, that he is a usurper in possession of the crown when the right lies with Arthur (and, some have added, the true kingliness with Falconbridge). Outline Of Grapes. 45 There are two cruces commonly adduced to support John's illegitimacy. Both can be read differently. The first is a critical exchange in the play's first scene, where John and Eleanor discuss the implications of the French challenge just made on Arthur's behalf. Eleanor reproaches John for not dealing with the chilam balam, question sooner, as This might have been prevented and made whole/With very easy arguments of love,/Which now the manage of two kingdoms must/With fearful-bloody issue arbitrate (1.1.35-8). John replies Our strong possession and our right for us, to which Eleanor retorts, Your strong possession much more than your right,/Or else it must go wrong with you and me./So much my conscience whispers in your ear/Which none but heaven, and you and I, shall hear (1.1.39-43). Most critics follow Reese's conclusion that this shows that John is king de facto and possession is his only 'right' , though Edna Zwick Boris points out that Eleanor is not denying John's right but emphasising the practical aspect of his advantage over Arthur. 46 Nothing in Eleanor's speech indicates that John has no right, or that he is a usurper.

Eleanor's qualification of John's assertion merely draws attention to the relative usefulness of possession, and the military strength it brings, in the fighting to come. Given he is up against French and other armies, it is obvious that his right alone is insufficient. The use of conscience similarly does not have to imply a guilty recognition of the facts. Even within Shakespearian usage, the word at of grapes this time could simply mean inner knowledge. 47 Eleanor does not wish others to hear because a public acknowledgement of the relative uselessness of John's right is inappropriate to the dignity of his court, especially just after he has been challenged by Chatillon. Her subsequent words and actions are consistent with her holding the opinion that John's legitimate rule must be buttressed with her diplomatic sense. The Conclusion. She refers to the will of Richard I, which in of grapes, Holinshed plainly entitles John to the throne, in stroop, her confrontation with Arthur's mother: I can produce/A will that bars the title of thy son (2.1.470-1). Just as the fact that The Troublesome Reign is more anti-Catholic than John seems to license the outline, claim that John is not anti-Catholic, so Eleanor's words that John's possession is more important than his right have led to the claim that he therefore has no right. The other key moment for John's illegitimacy, and for the play's exploration of the consequent instability of political legitimacy, is stroop experiment Falconbridge's reaction to Arthur's corpse at the end of the outline of grapes, fourth act. Modern editors have been so sure that he accepts Arthur's claim that they have punctuated a potentially ambiguous speech so that only one interpretation is possible. In order to suggest an alternative reading which supports John's legitimacy, I will quote from the First Folio:

Bast. Go, beare him in thine armes: I am amaz'd me thinkes, and loose my way. Among the thornes, and dangers of this world. How easie dost thou take all England vp, From forth this morcell of dead Royaltie? The life, the right, and truth of all this Realme. Is fled to betty broder heauen: and England now is outline left. To tug and scamble, and to part by th teeth. The vn-owed interest of proud swelling State: Now for the bare-pickt bone of Maiesty.

Doth dogged warre bristle his angry crest, And snarleth in effect experiment, the gentle eyes of peace: Now Powers from outline of grapes, home, and discontents at effect experiment home. Meet in one line: and vast confusion waites. As doth a Rauen on a sicke-falne beast, The iminent decay of wrested pompe. Now happy he, whose cloake and outline center can. Hold out this tempest. Beare away that childe, And follow me with speed: Ile to the King: A thousand businesses are briefe in hand,

And heaven it selfe doth frowne vpon the Land. The Conclusion. 48. Editors of the recent Penguin, Oxford and of grapes Cambridge editions concur in seeing the fourth line as addressed to Hubert, who has now picked up Arthur as Falconbridge commanded, and in punctuating the concealed the conclusion, passage so that From forth . . . begins a new sentence. 49 The clear interpretation is outline that, ironically, Hubert can lift all England as he lifts Arthur's corpse. Arthur is referred to as England at urvashi butalia 2.1.91 and of grapes 202 by Philip of France. Betty Broder. All the life, truth and of grapes right of are public goods, England, which resided in Arthur, has fled (like Astraea) to heaven, and all that remains for the country left behind is a dogfight over outline of grapes the remaining in bones of power. Arthur is both England, and dead royalty, and urvashi butalia with his death dies political legitimacy.

No one speaks of Arthur's right more eloquently than the Bastard son of Coeur de Lion, according to Marie Axton. 50 For others, John's illegitimacy authorises views of the play's modernity, and Falconbridge's speech marks the point where he chooses to support a king whom he has just recognised as a usurper, making his own political meaning in a world where there is no guarantor of outline of grapes, legitimate rule. His decision to follow John must be an existential one, choosing a way despite his own awareness that whatever 'rightness' he invests it with is not inherent in it. 51. It is are public goods possible, however, to read the speech differently. If the thou of the outline, fourth line is not Hubert, but the heaven to experiment which Arthur's soul has presumably fled, Arthur need not be acknowledged as rightful monarch at outline of grapes all.

Arthur's soul is imagined both as actively fleeing and passively being taken up. Arthur's body, in how to, a familiar metaphor, is a realme from which the ruler (England, as Arthur is English) has gone. Outline Of Grapes. Alternatively, the England that has left the body just suggests life, in conjunction with Englishness. Either way, Arthur's right is to the realm of his own body. Falconbridge then shifts to how to apa reference the larger realm, also lacking a ruler, but for of grapes the different reason that powers from home, and discontents at home are in conflict. Betty Broder. The crucial point is whether this realm refers both to Arthur's body and to England. A simple gesture could make clear that the reference is to Arthur's body alone. Falconbridge is critical of outline, John, but this need not impugn his legitimacy, as the terms he uses recall those used by the nobles disapproving of balam, John's recrowning in 4.2. Each reference to John can be read as critical of the sumptuousness of the of grapes, ceremony, and of the new clothing associated with it, much remarked on effect experiment by the nobles at the time.

His first reference ironically situates John's majesty as bare-pickt rather than clothed with flesh. Proud swelling state refers back critically to the wasteful excess of the recrowning, as does wrested pomp (that is, pomp employed in the improper context of outline, John's ceremony, rather than wrested from what, Arthur). The final reference ironically characterises John's clothing as simple (cloak and center) and unlikely to last the tempest of disorder in outline, the realm. Thus, although the whole speech is clearly critical of John, and betty broder registers Arthur's loss, Falconbridge is not necessarily affirming Arthur's right to the crown. Falconbridge's words are difficult to understand, but an outline audience accepting John's legitimacy need not have understood him to challenge this right, and it is possible to imagine a performance which makes clear that John is legitimate King. His legitimacy is further buttressed by the qualifications of Arthur's right implicit in the words and actions of those supporting it. A claim supported by a man who carries on his back the spoils of a dead Richard I is not likely to have impressed an Elizabethan audience, even if they responded positively to the bemused and passive boy who at one point states I would that I were laid low in my grave./I am not worth this coil that's made for me (2.1.164-5).

John's legitimacy, however, raises the question of his cession of the crown to Pandulph, which happens just after the chilam, Falconbridge speech quoted above. If John is not legitimate king, then his act is robbed of political or constitutional authority, and is unlikely to bind his successors. In the outline of grapes, 1960s John Sibly pointed out that papal claims for supremacy in England utilised historical as well as spiritual arguments, and apa reference suggests that John's illegitimacy was introduced precisely to counter these arguments. He begins from the premise that technically, John was not a usurper until Arthur's death, as he could still have resigned the of grapes, crown when Arthur reached his majority, and sees Falconbridge's words before the recrowning as recognising that John is now a usurper: it is immediately after the 'flight to heaven' of any 'right' John may have had in the realm, that he 'surrenders' his crown. To an Elizabethan audience, this must very forcibly have demonstrated that John had just given up what he no right to give at all; and Pandulph had 'restored' what he had no right to receive in the first place. Betty Broder. 52. The cession of the outline, crown is merely an concealed index of the current balance of power, and for a Protestant audience devalues a morally bankrupt and/or illegitimate John still further. 53 If a legitimate John is posited, the status of this humiliating submission, to the very man John had so strongly defied earlier, needs to be addressed. The mere representation of outline, John's submission need not have functioned simply to condemn him, despite the commonsense appeal of this position.

The Homily Against Rebellion draws different conclusions. Balam Patos. Here John's submission to Pandulph is the clearest example, in its awfulness, of the chaos into which rebellion throws the country. The details of outline of grapes, John's contract with the Papacy are spelt out to indicate the urvashi butalia, extremity of the situation when Englishmen [ . . Outline. . ] brought their soveraigne lorde and naturall countrey into this thraldome and urvashi butalia subjection to a false forraigne usurper. 54 John's legitimacy emphasises the indignity of his submission. Holinshed reproduces John's charter of submission and his words of outline of grapes, fealtie, but does not criticise him, as he does on other matters. Foxe is slightly more difficult to interpret. A paragraph of the 1563 edition, omitted from the 1583 second edition, explains John's reasons for submitting as fear of the French king, and urvashi butalia the perception that nothing else could be found to outline of grapes avoid the present destruction both of his person and the realm also. Are Public Goods. As a sorry subject of the sinful seat of Rome he was sure, not without shame, that being under his protection, no foreign potentate throughout the whole empire was able to subdue him. 55 The negativity of shame here may be Foxe's judgement on John, or John's own opinion of himself. But the 1583 edition reproduces John's Letter Obligatory to the Pope, and is unequivocal in its identification of John as a hapless victim of that execrable monster and antichrist of Rome. Outline. Thus, though an audience may well have simply cathected John's earlier anti-Papalism, the reverse is not necessarily true when considering responses to his submission.

The signification of John's cession of the crown depended on its context, so that within a Foxean narrative it might simply indicate the effectiveness of the Papacy in persecuting and humbling its opponents. It is also important to apa reference recognise that John's cession of the crown in Shakespeare's play employs different dramatic strategies to his earlier confrontation, and that these strategies may well have directed an audience towards a response the final result of outline of grapes, which would be to confirm John as legitimate. The representation of English kings losing crowns on the London stage of the how to apa reference, 1590s shows signs of having been subject to careful and subtle theatrical negotiations. Though recent critics have retreated from the once-commonplace conclusion that because the 1608 quarto of Shakespeare's Richard II was the outline of grapes, first to feature his deposition it must have been censored, there is still the possibility that the first quarto of 1597, or the play as performed, was cut, or that Richard's abdication/deposition was somehow 'unwritable' at betty broder this period. 56 This 'unrepresented' 1590s deposition can be compared to outline of grapes those represented in Shakespeare's Richard III and 3 Henry VI. The 1595 quarto of the latter presents Henry's resignation of stroop effect experiment, his throne to of grapes the joint protectors Warwick and Clarence in a scene half the length of its 1623 First Folio equivalent, in which Henry accepts the arrangement so that the urvashi butalia, people of of grapes, this blessed land/May not be punished with my thwarting stars (4.6.21-2). Betty Broder. The 1590s quarto underrepresents, rather than omits, Henry's deposition In Richard III deposition is directly represented only in a stage direction in which Richard fights Richmond and is slain.

Although the visitations Richard receives in his sleep before the outline, battle can be argued to be a displaced representation of what are public, a deposing tribunal, to whose conclusions Richard involuntarily assents, the outline, death of the urvashi butalia, king in this instance is underrepresented in that it is a fait accompli. 'Underrepresentation' was not the only strategy used in the history plays of the 1590s. The 1591 quarto of The Troublesome Reign of King John, which covers much of the outline, same ground as Shakespeare's play, follows Foxe and the Homily in betty broder, representing John's recrowning at outline Pandulph's hands. As with the two earlier texts, its principal strategy is to attempt to limit interpretation by presenting the deposition/abdication as primarily signifying John's helplessness in the face of Popish prelates' persecutions, the final wrong turning in stroop effect, a Troublesome Reign. The preface identifies John as a kind of English Tamburlaine, a warlike Christian and outline of grapes your Countreyman; For Christs true faith indur'd he many a storme,/And set himselfe against the Man of Rome. 57 This John, as in apa reference, Shakespeare's play, defies Pandulph on of grapes their first meeting, and orders Falconbridge to ransack the abbeys, though The Troublesome Reign shows the action where Shakespeare only alludes to it.

John recrowns himself in front of his nobles, explaining that he does this not because he has been deposed, but because he is checking the assured witnes of betty broder, your loves in of grapes, a ceremony to bind the nobles to concealed him, (Troublesome Reign, 1555). The play deals with such potentially difficult moments by providing a clear cause for events, and this applies also to John's recrowning by Pandulph. He prepares to meet the of grapes, legate by assessing his situation under the how to, Papal interdict, recognising that his sins are too great for him successfully to banish Popery (though he looks forward to it happening), and resolving to outline of grapes finely dissemble with the Pope (2 Troublesome Reign, 275) as the realm's chaos is caused by Papal interference. He ends by resolving equivocation: Dissemble thou, and whatsoere thou saist,/Yet with thy heart wish their confusion (283-4). On meeting Pandulph, John offers submission, penance, and crusade, and is rejected. His first impulse is to kill Pandulph, but he again submits, to be informed that surrendering his crown is the only acceptable course. John resolves to fight rather than do so. At that moment a messenger enters, telling that a large French fleet has put the country into mutiny. On hearing this, John's resistance collapses. He later receives his crown back as tenaunt to the Pope (637), berates himself (Shame be my share for yeelding to the Priest), and in his last speech traces this act as increasing his troubles: Since John did yeeld unto the what, Priest of outline, Rome/Nor he nor his have prospred on the earth (707, 1075-6).

The dramatic strategy of The Troublesome Reign is to try to what contain the implications of John's submission to the Pope by of grapes, inserting it into a master narrative, the course of the ancient struggle between Roman and native Christianity (Protestantism). It provides a full account of how and why John yielded, and what John perceived the consequences to have been. By this strategy, the patos, play attempts to contain the implications of outline of grapes, John's act for posterity. Because the causes of the urvashi butalia, deposition easily fit into the Foxean picture of the embattled proto-Protestant subverted by Papal wiles, to of grapes represent the deposition itself is how to apa reference not necessarily to provide a subversive undoing of John's status as proto-Protestant hero. This strategy might be called directive representation: the outline of grapes, deposition is shown, but attempts are made to limit an chilam patos audience's perception of its meaning. A third strategy is at outline of grapes work in Marlowe's Edward II, which was published twice during the 1590s also with a deposition/abdication scene. This third strategy might be characterised as overrepresentation, here defined as the representation of an action or event so that a conclusive meaning is what are public goods difficult to draw from it. Outline Of Grapes. It is not clear, for balam patos example, from Edward's abdication/deposition scene why he has given up the crown, whether he has a choice, or whether he is in a fit state to outline of grapes understand what he is doing. Stroop Effect Experiment. This ambiguity is outline of grapes foregrounded when Edward begins by betty broder, comparing himself to a shadow now regiment is gone.

58 He then asks if he must resign his crown as Mortimer will take it, is told that it will rather pass to his son, denies this, is asked again whether he will resign, gives his crown to Leicester, takes it back just until night, is of grapes asked again for it, refuses, gives it back to protect his son's right on a reminder from Leicester, calls upon another to concealed the conclusion take it from outline, him, hands it over, and sends a handkerchief wet with his tears to queen Isabel. The switches of intent, and the complexity of concealed the conclusion, Edward's emotional state make a mockery of outline, Winchester's bland comment in the next scene that The king hath willingly resigned his crown (5.2.28). Moreover, Edward remains alive to worry at the contradiction of his status as king without a crown or regiment. Edward's abdication/deposition is shown, but what it signifies, other than that Edward no longer has the military or emotional resources to resist, is unclear. The deposition scene in the later quartos of Richard II works in a similar fashion. King John clearly underrepresents John's sensitive submission to the church. Where The Troublesome Reign attempts to direct attention from the constitutional consequences by focusing on John's reasons for, and reactions to, his swearing fealty, King John takes only 65 lines (during which John also hears of the effects of Arthur's death upon the rebels) to cover the period between the first mention of the idea and Falconbridge's rejection of it as an inglorious league. John is concealed the conclusion not shown reflecting upon outline his tactics before he meets Pandulph, or on the submission's consequences. Although the play underrepresents this episode in comparison to The Troublesome Reign, what happens is stroop experiment still clear.

John states he has yielded his crown, and Pandulph gives it back, as holding of the pope/Your sovereign greatness and authority (5.1.3-4). Outline. Underrepresentation is not, however, non-representation, though Barbara Hodgdon has recently pointed out that the balam, play seeks to suppress precisely those events that might divide or fracture audience response. 59 But the play can be read as recognising the problems even in underrepresenting John's submission, and that it attempts to contain the negative implications of this via overrepresentation. It does not follow the of grapes, Foxean strategy of presenting the recrowning with minimal comment and leaving the reader to point the moral; rather, it makes it difficult to how to apa reference understand, and thus subject to recuperative qualification by John's easily intelligible speeches in 3.1. Overrepresenting sensitive events and topics was common in Tudor histories. Outline Of Grapes. A. R. Braunmuller has identified dramatist and chronicler as sharing the problem of avoiding both censorship and what are public goods charges of outline of grapes, partisanship, and as having two choices: leave out causal explanations as Fabyan did, or include too many causes (Hall's 'double grace') and stroop experiment avoid choosing among them. Shakespeare and outline Holinshed wrote confusing texts because each believed that confusion was not sedition. Betty Broder. 60 Braunmuller's useful formulation of the available strategies is confirmed in Holinshed's preface to the reader: I have in outline, things doubtfull rather chosen to concealed shew the diversitie of their writings, than by over-ruling them, and using a peremptory censure, to outline of grapes frame them to agree to my liking: leaving it nevertheless to each mans judgement, to controll them as he seeth cause. Stroop Effect Experiment. 61. It is perhaps misleading to characterise historical writing as primarily concerned with avoiding sedition, rather than as attempting to make orthodox sense out of unpromising material. Shakespeare may have attempted a different, though still orthodox, treatment of of grapes, John's reign as compared to that in his sources, rather than avoided or covered up heterodoxy.

In the present context, Holinshed's crucial point centres on the notion of controlling the patos, interpretation of things doubtful. Where two straightforwardly represented events contradict one another such controll would be likely to depend heavily on outline of grapes extra-textual factors such as previous expectations. Are Public Goods. Thus, in the case of John, an audience might compare his submission with his defiance, and conclude that no conclusion was possible. But if the defiance was straightforward, and the submission confusing, an audience is less likely to have seen the defiance as cancelled or invalidated by the submission. The defiance would be central to a response to the play, and the submission marginal. Though John underrepresents John's submission in comparison with other texts, the issues upon which an of grapes interpretation depend are overrepresented: the validity of betty broder, a recrowning, whether John can give away his crown, and what significance such an action has.

A parallel to outline this dramatic strategy can be seen in another text dealing peripherally with John. Thomas Wilson, writing in 1600 of the state of England, states that it is an absolute Imperiall Monarchy held neither of Pope, Emperor, nor any but of God alone, and concealed so hath bene ever since the year of the World 2855, which was 1108 years before Christ. 62 Wilson then engages with the supposed donation of outline of grapes, Britain to the Papacy by balam patos, the emperor Constantine, which he rebuts by pointing out that subsequent conquests extinguished Rome's right. The only other threat to this independent England is John's submission: after this, K John did resign the Crowne to Pandolphus, the Pope's legate, and outline of grapes did receive it againe from him, to hold it of the Pope, paying yearly a certain Tribute; but then is easily answered (though it be the Pops strongest clayme) that King John was but an usurper, and being distressed besides with the Barons' Warres, he was forced to do yt to have the how to apa reference, Pope's help, but his act was never confirmed by outline, the States of the balam patos, Country and therefore frivolous. 63.

This passage, written for private circulation and not printed until 1936, stresses the of grapes, constitutional importance of an engagement with John's submission, though this is not a question Holinshed, Foxe or the Homily addressed. Wilson overrepresents the arguments against chilam patos Papal sovereignty; John is not merely a usurper, but a distressed, enforced and frivolous usurper. Of Grapes. The tactic here is not to provide one conclusive refutation, but to patos produce the impression that the outline, cumulative force of apa reference, all explanations is strong enough to show John's submission as irrelevant to the current situation. Outline. A similar process is at urvashi butalia work in John, whereby a variety of qualifications are introduced to make a simple interpretation of the outline, recrowning difficult to arrive at. In the play John does not explicitly challenge Pandulph's commentary on the conclusion the submission's significance, but after Pandulph has left he introduces an odd qualification. Remembering the prophecy that he would this day give off his crown, he comments I did suppose it should be made on constraint;/Heaven be thanked, it is but voluntary (5.1.28-9). Given that one of the foci of The Homily's treatment of John's recrowning is on outline the indignity of the English king being forced to submit, this statement can be seen as an the conclusion attempt by John to reiterate his independence of Pandulph, so that the recrowning is a tactic, a piece of equivocation meaning nothing to John.

At the least, the distinction between voluntary and involuntary uncrowning implies that this kind of recrowning is not as bad as its alternative. This muddle can be read as either denoting John's personal muddle (he has lost the crown but tries to persuade himself he hasn't) or as a piece of obliquity for which there is no clear interpretation (though the outline, implication is that the recrowning is not what Pandulph thinks it is). Falconbridge's prompt criticism of John's inglorious league (5.1.65) further confuses matters, suggesting John has made a military bargain. In the apa reference, following scene, Pandulph is shown to be unable to outline of grapes honour his contract with John. Lewis, whom Pandulph has encouraged to invade, is one of the how to apa reference, threats John fears.

His first words after the truncated recrowning ceremony are to enjoin Pandulph to go to meet the French/And from his holiness use all your power/To stop their marches 'fore we are inflamed (5.1.5-7). Not only is Pandulph unable to outline provide what John needs; he is also met with a forceful declaration of royal independence of the Papacy: I am too highborn to be propertied,/To be a secondary at urvashi butalia control,/Or useful serving-man and instrument/To any sovereign state throughout the world/[ . . . ] must I back/Because that John hath made his peace with Rome?/Am I Rome's slave? (5.2.79-82, 95-7). Outline Of Grapes. Thus, although Pandulph clearly presents the recrowning as signifying John's subservience to urvashi butalia the Pope, it is followed by an obscure distinction drawn by outline of grapes, John, Falconbridge's perception that a purely political league has been made, and Lewis' declaration that he (and by implication, John) is experiment royal and thus nobody's slave. Later, in braving Lewis, Falconbridge stresses that John's submission was voluntary, referring to Pandulph as this halting legate here/Whom he hath us'd rather for sport than need (5.2.174-5). King John can thus be seen to use the outline, same tactics as Wilson's State, presenting several arguments against the seriousness of John's recrowning, which have a cumulative as well as an individual effect. It might even be said that much of the last third of the concealed, play is constructed to contradict Pandulph's claims of the significance of the recrowning, for only two scenes before John receives the of grapes, crown back from Pandulph, he recrowns himself, and is criticised for so doing. In Act 4 John enters once again crowned (4.2.1). Though his nobles defer to John's right to do as he likes, the ceremony is effect experiment presented, in the words of Pembroke as superfluous: you were crowned before/And that high royalty was ne'er plucked off,/The faiths of men ne'er stained with revolt/Fresh expectation troubled not the land/With any longed-for change or better state (4.2.4-8). Salisbury is more blunt, stating Therefore, to be possessed with double pomp,/To guard a title that was rich before,/To gild refined gold, to paint the lily/[ . . . ] or with taper-light/To seek the beauteous eye of heaven to garnish,/Is wasteful and outline ridiculous excess (4.2.9-11, 14-16).

The nobles' criticisms emphasise John's sumptuous excess, as well as his political overcompensating: In this the antique and well-noted face/Of plain old form is disfigured, so new a fashion'd robe startles and frights consideration (4.2.21-22, 27, 25). The physical excess of John's coronation will later be criticised in the Bastard's soliloquy over concealed Arthur's corpse. But just as prominent are the political arguments. John's new coronation cannot strengthen his title, as that was already refined gold. He is of grapes trying to increase the how to, light of the sun (himself) with a candle. Pembroke implies that the ceremony of outline of grapes, recrowning might have some point in chilam balam patos, the context of a domestic rebellion as a reassertion of the proper relationship between king and nobles, but this does not validate the later recrowning, as no nobles are present. The overall impression is that as John is outline of grapes legitimate, he cannot make himself more or less legitimate with ceremonies; that a recrowning can be a political miscalculation; and that such a ceremony does not materially alter John's supremacy. The five lines exchanged between Pandulph and John two scenes later must be read in this context. The play's overrepresentation of the issues surrounding John's recrowning works in tandem with the actual recrowning's underrepresentation.

The play gives little space to this traumatic event, but contextualises it so as to chilam balam patos suggest that, whatever it is, is not a cession of of grapes, sovereignty to the Pope by the Moses of the Reformation. Urvashi Butalia. A post-Armada audience interpreting King John would undoubtedly have had to controll and reconcile the anti-Papal John with the submissive John, and to negotiate the play's contestations of his authority. However, the text does allow a construction of John as legitimate monarch, and thus sincere in his anti-Catholicism. This presentation of John would also have accorded with those in Holinshed, Foxe, the Homily and The Troublesome Reign, and would not have offended contemporary anti-Spanish or anti-Catholic nationalism. The model offered by critics identifying the play as modern, in contrast, situates the play as against the grain of most influential historical accounts, the predominant war fever of the theatrical repertory, and the likely mood of of grapes, wartime London. At such a time, a play's religious politics are likely to be powerfully inflected towards orthodoxy in at least the most uncontroversial of chilam, areas: John's legitimacy as an opponent of the Papacy. To recognise this historical reading as possible, perhaps even likely, goes against the grain of post-Tillyard approaches to the history plays, which David Womersley characterises by critics' unwillingness to believe that Shakespeare might have written in support of outline, doctrines they find repugnant or risible and a consequent locating of a remarkable dramatic complexity 64 in the plays. Chilam. The reinvention of the history plays described from a different perspective by outline of grapes, Womersley and Curren-Aquino has helped to continue Shakespeare's dominance of the Renaissance canon as continually relevant politically, something which happens surprisingly frequently by the traditional critical/polemical tactic of presenting Shakespeare, or his texts, as rising above the simplicity and polemic of contemporary sources. I have attempted to show how it is possible to read King John as irrelevant to modern political concerns, and concealed that in at least one important respect Shakespeare is not our ambivalent, ambiguous, sceptical, questioning and outline of grapes ideologically subversive contemporary. 1 Deborah Curren-Aquino, King John: An Annotated Bibliography (New York: Garland, 1994), p. xxvi. 2 Sigurd Burckhardt, King John: The Ordering of this Present Time, ELH, XXXIII (1966), p. 133.

3 Burckhardt, 134; Virginia Vaughan, King John: A Study in Subversion and Containment, in King John; New Perspectives, ed. Deborah Curren-Aquino (London and balam Toronto: Associated UP, 1989), p. 62. 4 Phyllis Rackin, Stages of History: Shakespeare's English Chronicles (London: Routledge, 1990), p. 66. 5 Larry Champion, The Noise of of grapes, Threatening Drum: Dramatic Strategy and Political Ideology in Shakespeare and the English Chronicle Plays (London and Toronto: Associated UP, 1990), p. 98. 6 Guy Hamel, King John and The Troublesome Reign: A Reexamination, in Curren-Aquino (1989) p. 54. 7 Stephen Greenblatt, Invisible Bullets, in Political Shakespeare: New Essays in Cultural Materialism, ed.

Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield (Manchester: Manchester UP, 1985), p. 29; King John, ed. Robert Smallwood (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1974), p. 12. 8 David Aers, A Whisper in the Ear of betty broder, Early Modernists, Culture and History 1350-1600: Essays on English Communities, Identities and Writing, ed. David Aers (Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1992), pp. 195-6. 9 E.M.W.

Tillyard, Shakespeare's History Plays (London, 1944; repr. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1986), p. Of Grapes. 220; see also M.M. Reese, The Cease of Majesty (London: Arnold, 1961), p. 270; Irving Ribner, The English History Play in balam patos, the Age of Shakespeare (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1957: rev. edn, London: Methuen, 1965), pp. 121-2; David Bevington, Tudor Drama and Politics (Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1968), p. 200. 10 This argument is developed thoroughly in of grapes, Deborah Kehler, 'So Jest With Heaven': Deity in the conclusion, King John, in Curren-Aquino (1989) p. 101. 11 King John ed E.A.J. Honigmann (London: Methuen, 1954), 3.1.75-86. Unless otherwise specified all references to Shakespeare's plays are from the Arden editions. 12 Lily Campbell, Shakespeare's Histories (San Marino, CA: Huntington Library Publications, 1947;3rd edn, London: Methuen, 1964), p. 154. 13 C.W. Heiatt, Dating King John, NQ, xxxv (1988), p. 463 dates the outline, play to 1593/4; Roslyn Knutson, The Repertory of Shakespeare's Company 1594-1613 (Fayetteville: Arkansas UP, 1991), p. 75 suggests 1596-97; L.A.

Beaurline's edition of King John (Cambridge UP, 1990), p. 210 plumps for 1590; A.R. Braunmuller's edition (Oxford UP, 1989), p. Balam. 15 chooses 1595-96; Smallwood, p. 10 also supports 1593/4, and Honigmann, p. Outline Of Grapes. lviii 1590/1. 14 Carol Wiener, The Beleagured Isle: A Study of Elizabethan and Early Jacobean Anti-Catholicism, Past Present, LV (1971), pp. 52-3; R.B. Stroop. Wernham, After the outline of grapes, Armada (Oxford: OUP, 1984), pp. Effect Experiment. 453-60. 15 David Cressy, Bonfires and Bells: National Memory and the Protestant Calendar in Elizabethan and Stuart England (London: Weidenfeld Nicolson, 1989), p. 119. 16 Peter Clark, A Crisis Contained? The Condition of outline of grapes, English Towns in the 1590s, in The European Crisis of the 1590s ed. Peter Clark (London: Allen Unwin, 1985), p. 55.

18 R.B. Outhwaite, Dearth, the English Crown and the 'Crisis of the 1590s', in how to apa reference, Clark (1985), p. 25; Henry Knyvett, The Defence of the Realm (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906). 19 A. Outline Of Grapes. Pritchard, Catholic Loyalism in urvashi butalia, Elizabethan England (London: Scolar Press, 1979), pp. 6-8, 12. 20 T.E. Hartley, Elizabeth's Parliaments: Queen, Lords and Commons 1559-1601 (Manchester: Manchester UP, 1992), pp.

98-101. 21 Donna Hamilton, Shakespeare and the Poetics of Protestant England (Lexington: Kentucky UP, 1992), p. 4. 22 Peter Lake, Moderate Puritans and the Elizabethan Church (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1982), p. 6. 23 See Carole Levin, Propaganda in the English Reformation: Heroic and Villainous Images of of grapes, King John (Lewiston/Queenston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1988). 24 Raphael Holinshed, Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland, Vol. II (London, 1807; repr. New York: AMS Press, 1965), pp. 339, 319. 25 Certain Sermons or Homilies (1547) and A Homily Against Disobedience And Wilful Rebellion (1570): A Critical Edition, ed. Ronald Bond (Toronto and how to apa reference London: Toronto UP, 1987), p. 243.

26 Wernham, p. 555. 27 Andrew Gurr, Play going in Shakespeare's London (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1987), p. 135. 28 Bevington, p. 195. 29 Rackin, p. 187. 31 Robert Ornstein, A Kingdom for a Stage (Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1972), p. 88.

32 John Blanpied, Time and of grapes the Artist in Shakespeare's English Histories (London and Toronto: Associated UP, 1983), pp. 100-101. See also William Hawley, Critical Hermeneutics and Shakespeare's History Plays (New York and Bern: Lang, 1992), p. 70. 33 Vaughan, 1989, p. 70; see also James Bryant's odd conclusion that John's antipapal remarks can be seen [ . . . ] not as being derogatory to the Roman Catholic Church but as an expression of the Reformation position, Tudor Drama and Religious Controversy (Macon, GA: Mercer UP, 1984), p. Betty Broder. 133. 34 Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare, ed. Geoffrey Bullough (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1962), Vol. IV, p. 22. 35 For the former stance, in of grapes, addition to Bullough, Reece and Ornstein cited above, see Marie Axton, The Queen's Two Bodies: Drama and the Elizabethan Succession (London: Royal Historical Society, 1977), p. Apa Reference. 108; Philip Edwards, Threshold of a Nation (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1979), p. 115, and outline Bevington, p. 198.

For the latter position, see Hawley, p. Urvashi Butalia. 70; Champion, p. Outline Of Grapes. 96; Hamel, p. 55. 36 Kehler, p. 103; see also Edward Berry, Patterns of Decay: Shakespeare's English Histories (Charlottesville: Virginia UP, 1975), p. 115. 37 Reese, p. 275; Emrys Jones, The Origins of Shakespeare (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977), p. Experiment. 239. 38 Champion, p. 96. 39 Rackin, p. 184; David Womersley, The Politics of Shakespeare's King John, RES, XI (1989), p. Outline Of Grapes. 502.

See also Robert Jones, Those Valiant Dead: Renewing the Past in betty broder, Shakespeare's Histories (Iowa City: Iowa UP, 1991), p. Outline Of Grapes. 60 and Beaurline, p. 51. 40 Douglas Wixson, 'Calm words folded up in patos, smoke': Propaganda and outline Spectator Response in Shakespeare's King John, Shakespeare Studies, 14 (1981), pp. 111-27 and Michael Manheim, The Weak King Dilemma in chilam balam, the Shakespearian History Play (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse UP, 1973), pp. Outline. 116-60. 41 Since at least James Calderwood's Commodity and Honour in King John, UTQ, XXIX (1960), pp.

341-56. 42 Juliet Dusinberre, King John and embarrassing women, Shakespeare Survey, 43 (1989), pp. Chilam Patos. 37-52; Carole Levin, 'I trust I may not trust thee': Women's Visions of the World in Shakespeare's King John, in Ambiguous Realities: Women in the Middle Ages and outline the Renaissance, ed. Carole Levin and J. Watson (Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1987), pp. Urvashi Butalia. 219-34; Rackin, pp. 146-200. 43 A topic of interest since at outline least Adrien Bonjour's The Road to apa reference Swinstead Abbey: A Study of the Sense and Structure of King John, ELH, XVIII (1951), pp.

253-74. 44 William Camden, Remains Concerning Britain, ed. R. Dunn (Toronto and London: Toronto UP, 1984), p. 246. 45 See John Elliott, Shakespeare and outline the Double Image of King John, Shakespeare Studies, I (1965), p. 72; R Burkhart, Obedience and Rebellion in Shakespeare's Early History Plays, English Studies, LV (1971); Kristian Smidt, Unconformities in Shakespeare's History Plays (London: Macmillan, 1982), p. 73; John Loftis, Renaissance Drama in the conclusion, England and Spain (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1987), p. 74; Bonjour, p. Outline. 257; Reese, p. 263; Manheim, p. 131; Edwards, p. Chilam Patos. 115, Levin, 1987, p. 221; Hamilton, p. 43; Berry, p. Of Grapes. 115; Bevington, p. 243; Honigmann, p. Concealed. xxvii; Beaurline, p. Outline Of Grapes. 47; Hawley, p. 64; Hodgdon, p. 27; Robert Jones, p. 48; Rackin, p. 162; Kehler, p. 103; Dusinberre, p. 44. 46 Reese, p. 272; Edna Zwick Boris, Shakespeare's English Kings, the People and the Law (London: Associated Press, 1978), p. 133.

48 Mr William Shakespeare's Comedies, Histories and betty broder Tragedies, facsimile prepared by H. Kokeritz (New Haven and London: Yale UP, 1954), pp. 17-18. 49 Honigmann's Arden edition is closest to the First Folio, substituting an exclamation mark for its question mark; his notes indicate that the 'England' of the fourth line refers to both Arthur and the country. 51 Robert Jones, p. 60; see also Womersley, p. 502 and Smallwood, p. Of Grapes. 38. 52 John Sibly, The Anomalous case of King John, ELH, XXXIII (1966), p. Stroop Effect Experiment. 421. 53 Emrys Jones, p. Of Grapes. 256; Robert Jones, p. 57; Calderwood, p. 97; Bonjour, p. 264; Champion, p. 92. 55 Acts and Monuments, Vol. II (London: Seeley Burnside Seeley, 1843), p. Urvashi Butalia. 332. I have checked that this passage is not present in the 1583 edition. 56 J. Leeds Barroll, A New History for Shakespeare and His Time, SQ, XXIX (1988), pp.

441-64. 57 The Troublesome Reign of King John, ed. Bullough, To the Gentlemen Readers, p. 72. All quotations from The Troublesome Reign are from this edition. 58 Edward the outline, Second, ed. Concealed. W Moelwyn Merchant (London: Benn, 1967), 5.1.26. 59 Hodgdon, p. 30. 60 A.R.

Braunmuller, King John and Historiography, ELH, LV (1988), p. 318. 61 Holinshed, Preface to the Reader. [Chronicles, Vol. II]. 62 Thomas Wilson, The State of of grapes, England Anno Dom 1600, ed. F. Fisher, Camden Miscellany, XVI (London, 1936), p. 1. 64 Womersley, p. 499.

Source: The Limits of Modernity in Shakespeare's King John, in Shakespeare and urvashi butalia History, edited by outline, Holger Klein and Rowland Wymer, The Edwin Mellen Press, 1996, pp. Balam. 91-118.

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Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement Grants. Replaces Document NSF 92-114. National Science Foundation. Division of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences. Directorate for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences. Division of Social and Economic Sciences. Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement Grants. Synopsis of Program: The National Science Foundation's Division of outline, Social and Economic Sciences and Division of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences award grants to doctoral students to improve the quality of dissertation research.

These grants provide funds for items not normally available through the student's university. Additionally, these grants allow doctoral students to are public undertake significant data-gathering projects and to conduct field research in settings away from their campus that would not otherwise be possible. Outline Of Grapes. Proposals are judged on the basis of their scientific merit, including the theoretical importance of the research question and the appropriateness of the proposed data and methodology to be used in the conclusion, addressing the question. Cognizant Program Officer(s): Please see the full text of this funding opportunity for contact information. Applicable Catalog of of grapes, Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number(s): 47.075 --- Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences. Organization Limit: None Specified. PI Eligibility Limit: None Specified.

Limit on Number of Proposals: None Specified. Anticipated Type of Award: Standard Grant Estimated Number of Awards: Not Specified. Anticipated Funding Amount: $2,500,000 Approximately $2.5 million annually across all programs, contingent upon the availability of funds. Proposal Preparation and concealed, Submission Instructions. A. Outline Of Grapes. Proposal Preparation Instructions. Full Proposal Preparation Instructions: This solicitation contains information that deviates from the standard Grant Proposal Guide (GPG) proposal preparation guidelines. Please see the full text of this solicitation for further information. Cost Sharing Requirements: Cost Sharing is not required. Concealed The Conclusion. Indirect Cost (FA) Limitations: NSF does not reimburse grantee institutions for the indirect costs associated with doctoral dissertation research. Of Grapes. Other Budgetary Limitations: Other budgetary limitations apply. Please see the full text of this solicitation for further information.

Merit Review Criteria: National Science Board approved criteria apply. Award Conditions: Standard NSF award conditions apply. Reporting Requirements: Standard NSF reporting requirements apply. V. PROPOSAL PREPARATION AND SUBMISSION INSTRUCTIONS. A. Proposal Preparation Instructions. Full Proposal Instructions: Proposals submitted in response to this program announcement/solicitation should be prepared and submitted in accordance with the general guidelines contained in the NSF Grant Proposal Guide (GPG). The complete text of the GPG is available electronically on urvashi butalia, the NSF Website at: https://www.nsf.gov/cgi-bin/getpub?gpg. Paper copies of the GPG may be obtained from the NSF Publications Clearinghouse, telephone (703) 292-7827 or by e-mail from pubs@nsf.gov. Proposers are reminded to identify the program announcement/solicitation number (01-113) in the program announcement/solicitation block on the proposal Cover Sheet. Outline. Compliance with this requirement is critical to determining the relevant proposal processing guidelines.

Failure to submit this information may delay processing. Cost sharing is not required in proposals submitted under this Program Announcement. Indirect Cost (FA) Limitations: Other Budgetary Limitations: Proposals must be submitted by the following date(s): Proposers are required to prepare and submit all proposals for this announcement/solicitation through the FastLane system. Detailed instructions for proposal preparation and submission via FastLane are available at: https://www.fastlane.nsf.gov/a1/newstan.htm. For FastLane user support, call the effect experiment FastLane Help Desk at 1-800-673-6188 or e-mail fastlane@nsf.gov. The FastLane Help Desk answers general technical questions related to the use of the FastLane system. Specific questions related to this program announcement/solicitation should be referred to outline the NSF program staff contact(s) listed in Section VIII of this announcement/solicitation. Submission of Electronically Signed Cover Sheets . The Authorized Organizational Representative (AOR) must electronically sign the proposal Cover Sheet to submit the required proposal certifications (see Chapter II, Section C of the Grant Proposal Guide for a listing of the certifications).

The AOR must provide the required electronic certifications within five working days following the electronic submission of the proposal. Urvashi Butalia. Proposers are no longer required to provide a paper copy of the signed Proposal Cover Sheet to outline of grapes NSF. Further instructions regarding this process are available on the FastLane Website at: http://www.fastlane.nsf.gov. Reviews of proposals submitted to the conclusion NSF are solicited from peers with expertise in outline of grapes, the substantive area of the concealed the conclusion proposed research or education project. These reviewers are selected by Program Officers charged with the oversight of the review process. NSF invites the proposer to suggest, at the time of submission, the names of appropriate or inappropriate reviewers. Care is taken to ensure that reviewers have no conflicts with the outline of grapes proposer.

Special efforts are made to recruit reviewers from non-academic institutions, minority-serving institutions, or adjacent disciplines to that principally addressed in the proposal. The National Science Board approved revised criteria for evaluating proposals at how to its meeting on March 28, 1997 (NSB 97-72). All NSF proposals are evaluated through use of the two merit review criteria. In some instances, however, NSF will employ additional criteria as required to of grapes highlight the how to specific objectives of certain programs and activities. On July 8, 2002, the NSF Director issued Important Notice 127, Implementation of new Grant Proposal Guide Requirements Related to of grapes the Broader Impacts Criterion. This Important Notice reinforces the importance of urvashi butalia, addressing both criteria in the preparation and review of all proposals submitted to NSF. NSF continues to strengthen its internal processes to outline of grapes ensure that both of the merit review criteria are addressed when making funding decisions.

In an effort to increase compliance with these requirements, the January 2002 issuance of the GPG incorporated revised proposal preparation guidelines relating to the development of the Project Summary and Project Description. Chapter II of the GPG specifies that Principal Investigators (PIs) must address both merit review criteria in separate statements within the one-page Project Summary. This chapter also reiterates that broader impacts resulting from the proposed project must be addressed in the Project Description and described as an integral part of the narrative. Effective October 1, 2002, NSF will return without review proposals that do not separately address both merit review criteria within the Project Summary. It is believed that these changes to betty broder NSF proposal preparation and processing guidelines will more clearly articulate the importance of broader impacts to NSF-funded projects. The two National Science Board approved merit review criteria are listed below (see the Grant Proposal Guide Chapter III.A for of grapes, further information). The criteria include considerations that help define them. These considerations are suggestions and how to, not all will apply to any given proposal. While proposers must address both merit review criteria, reviewers will be asked to address only those considerations that are relevant to the proposal being considered and for outline of grapes, which he/she is qualified to chilam make judgments. What is the intellectual merit of the proposed activity? How important is the proposed activity to advancing knowledge and outline of grapes, understanding within its own field or across different fields?

How well qualified is the proposer (individual or team) to conduct the what are public project? (If appropriate, the reviewer will comment on the quality of the prior work.) To what extent does the of grapes proposed activity suggest and explore creative and original concepts? How well conceived and organized is the proposed activity? Is there sufficient access to resources? What are the broader impacts of the proposed activity? How well does the activity advance discovery and understanding while promoting teaching, training, and learning? How well does the stroop experiment proposed activity broaden the participation of underrepresented groups (e.g., gender, ethnicity, disability, geographic, etc.)? To what extent will it enhance the infrastructure for research and education, such as facilities, instrumentation, networks, and partnerships? Will the results be disseminated broadly to enhance scientific and outline, technological understanding? What may be the benefits of the proposed activity to society?

NSF staff will give careful consideration to the following in making funding decisions: Integration of Research and Education. One of the principal strategies in support of betty broder, NSF's goals is to foster integration of research and education through the outline of grapes programs, projects, and activities it supports at academic and how to apa reference, research institutions. These institutions provide abundant opportunities where individuals may concurrently assume responsibilities as researchers, educators, and students and where all can engage in joint efforts that infuse education with the excitement of discovery and enrich research through the diversity of learning perspectives. Integrating Diversity into outline of grapes, NSF Programs, Projects, and urvashi butalia, Activities. Broadening opportunities and outline, enabling the participation of all citizens -- women and men, underrepresented minorities, and persons with disabilities -- is essential to betty broder the health and vitality of outline, science and engineering. NSF is committed to this principle of diversity and deems it central to the programs, projects, and activities it considers and supports. B. Review Protocol and concealed the conclusion, Associated Customer Service Standard. All proposals are carefully reviewed by at least three other persons outside NSF who are experts in the particular field represented by the proposal. Proposals submitted in response to this announcement/solicitation will be reviewed by Ad Hoc and/or panel review.

Reviewers will be asked to formulate a recommendation to either support or decline each proposal. The Program Officer assigned to manage the proposal's review will consider the advice of reviewers and will formulate a recommendation. A summary rating and accompanying narrative will be completed and submitted by each reviewer. In all cases, reviews are treated as confidential documents. Verbatim copies of outline, reviews, excluding the names of the effect reviewers, are sent to the Principal Investigator/Project Director by of grapes, the Program Director. In addition, the the conclusion proposer will receive an explanation of the decision to award or decline funding. NSF is striving to be able to tell proposers whether their proposals have been declined or recommended for funding within six months. The time interval begins on the closing date of an outline announcement/solicitation, or the date of proposal receipt, whichever is later. Concealed. The interval ends when the Division Director accepts the Program Officer's recommendation. In all cases, after programmatic approval has been obtained, the proposals recommended for funding will be forwarded to the Division of Grants and Agreements for review of business, financial, and outline of grapes, policy implications and urvashi butalia, the processing and issuance of a grant or other agreement.

Proposers are cautioned that only a Grants and Agreements Officer may make commitments, obligations or awards on behalf of NSF or authorize the expenditure of funds. No commitment on the part of NSF should be inferred from technical or budgetary discussions with a NSF Program Officer. A Principal Investigator or organization that makes financial or personnel commitments in the absence of a grant or cooperative agreement signed by the NSF Grants and Agreements Officer does so at outline their own risk. VII. AWARD ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION. Notification of the award is made to the submitting organization by goods, a Grants Officer in the Division of Grants and Agreements.

Organizations whose proposals are declined will be advised as promptly as possible by the cognizant NSF Program Division administering the program. Verbatim copies of reviews, not including the identity of the reviewer, will be provided automatically to the Principal Investigator. (See section VI.A. for outline of grapes, additional information on the review process.) An NSF award consists of: (1) the award letter, which includes any special provisions applicable to the award and concealed the conclusion, any numbered amendments thereto; (2) the outline budget, which indicates the amounts, by betty broder, categories of outline, expense, on which NSF has based its support (or otherwise communicates any specific approvals or disapprovals of proposed expenditures); (3) the proposal referenced in the award letter; (4) the applicable award conditions, such as Grant General Conditions (NSF-GC-1); * or Federal Demonstration Partnership (FDP) Terms and Conditions * and (5) any announcement or other NSF issuance that may be incorporated by reference in the award letter. Cooperative agreement awards also are administered in apa reference, accordance with NSF Cooperative Agreement Terms and Conditions (CA-1). Outline. Electronic mail notification is the concealed the conclusion preferred way to transmit NSF awards to organizations that have electronic mail capabilities and outline of grapes, have requested such notification from the Division of Grants and Agreements. *These documents may be accessed electronically on betty broder, NSF's Website at https://www.nsf.gov/home/grants/grants_gac.htm. Outline Of Grapes. Paper copies may be obtained from the NSF Publications Clearinghouse, telephone (703) 292-7827 or by e-mail from pubs@nsf.gov. More comprehensive information on NSF Award Conditions is contained in the NSF Grant Policy Manual (GPM) Chapter II, available electronically on the NSF Website at effect https://www.nsf.gov/cgi-bin/getpub?gpm. Of Grapes. The GPM is also for what, sale through the outline Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office (GPO), Washington, DC 20402.

The telephone number at urvashi butalia GPO for subscription information is (202) 512-1800. The GPM may be ordered through the GPO Website at http://www.gpo.gov. For all multi-year grants (including both standard and continuing grants), the outline of grapes PI must submit an annual project report to the cognizant Program Officer at effect least 90 days before the end of the current budget period. Within 90 days after the expiration of an outline award, the PI also is required to submit a final project report. Failure to provide final technical reports delays NSF review and processing of pending proposals for the PI and all Co-PIs. PIs should examine the formats of the required reports in advance to assure availability of required data. PIs are required to use NSF's electronic project reporting system, available through FastLane, for preparation and submission of annual and final project reports. This system permits electronic submission and updating of project reports, including information on how to, project participants (individual and organizational), activities and findings, publications, and other specific products and contributions. PIs will not be required to re-enter information previously provided, either with a proposal or in earlier updates using the electronic system. VIII.

CONTACTS FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION. General inquiries regarding this program should be made to: For questions related to the use of FastLane, contact: The NSF Guide to Programs is a compilation of funding for research and education in science, mathematics, and engineering. The NSF Guide to Programs is available electronically at https://www.nsf.gov/cgi-bin/getpub?gp.

General descriptions of NSF programs, research areas, and eligibility information for proposal submission are provided in each chapter. Many NSF programs offer announcements or solicitations concerning specific proposal requirements. To obtain additional information about of grapes, these requirements, contact the appropriate NSF program offices. Any changes in NSF's fiscal year programs occurring after press time for the Guide to Programs will be announced in the NSF E-Bulletin, which is updated daily on the NSF Website at https://www.nsf.gov/home/ebulletin, and in concealed the conclusion, individual program announcements/solicitations. Subscribers can also sign up for NSF's Custom News Service (https://www.nsf.gov/home/cns/start.htm) to be notified of new funding opportunities that become available.

ABOUT THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION. The National Science Foundation (NSF) funds research and of grapes, education in betty broder, most fields of science and engineering. Awardees are wholly responsible for conducting their project activities and outline, preparing the results for publication. Thus, the Foundation does not assume responsibility for such findings or their interpretation. NSF welcomes proposals from all qualified scientists, engineers and educators. The Foundation strongly encourages women, minorities and persons with disabilities to compete fully in stroop, its programs. Of Grapes. In accordance with Federal statutes, regulations and NSF policies, no person on what are public, grounds of outline, race, color, age, sex, national origin or disability shall be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving financial assistance from what are public, NSF, although some programs may have special requirements that limit eligibility. Facilitation Awards for Scientists and Engineers with Disabilities (FASED) provide funding for special assistance or equipment to enable persons with disabilities (investigators and other staff, including student research assistants) to work on outline of grapes, NSF-supported projects.

See the GPG Chapter II, Section D.2 for instructions regarding preparation of these types of proposals. The National Science Foundation promotes and advances scientific progress in the United States by competitively awarding grants and cooperative agreements for apa reference, research and education in the sciences, mathematics, and engineering. To get the latest information about program deadlines, to outline of grapes download copies of NSF publications, and to access abstracts of awards, visit the NSF Website at https://www.nsf.gov. 4201 Wilson Blvd. Arlington, VA 22230. Send an e-mail to: PRIVACY ACT AND PUBLIC BURDEN STATEMENTS. The information requested on proposal forms and project reports is solicited under the balam authority of the National Science Foundation Act of 1950, as amended. The information on outline of grapes, proposal forms will be used in patos, connection with the selection of qualified proposals; project reports submitted by awardees will be used for program evaluation and outline, reporting within the Executive Branch and to Congress. Effect. The information requested may be disclosed to outline of grapes qualified reviewers and staff assistants as part of the proposal review process; to applicant institutions/grantees to how to apa reference provide or obtain data regarding the proposal review process, award decisions, or the outline of grapes administration of betty broder, awards; to government contractors, experts, volunteers and researchers and educators as necessary to complete assigned work; to other government agencies needing information as part of the review process or in order to coordinate programs; and to another Federal agency, court or party in a court or Federal administrative proceeding if the government is a party. Information about Principal Investigators may be added to the Reviewer file and used to select potential candidates to outline of grapes serve as peer reviewers or advisory committee members.

See Systems of Records, NSF-50, Principal Investigator/Proposal File and Associated Records, 63 Federal Register 267 (January 5, 1998), and stroop, NSF-51, Reviewer/Proposal File and Associated Records, 63 Federal Register 268 (January 5, 1998). Submission of the information is voluntary. Outline. Failure to provide full and complete information, however, may reduce the possibility of receiving an award. An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required to respond to an information collection unless it displays a valid OMB control number. The OMB control number for this collection is patos, 3145-0058. Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 120 hours per response, including the time for reviewing instructions. Send comments regarding this burden estimate and any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to: Suzanne Plimpton, Reports Clearance Officer, Division of Administrative Services, National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA 22230.

OMB control number: 3145-0058. The National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia 22230, USA. Tel: (703) 292-5111, FIRS: (800) 877-8339 | TDD: (800) 281-8749.

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Farm business and financial planning. Business plans, account management, benchmarking and planning for farming businesses. If you run a farm, there is of grapes a wide range of advice available to you, including how to write a business plan, run your accounts, benchmark your business and plan your future activity. This guide explains where you can find specialist business and financial support to help you run your farm as efficiently as possible. There is also information on business and financial planning tools available to you, as well as information on the standards and schemes that you must comply with. A good business plan gives credibility to your farm, and to your skills as a farm owner or manager. Even if you do not intend to make any changes to your farm, you should still write a business plan. A good farm business plan can highlight weaknesses in how you plan and what are public goods, run your farm, which can provide helpful insight for later improvements. Before writing a business plan, it is outline of grapes advisable to thoroughly research the sectors that you are currently working in - or plan to work in - including any future economic prospects for these sectors.

You should also familiarise yourself with the relevant regulations for your business. When writing your business plan, consider including: your short-term and long-term aims a timescale for achieving your aims who will be involved how you will manage the urvashi butalia, money. It may also describe your farm’s unique characteristics, for example, its: location soil type management eg whether it is of grapes family run. Most business plans contain: financial forecasts your marketing and sales strategy information about your management team and staff an operations plan.

Financial forecasts should show what you predict will happen to your business financially when you implement your new plan. For example, you should think about: how much external funding you may need what you can offer as security against loans - if needed how much income you are expecting what your expected profits and losses will be. Your financial forecasts should include a cashflow forecast, and projected profit and loss account. The operations plan is a description of the farm itself, and how it is run.

It can include details about: the land, buildings and facilities equipment, vehicles and machinery used on the farm materials and supplies what is produced and when plans for the conclusion, new facilities any environmental assessment plans, eg for outline of grapes, soil conservation or to chilam improve water quality relevant regulations and licences. It may also be useful to prepare an executive summary - a synopsis of key points from of grapes, your entire plan and a short description of your business opportunity - for presenting to apa reference third parties such as your bank, potential investors or suppliers. Adapt an of grapes, existing farm business plan. Changing circumstances may prompt you to adapt your existing farm business plan. If you are looking for a new source of funding - eg through the concealed the conclusion, Rural Development Programme for England - you may need to consider adapting the way your farm is run. Even if your current farm business plan is of grapes successful, you should always consider reviewing it for possible growth opportunities and what, improvements to farming operations. For more information on outline of grapes, growth opportunities and changing farming operations, see the guides on ideas and funding for diversification and ideas and funding for diversification. When adapting your existing farm business plan, you should think about: Your goals - what do you want to achieve by reviewing your plan?

For example, do you want to how to increase your profits, or be eligible for certain payments? What changes you want to make to your business - for example, bringing in different livestock or plants. How to best make these changes to your farm. Of Grapes? How you will carry out this change and at what cost? Any financial implications of this change - and how long will it take you to urvashi butalia make a profit? How long the changes will take you to implement. Potential risks - financial or otherwise - to your business.

Once you have finalised the outline of grapes, changes to your business plan, you should then test whether the plan is possible. You can then work out whether you have enough resources, you can meet the demands, and whether your new plan is realistic. Financial figures: assess the viability of your farm business. One of the major roles of the Defra is to help the farming industry operate as efficiently as possible. Defra publishes a range of guides to help you get started in farm management accounting. The first of concealed the conclusion, these covers how to use your farm accounts to assess your financial situation. Of Grapes? This booklet is an important first step in helping you to understand what your accounts tell you about your farm’s viability, and how to make better use of that information. In order to concealed be viable, your farm needs to generate enough income to cover: money you draw for your own use tax re-investment repayments on borrowing. Defra ’s booklet shows you how to use your profit-and-loss account and balance sheets to outline of grapes assess the viability of your business. It guides you through the principles of basic accounting, explaining terms and giving examples of how to stroop effect experiment enter figures into your accounts.

Knowing how to interpret these figures is key to managing, budgeting and planning the future of your farm business. To make the best use of the outline of grapes, booklet, it will help to have a copy of your latest farm accounts. Financial figures in whole farm planning. Once you have assessed your farming business and apa reference, its success, you may consider making changes to of grapes the way your farm operates. Your decisions - and betty broder, those of potential lenders - will be based on of grapes, the financial figures you have drawn up for your business. Defra has published a booklet on mapping out the future of experiment, your farm, which provides guidance and information on using financial figures in your overall farm business plan. This booklet will help you to:

make partial and outline of grapes, major changes to your whole farm business make changes to your business planning documents yourself reflect risk, feasibility, viability and future performance in your financial figures in order to determine whether changes will help to make your business more profitable. Plan a partial change to your current system. You can also use your financial figures to work out whether partial changes to your farm system will enhance your profitability. There are several steps to this process: decide on goals - eg increasing production or profitability make a list of the changes you could make to achieve these goals outline the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and stroop effect, threats in your plan make a complete list of the outline, resources you will need to achieve your goals use a profit and loss table to calculate the stroop experiment, financial gain versus the cost of these changes determine the effect your changes will have on cash flow quarter by quarter evaluate the outline, risks involved in your project and whether you can reduce them. You should try to urvashi butalia write down as much information as possible as this will help you to develop your plan and share your ideas with others.

At each stage, take time to outline of grapes ensure you have included every possibility. Convert your farm’s financial accounts into urvashi butalia management accounts. Financial figures are vital to running any farm, but they can be much more useful to outline you if you convert them into management accounts. The third booklet in the Management Accounting for Farmers series published by stroop experiment, Defra is a step-by-step guide to converting your figures into management accounts. Working through the guide will help you to understand your business more clearly and outline of grapes, will equip you to deal more effectively with your bank, accountant and farming business consultant. This practical guide looks at: the terms used in financial and management accounting how profit and loss accounts are structured in apa reference, management accounting using the profit-and-loss accounts and balance sheet as management tools why stock appreciation and herd depreciation are important for livestock farmers. Using benchmarking tools will allow you to compare your results with those of outline, other similar farm businesses. This helps you to goods find out of grapes, how your business is performing compared with farms of a similar size and type, and in turn will help you identify areas for improvement. Farm benchmarking is an online tool from Defra . You can use it to compare your farm with other farms in what are public, Defra ’s Farm Business Survey and outline of grapes, with farms in what goods, similar surveys in outline of grapes, other European Union countries.

Farm business benchmarking lets you compare your: financial data with farms of goods, a similar type and size performance in terms of revenue, cost and outline of grapes, profit business results with average or above-average farms. The tool is based on Defra ’s annual Farm Business Survey. This survey gathers information from betty broder, farmers and growers each year about various aspects of their business. The tool will also help you decide if there are areas of of grapes, your business that could be improved - eg by reducing costs or increasing output. You will need up-to-date financial accounts in betty broder, order to use the tool. Of Grapes? For more information on farming accounts, see the how to, section on using financial figures to assess the viability of outline, your farm business. The Red Meat Industry Forum (RMIF ) has set up local Farm Business Clubs, which give access to a specialist benchmarking service for red meat producers. Registering for the online RMIF benchmarking service will allow you to compare your farm’s physical and financial performance against those of chilam balam, other club members or other groups. Milkbench+ is an independent service to of grapes help milk producers calculate their net margins on milk, and how to apa reference, work out how well their business is performing compared to other producers. Cross compliance requirements for farming businesses.

Cross compliance requires you to observe two main sets of outline, regulatory standards in your farming business: Statutory Management Requirements (SMRs ) for experiment, environmental, public, plant and animal health, and outline, animal welfare requirements to keep your land in good agricultural and environmental condition - with specific reference to soils and are public, maintaining a variety of habitat and landscape features. To find out more about cross compliance, see the guide on cross compliance: the basics. The Rural Payments Agency may inspect your farm more than once a year to check your farm, records and other documentation, as part of their cross compliance inspections. You must comply with cross compliance requirements to qualify for: project funding under the Rural Development Programme in England Single Payment Scheme (SPS ) funding any other direct farm payments, such as Environmental Stewardship payments from Natural England. Cross compliance and business planning. You must ensure that you consider cross compliance requirements when creating a farming business plan, including: how your SPS payment could affect your profits, losses and income whether meeting SMRs would affect the outline of grapes, financial aspects of your plan - for example, you may need to budget for the identification or registration of how to, livestock how your business plan would be affected if you don’t meet cross compliance requirements and therefore do not receive your Common Agricultural Policy payments. All cross compliance payments are subject to meeting specific criteria.

You should not rely on these payments in your business plan, or include them as guaranteed finance. The Farm Advisory System advises farmers about cross compliance. For further information, you can call the Cross Compliance Helpline on Tel 0845 345 1302. Organisations dealing with farm financial planning. There are several organisations that can offer support and advice to of grapes farmers about farm financial planning. You can also use this site to find out about regulations, licences, standards and trade bodies relevant to specific business sectors, for effect experiment, example: arable cattle sheep and outline of grapes, goats pigs poultry fish farming beekeeping other animal farming, eg game or pets farming support services. Find out apa reference, how to comply with all the regulations and licences that apply to you in the section on your business sector. The Department of outline, Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra ) administers European support policies that provide around ?3 billion to UK agriculture.

It also oversees a number of agencies that work with arable farmers, imports and exports of crops and implement pest and disease controls. You can call the the conclusion, Defra Helpline on Tel 08459 33 55 77. The Carbon Trust provides interest-free loans of between ?3,000 and ?20,000, for farmers in England to upgrade to more energy-efficient equipment. These loans are designed to pay for themselves, over a period of up to four years, through direct energy savings. You can find out about interest-free loans on outline of grapes, the Carbon Trust website. The Rural Development Programme for England 2007-2013 (RDPE ) is jointly funded by the Government and the EU.

Under this scheme the government will allocate a total of balam, ?3.3 billion to outline agri-environment and other land management schemes. The introduction of the are public goods, RDPE has changed the outline, way payments are made under the how to, Environmental Stewardship and Energy Crops schemes. In England, the Farm Advisory System advises farmers about cross compliance. For further information, call the Cross Compliance Helpline on outline of grapes, Tel 0845 345 1302. Alternatively, find information on cross compliance requirement on effect experiment, the Cross Compliance website. The National Farmers’ Union (NFU ) represents the farmers and growers of England and Wales. It aims to promote successful and socially responsible agriculture and horticulture, while ensuring the long-term viability of rural communities. Natural England is an agency of Defra . It administers a programme of financial incentives for farmers and land managers, aimed at protecting and enhancing the natural environment. These include: the Environmental Stewardship scheme cross compliance requirements land management wildlife management and outline of grapes, licensing Countryside and Rights of Way Act.

Defra also makes grant funding available to certain woodland projects under the English Woodland Grant Scheme (EWGS ). These are administered on behalf of Defra by the Forestry Commission. Published: 11 September 2012. Updated: 13 June 2013. 13 June 2013 Fixing references to betty broder specialist guides 11 September 2012 First published. All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.