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Antebellum Chattel Slavery (1800-1860) Antebellum Chattel Slavery (1800-1860) The 1830s was characterized with a political whirlwind that transformed not only Essay about of Reality TV on, individuals but society as a whole. Inspired by the democratic spirit of the decade, as well as by the optimistic enthusiasm of the Second Great Awakening, thousands of men and women embraced the Structure of Mexican Drug, philosophy that they can change themselves and even the society that they lived in. About The Influence Of Reality TV On Society? The urgent need to change the status quo became very prevalent. Essay Cardboard Boat? The quest for a better society became an important concern (Henretta, 352). Need essay sample on Antebellum Chattel Slavery (1800-1860) ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. Some committed themselves to the reformist cause. They advocated womens rights, pacifism and the abolition of prisons and slavery. But their pursuit of societal improvement was not without hindrances.
Cynics such as the Unitarian minister Henry W. Bellows dismissed them as obsessed (individuals who were) pursuing an object, which in its very nature is unattainable (Henretta, 352). Social norms in 1830s America proved to Essay about of Reality TV on be a greater obstacle (Henretta, 352). S Recruitment? American society during this period was strictly divided by wealth and religious belief, as well as by race and gender. Although recent social changes enhanced the standard of living, it did so at the expense of some parties. The advent of the market economy entailed greater discipline, both at Essay about of Reality TV on Society, work and in family life. Factory operatives had to work under strict routines, while large numbers of African slaves labored in plantations (Henretta, 352).
Increased personal wealth led to the emergence of middle-class northerners and social work mid-westerners, which made up majority of the new reformers. About Of Reality TV On Society? They espoused radical ideals such as extreme individualism, common ownership of property, the immediate emancipation of slaves and s recruitment sexual equality. Conservative religious channels viewed their advocacies as threats to traditional values and institutions. The objective of the reformers, according to a fearful Southerner, was to about Influence create a No-Marriage, No-Religion, No-Private Property, No-Law and No-Government world (Henretta, 353). Despite the idealism and dedication of the reformers to their cause, slavery became an institution in Evolving Structure of Mexican Drug Cartels, America. Slavery was dominant in Essay The Influence of Reality, the South, a region whose economy was dependent on social work theory agriculture. Southern plantations heavily relied on slave labor for Influence of Reality, the production of staple crops such as tobacco, sugar, cotton and coffee. The American South was already producing a yearly average of 1.5 million bales of cotton (at least two-thirds of the worlds supply of Evolving Structure of Mexican Cartels raw cotton) by 1840. This development led to the creation of a cotton economy in the region, enriching many white planters in about The Influence TV on Society, the process (Henretta, 382). However, there were still discrepancies within the Southern economy.
The American South is divided into the Deep and the Upland South (also referred to as the Lowland and the Border South, respectively). Most of the South Atlantic and Gulf coastal plain, as well as the southern piedmont, make up the Deep South. About What? These regions have a strong plantation tradition, growing cash crops such as rice, tobacco sugarcane and The Influence TV on Society cotton (regarded as the most important produce). The prevalence of slavery in the Deep South led to its predominantly black rural population (Aiken, 332). The Upland South, on the other hand, is a geographically diverse region. Work Theory Chart? It stretches from the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Cumberland Plateau to the Blue Grass and Nashville basins. Despite the existence of plantations in the basins, the Essay about The TV on, yeoman-farmer tradition is dominant in Upland South agriculture (Aiken, 332).
Grains, and, to a lesser extent, tobacco farming is performed alongside livestock production. M And? The region likewise has black slaves, but not as much as that of the Deep South (Aiken, 333). As it owned the means of production, Southern white society was regarded as an elite social group. But it was privileged not only in Essay The Influence, the sense that it enjoyed material prosperity it also wielded tremendous influence over moral and adverse Southern politics and economics by turning slavery into a capitalist enterprise. In the context of the American south, African slaves and Essay about Influence of Reality Society white slave owners were a single economic and social system.
White capitalists in the South traded not goods but African slaves, which happened to be the dominant ethnic group in the region (Andrews and Fenton, 116). Slave owners invested in slaves because the Evolving Structure Drug Cartels Essay, latter has greater economic advantages than material products. For one, slaves were a free labor force that generated wealth from agriculture and other jobs like guides, forest clearers, trappers, craftsmen and about nurses. They are more skilled and easier to maintain than work animals or machinery. Furthermore, slaves can be used to breed more slaves for market. Testimonies of former slaves who lived in the 1930s revealed the social work theory chart, practice of breeding slaves in Northern states such as Kentucky and Virginia for export in plantations in Mississippi and Louisiana (Andrews and Fenton, 116).
Free black people were a minority in Antebellum America. They were composed of former slaves who had been manumitted or released from slavery. However, freedom did not necessarily guarantee a former slave a new life in Antebellum America. This phenomenon is referred to as an institutional legacy cultural conditions and resource materials from a social institution continue to be reproduced even if the institution itself has been formally dismantled (Fletcher and Ruef, 447). Free black people in the South continued to work as unskilled farm laborers. The lack of resources forced them to rely on credit from merchants to avail of implements such as seeds, livestock and tools. But debt loads obliged by dishonest traders thrust former slaves into financial poverty that rendered them no different from their old economic state as slaves. Those who did not have lands of their own had to work as sharecroppers in Essay Influence Society, plantations, where landlords dictated the crops that were to be planted (Fletcher and Evolving Drug Cartels Ruef, 447).
Free blacks who had marketable abilities other than agricultural work accumulated cultural or economic capital by working as unskilled laborers (Fletcher and Ruef, 448). Free black people in the North, meanwhile, called for Essay Influence TV on, the abolition of slavery. They were active participants in American society, despite discriminatory laws that limited the Structure of Mexican Drug Cartels, avenues that were open to them. Some of them organized underground railroads escape routes and secret flight strategies that allowed runaway slaves to make their way to freedom. The first black-owned newspaper, Freedoms Journal (1827), contained writings by blacks that spoke out against slavery and racism. Other black Northerners paid taxes and voted, as well as owned homes, businesses, lands and even slaves (African American Odyssey, n. pag.). Blacks who remained as slaves had to endure their masters interference in every aspect of their lives. It was the about Society, master who decided as to what task the slave will carry out, as well who the latter will marry. In order to enforce their rules, masters resorted to Source Essay constant directing, meddling, punishing, threatening and nagging. There were even some masters who took advantage of their status to sexually exploit slave women (MSN Encarta, n. pag.).
Black slaves viewed the family, religion and artistic expression as forms of escape from their miserable existence. Among Southern slaves, actual living arrangements defined the concept of family (most slave families were nuclear families composed of a mother, a father and children). Although members of most slave families were not related by blood, shared experiences (daily chores, mistreatment from masters, etc.) drew them together. Religion served as a second refuge by offering black slaves a semblance of egalitarianism some slaves attended white churches, where they sat on Essay about of Reality special slave galleries and received advice regarding obedience to their masters. Black slaves used artistic expression to Cardboard Boat disguise dissent capoeira, for instance, was a form of Essay Influence Society martial arts camouflaged as a tribal dance (MSN Encarta, n. pag.). Of Mexican Essay? But some black slaves resorted to active resistance to challenge the control of their masters over them. But planned slave rebellions in America were often discovered and stopped before they were actually carried out. About 100 blacks were lynched in retaliation for the deaths of an estimated 60 whites in the failed Nat Turner insurrection in Southampton County, Virginia in Society, 1831. Sabotage or foot-dragging proved to moral hazard and adverse selection be a more effective means of rebellion.
This involved slaves feigning sickness or difficulty in understanding instructions and accidentally mishandling work animals and tools (MSN Encarta, n. pag.). But escape became the most common form of The resistance. Around 1,000 slaves, most of which came from the social work, Upland South, used underground railroads to flee to the North in the decades prior to the Civil War. About The Of Reality? However, most of these slaves died before making it to freedom. Fugitives who did not go through the underground railroad instead hid for days or weeks in Southern cities and swamps or in areas near their plantations. They were tracked down and social theory captured or voluntarily surrendered (MSN Encarta, n. pag.). In the Essay Influence, case of antebellum slavery, reforms merely served as palliatives.
Despite their good intentions, the reformers just ended up reducing concepts like social change, freedom and about is Addiction? equality into glittering generalities. This is about Influence of Reality Society, because they did not fully address the moral selection, core problem of slavery. The Influence Of Reality TV On? They contented themselves with using it as a topic of overly idealistic, pseudo-intellectual conversation. Consequently, armed struggle had to occur before genuine societal improvement ensued. Aiken, Charles S. Social Chart? Faulkners Yoknapatawpha County: A Place in the American South. Geographical Review 1979: 69. JSTOR. University of Arizona Library. 20 August. Andrews, Susan C., and Fenton, James P. Essay About Influence Of Reality Society? Archaeology and the Invisible Man: The Role of.
Slavery in moral and adverse selection, the Production of about The TV on Wealth and Social Class in the Bluegrass Region of. Kentucky, 1820 to Source Essay 1870. World Archaeology 2001: 33. Essay Influence Of Reality? JSTOR. University of. Arizona Library. 21 August 2008 http://www.jstor.org/stable/827892. Fletcher, Ben, and Ruef, Martin. Legacies of American Slavery: Status Attainment among. Southern Blacks after Emancipation. Social Forces 2003: 82. JSTOR. University of.
Arizona Library. Work Theory? 21 August 2008 http://www.jstor.org/stable/3598199. Essay The Of Reality? Free Blacks in Essay about Can A, the Antebellum Period (Part 1). n.d. African American Odyssey. 21 August. Henretta, James. America: A Concise History, Volume 1: To 1877.
3rd ed. New York: Bedford/St. Essay Influence Of Reality TV On? Martins, 2005. Slavery in the United States. 2008. MSN Encarta. Theory Chart? 21 August 2008.
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Essay about The Influence of Reality TV on Society -- Sociology
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Economy, comparison, and hierarchy in Dakar. Isma#x00EB;l M OYA , CNRS, Laboratoire d#x2019;ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative. According to Louis Dumont, comparison is the starting point of any anthropological analysis: an experiment that elicits differences to provide ideas and about, justify analytical standpoints. Yet what difference might fuel a comparative experiment in a global African metropolis such as Dakar, the capital of Senegal? I suggest a comparison with the autonomy and hazard selection, primacy of the economic in Euro-America to produce a radical constrast.
This text first examines Dumont#x2019;s work on the #x201C;economic#x201D; as a value conflicting with the political in Euro-America. Then it focuses on Dakar, where money and relations are two sides of the same coin. Following the money trail, it explores Dakar#x2019;s sociality, in which women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies of birth and marriage are more highly valued than the local economy, yet vividly condemned in discourses as a local custom preventing the full realization of economic development and Islam. Confronting these moral contradictions and about of Reality Society, the primacy of and adverse women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies over about The Influence, the economic in Dakar#x2019;s sociality, the text proposes to moral and adverse selection distinguish between morality and Essay about The of Reality TV on Society, values and Essay Cardboard Boat Float, acknowledges women#x2019;s ceremonies as an #x201C;unavowed#x201D; value. It then argues that moral contradictions of this kind mark the contrast between different levels of of Reality value and the existence of Drug Cartels Essay a hierarchy that articulates incompatible conceptions within the same social formation. Keywords: Senegal, value, hierarchy, money, economy, sociality, ceremonial exchange, Islam. Louis Dumont#x2019;s comparative method is radical and purposely unimaginative. As Dumont (1991: 8) put it: #x201C;I don#x2019;t have any idea, comparison provides it.#x201D; Dumont#x2019;s perspective is The TV on Society not radical because it drastically intensifies cultural differences, but rather because its epistemology is radical: comparison has no a priori object. Is Addiction?? It is an experiment in which differences are elicited to provide ideas and justify analytical standpoints. I propose in this article that a city such as Dakar, the capital of Senegal, be treated as a challenge for comparative anthropology along the lines of Dumont#x2019;s project. Dakar is a West African metropolis with a population of three million.
It is the capital of an independent and virtually democratic state, and a place that has seen massive emigration and immigration. It has been a Muslim society for centuries, has been in contact with Europe for nearly five hundred years, and is located in an area that has always been connected with trans-Saharan trade. In other words, Dakar represents an Essay about TV on obvious vantage point for moral hazard and adverse, a study of about Influence of Reality globalization, social change, or cultural hybridization. Yet it is not the ideal place for s recruitment, eliciting radical differences. The intertwining of modernity with tradition, of the local with the global, makes it almost impossible to draw a comparison on any given cultural element#x2014;especially the most enticing for those who seeks out difference#x2014;without immediately essentializing it.
What kind of difference might fuel a comparative experiment in this context? In this article, I suggest an answer, famously coined by about Influence of Reality, Bill Clinton: #x201C;It#x2019;s the economy, stupid!#x201D; A familiar and problematic category indeed, and not one of most appealing from an exoticist point of Essay about Can A Float view. Let#x2019;s begin by highlighting different ways of enacting comparison. Marcel Detienne#x2019;s book Comparing the incomparable (2008) is a vibrant manifesto for a comparative method that roots out differences and denies the irreducible singularity of the Essay The of Reality things compared. In the second chapter, #x201C;Constructing comparables,#x201D; he gives a vivid description of how he began his comparative enterprise and outlines his method. It all started with stimulating exchanges within a small group of social work chart historians and anthropologists gathered around a common question#x2014;namely, #x201C;What is Essay The Influence of Reality a site?#x201D; Then, #x201C;in order to m and access the teeming variety of modes of territorialization,#x201D; they felt the Essay The Society need #x201C;to select a category, making sure that it was generic enough to hazard and adverse selection allow the beginnings of Essay The Influence of Reality a comparison but neither too general nor too specific to any particular culture#x201D; (ibid.: 25). In other words, Detienne#x2019;s comparative method seeks out differences but still relies on a generic question (#x201C;What is a site?#x201D;) that defines the starting point. Comparison requires preexisting comparative categories that are ultimately the product of a form of eidetic reduction. In contrast, Dumont#x2019;s radical comparative perspective doesn#x2019;t start with a generic object or question. It foregrounds difference as the absolute fulcrum (Dumont 1977: 11) upon Essay What, which comparison draws exclusively. This is so because, according to Dumont, the meaning of about of Reality TV on Society a single feature, however important, can only be grasped from its relations with other particular features within a given social formation. #x201C;A particular feature, if taken not in itself but in its concrete position within a system, #x2026; can have a totally different meaning according to the position it occupies.
That is to work say, from a sociological standpoint it is actually different#x201D; (Dumont 1980: 253). One must always take into account the relative value of Essay about of Reality any element within the configuration to which it belongs. In other words, the hierarchy (i.e., value relations) present in each configuration is work theory chart essential. However, there is much that is implicit in any configuration and especially its fundamental tenets, that is to say, value relations (Dumont 1977: 19#x2013;20). Essay About Influence? Thus, the issue with comparison is not merely that we cannot avoid #x201C;misunderstanding others#x2019; views,#x201D; but also that we are required to deal with the Essay about implicit dimension of both #x201C;their#x201D; views and #x201C;ours.#x201D; According to about The of Reality TV on Dumont (1986: 8), the only way to explore this complexity #x201C;is when comparison shows discord between two different hierarchies.#x201D; Each comparison, thus, can only uncover a partial aspect, and yet evinces necessary but unexpressed relations on which the analysis can draw afterward. Dumont repeated many times that this kind of comparison is a recursive and an almost endless process. He has always been very elusive on where and how it should start. In his work, the anthropologist appears somehow compelled by ethnography to Essay about rediscover a familiar but problematic notion of our common thought, which provides a comparative perspective (in Dumont#x2019;s case, India elicited hierarchy: ibid.: 7).
Drawing on Dumont#x2019;s work on Essay, economy as a value in Euro-America, and my ethnography in Thiaroye-sur-Mer, a Wolof-speaking poor suburb of Dakar, in this article I explore Dakar#x2019;s sociality, in which women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges are more highly valued than the m and local economy but unanimously condemned in the name of both economic rationality and Islam. I then develop the Essay about The Influence TV on Society argument that comparison can also reveal whether moral contradictions evince a conflict bewteen competing values or eclipse an unavoyed hierarchy. Dumont#x2019;s work was profoundly inspired by Karl Polanyi#x2019;s book The great transformation (1944), and especially by his fundamental thesis on the disembedding of economies from society. According to Dumont, Polanyi demonstrated that the constitution of the economic components of social life in a separate subsystem that subordinates the Monitoring: at Errors rest, which took place over the course of the Essay The of Reality Society nineteenth century, was an exceptional event in human history. Dumont#x2019;s first comparative work on Source Monitoring: at Errors Essay, Euro-America addressed the autonomy and Essay about TV on Society, primacy of the economic aspect as a key expression of individualism, and m and s recruitment, as the triumph of a form of social life marked by Essay about The of Reality TV on, the separation and unresolved tension between economics and politics (Dumont 1977). He repeatedly praised The great transformation as an anthropological masterpiece (Dumont 1977, 1983, 1986, 1994), and helped bring Polanyi#x2019;s ideas to Essay Can A Cardboard Float a French audience. 1 He was also a fierce critic of Polanyi#x2019;s subsequent work (1957) as an economic anthropologist. 2 His criticism revolved around the definition of the Essay about Society word #x201C;economic.#x201D;
Polanyi made a famous distinction between two meanings of the term, one formal and s recruitment, the other substantive: The substantive meaning of economic derives from Influence of Reality Society, man#x2019;s dependence for his living upon moral hazard and adverse selection, nature and his fellows. It refers to the interchange with his natural and Essay about The TV on, social environment, in moral hazard and adverse so far as this results in supplying him with the means of material want-satisfaction. The formal meaning of economic derives from the logical character of the means#x2013;ends relationship, as apparent in such words as #x201C;economical#x201D; or #x201C;economizing.#x201D; It refers to a definite situation of choice, namely, that between the different uses of means induced by an insufficiency of those means. (Polanyi 1957: 243) For Polanyi, the about The Influence formalist definition only applied to m and s recruitment market economies, whereas the about The Society substantive definition was universal, and thus of use to comparative anthropology. And Adverse Selection? This distinction gave rise to a vigorous debate in the 1960s, which saw two trends in economic anthropology (formalist and substantivist) taking opposite sides on how to identify the economic aspect in comparative anthropology (Isaac 2005).
Dumont took an original#x2014;and yet overlooked#x2014;position in Essay The Influence TV on Society this debate. He argued that, contra Polanyi, the of Mexican Cartels question of the status of the economy in social formations alone could not lead to an anthropological comparison, because it assumes the empirical existence of #x201C;the economy#x201D; as an external reality present in any given social formation. On the contrary, according to Dumont, the primacy of the economic dimension is not the disembedding of a fundamental domain of social life that is or was already present: #x201C;It should be obvious that there is Essay Influence Society nothing like an economy out there, unless and until men construct such an about object#x201D; (Dumont 1986: 33). Dumont#x2019;s methodological stance is not, however, to disclose an error or a truth regarding the mode of existence of the about The of Reality Society economy (e.g., Latour and moral hazard and adverse selection, L#x00E9;pinay 2009). Essay About TV On Society? From a comparative point a view, the economy is Source a construct, and not a given on Essay of Reality TV on, which a plurality of competing definitions 3 may be identified but none is beyond discussion.
Instead, according to Dumont (1977: 24), one should start from Polanyi#x2019;s thesis on the primacy of the economic dimension and identify the social presupposition on which the object of Essay about Influence of Reality TV on Society economics is constructed in the location of this same object in Euro-American social formations. In From Mandeville to Marx , he studied the genesis of economics as an Essay What is Addiction? intellectual category distinct from politics. One of his conclusions was that #x201C;the economic category rests on a value judgment, an implicit hierarchy. It supposes that something else is Influence Society excluded or subordinated#x201D; (ibid.: 26). Dumont never sought to define economics, or to compare it with something else (such as a cosmology, a religion, or a culture). Instead, he drew on a comparative difference to elicit a value: the autonomy and primacy of the and adverse selection economic dimension as a peculiar feature of Euro-American social formations. The economic category can be defined not in itself, but as a function of its value relation with other categories, especially the move, described by Polanyi, toward a valueencompassing relation of the economic over the political (Dumont 1986: 104#x2013;12). Dumont concluded his study of the genesis of economic ideology by considering the consequences of the conflicting relation of value between economics and politics. He was perplexed by well-meaning thinkers#x2014;and especially economists such as Keynes#x2014;who proposed that we cease behaving like slaves of the economic process and downgrade the economy to the status of Essay about of Reality Society a means for achieving #x201C;the real human ends, which are social#x201D; (Dumont 1977: 107). For Dumont, a program such as this would most likely fail, or succeed at the cost of weakening or destroying the and adverse selection individual as a value. According to him, In such a case, we should likely return to subordination, unless we are able to produce at short notice a consensus bearing a still unseen third path. #x201C;The economic#x201D; is a major category of our thought, and about Influence of Reality TV on Society, constraints inherent to our ideology are such that we are not at liberty to decree that, from now on, it will be downgraded to the rank of a servant. (Dumont 1977: 107)
In the second French edition of From Mandeville to Evolving of Mexican Drug Essay Marx , Dumont felt the need to introduce a clarification of his views. Essay About The Of Reality? #x201C;Until further notice, subordination in its natural form, as a value, is excluded from work, our ideology. It would therefore only be reintroduced in a shameful, pathological form, that is to say, as oppression#x201D; (Dumont  1985: 132). Two pages later, he concludes: #x201C;So far, the choice between wealth as an end and forced, pathological, forms of Essay TV on Society subordination is our fate#x201D; (ibid.: 134). Dumont#x2019;s contention, and especially the last conclusion, may appear to be an uncompromising neoliberal view; however, his true position is radically different. This is not a claim on the order of social chart facts that would, for Essay Influence of Reality TV on Society, example, call into question the legitimacy of or possibility for a political body to act upon the economy as an external, objective reality. Rather, it is a warning about the of Mexican Drug limits and The Influence of Reality TV on Society, constraints exerted by value systems on power, especially on what Dumont called #x201C;artificialism#x201D;: the social idea that power or strength of will has an Essay about The Influence Society unlimited capacity to fully transform the world in accordance with an social theory ideal and therefore to Essay Influence TV on Society sift the Evolving Structure Drug Cartels good aspects, which will be kept, from the bad, which will be discarded. #x201C;Ideology has the power to transform social reality only between certain limits and when we ignore those limits we produce the contrary of what was desired#x201D; (Dumont 1977: 12). Dumont#x2019;s aim was neither to naturalize nor to eradicate power, but to understand its limits. His work is haunted by totalitarianism, and he repeatedly highlighted the Essay The Influence of Reality dangers and Source Monitoring: at Errors, tragic consequences of the idea that power can transform society rapidly and fundamentally. #x201C;There are other limits to modern artificialism than those ecology has begun to teach us, limits that follow from the social nature of man as thinking being#x201D; (ibid.: 108). For Dumont (1986: 92), artificialism clashes with society as whole, not in the corporate sense of a group that would oppose a resistance to about Influence of Reality TV on Society change (brought by another group) in the name of moral principles (Thompson 1971), but as a system of values. The question of the economy illustrates particularly vividly the Can A Cardboard limits imposed by a system of values.
The autonomy of the economic dimension has tangible consequences, a set of constraints that seem to impose themselves on Essay of Reality, social formations that politics is not able to fully control. This situation is dramatically illustrated by the consequences of economic and Evolving Structure Cartels, financial globalization in Essay about Influence TV on general, especially in recent years, and portrays the predicaments of Western states that are struggling with markets against moral selection, a background of about of Reality Society financial crisis and social turmoil. However, according to Dumont, the autonomy and primacy of the economic dimension is neither the expression of an objective fact (social formations are subjected to natural #x201C;economic laws#x201D;) nor the result of a power relation between social units and ideas (such as class struggles, the power of finance, or government corruption). Essay About? The autonomy and about Influence Society, primacy of the economic dimension is a paramount value, which, like any value, can never be fully realized. However, this value includes a claim#x2014;or a tendency#x2014;to move toward a value-encompassing relation over s recruitment, the whole of society, 4 thereby challenging the political. Dumont is also one of the few commentators on Polanyi to Essay about Society explicitly agree with the m and other major thesis of Essay about The TV on Society The great transformation : that the emancipation of the Source economic domain is a major social and ideological fact, but that at an empirical level, economic liberalism combines with its opposite. About Of Reality Society? This is what Polanyi (1944: 136) calls the #x201C;double movement#x201D;: market societies are constituted by a movement of liberalism to Evolving Drug Cartels expand the scope of the market, and a countermovement resisting the #x201C;disembedding#x201D; of the economy.
Polanyi#x2019;s double movement is a fair illustration of what Joel Robbins refers to about The of Reality TV on as #x201C;hierarchical dynamism#x201D; in his contribution to this issue: a value is never homogeneously dominant; it is always found in combination with other values, in this case economy and political power (Dumont 1994: 8#x2013;9). Dumont (1983: xv) writes in this regard: #x201C;One can observe in the economic field something called otherwise the work theory #x2018;coexistence of Essay The Influence of Reality Society opposites.#x2019; It is an Source at Errors Essay empirical coexistence, more or less obscure or shameful, a kind of mixture with no specific formula.#x201D; In sum, Dumont#x2019;s contention, contra Polanyi, is that the economic domain is not a comparative object. However, the autonomy and primacy of the economic dimension as a #x201C;modern Euro-American#x201D; value, conflicting with politics, contains a comparative potential for anthropology, provided that it elicits a difference between social formations. Essay About The Influence? In the comparative experiment that follows, I compare Dumont#x2019;s view of the economy and the limits a value system imposes on m and s recruitment, artificialism with my ethnography of Dakar. The Euro-American configuration forms the backdrop against which difference in Dakar, or at least certain aspects of it, can be grasped. I will start again by highlighting a contrast. In Euro-America, although everyday life requires money almost constantly, entire sectors of social life function through a minimization or condemnation of the circulation of money and the idea of a distinction between intimacy and economy. In Dakar, on the other hand, there is no domain in Essay about The Influence TV on Society social life in selection which money does not play a continuing role. Money is central to the economy as well as matrimonial relations and kinship (from solidarity between relatives to the countless exchanges of cash that take place during family ceremonies), politics (such as through patronage and corruption), or religious practices (Muslim disciples offer cash to their religious masters every time they visit them).
Thus, everyone seems to about The of Reality TV on Society be permanently engaged in a quest for what they call #x201C;means#x201D;: that is, money. However, the centrality of money in social life, its penetration into the heart of intimacy, the constant haggling and social, the seeming generalization of venality, does not imply that sociality is a global market in which every relation can be bought or sold. Here, we are skirting the debate on the corrosive power of money, which goes back at least to Greek antiquity, and Essay about TV on, is one of anthropology#x2019;s greatest achievements as a discipline. After intense discussions on money, commodity, and social transformation, anthropologists have contradicted Aristotle, Shakespeare, Goethe, and Marx and moral, put an end to this debate (see, e.g., Bloch and Parry 1989; Geschiere 2000; Akin and Essay Influence of Reality TV on, Robbins 2001). Everyone is now more or less in agreement that the equivalence between monetarization and commodification is an error. This does not mean that the about Can A Cardboard Boat Float pervasive presence of money in Dakar#x2019;s social life is harmless and of no consequence: money is the The most valuable form of relationship, and mediates not only commodity or economic relations, but all social relations. Furthermore, there can be no enduring and meaningful relationship if money is not involved at one point or another, especially the more intimate bonds, like those between spouses, or kinship and friendship. In Dakar, no matter what people do and Essay about, how much they earn, money always seems to be running short. Obviously, it is scarce because most people in Dakar are poor and have very low incomes, but there is also a deeper, sociological, reason.
The scarcity of money is combined with two other elements: firstly, because money and social relations are two sides of the same coin, people are constantly engaged in numerous financial relationships, from credit#x2013;debt or business to payments of all kinds during family ceremonies, contributions to prayer groups or local associations, and so on; and, secondly, because of the moral value of solidarity (Marie 1997, 2000), whoever has money must cope with continuing demands from a constantly needy entourage: friends, neighbors, and especially relatives. For example, a young man who had found a good wage-paying job at the Senegalese National Telecommunications Company (SONATEL) described the #x201C;moral imperative#x201D; of solidarity to me as follows: My family owns this house. There was still room in the courtyard when I got the SONATEL job, so I built a bedroom wing and got married. I also bought a small motorcycle to go to work and Essay about of Reality TV on Society, move around. Essay Is Addiction?? It#x2019;s been a year now. I#x2019;m trying to Essay TV on Society save money with Ahmed, my older brother, and hopefully, if everything goes well, we will be able to afford to Monitoring: at Errors connect our house to the water mains. From this point of view, I can#x2019;t complain. Here, with a salary, you earn esteem and consideration, that#x2019;s for sure.
But in fact, I don#x2019;t have any more money than before, when I was unemployed. Now, almost every day, someone comes here and talks to me about about The Influence of Reality one problem or another. And almost every time, I have to give money to somebody. I#x2019;m not only speaking of my wife here. Relatives, friends, it#x2019;s everyone, every day. This is my main problem.
The problem is that I am bombarded. Anyone who might have some cash, especially a salaried employee, a migrant living abroad, or an ethnographer, is under permanent and continuous fire from claims and A look, demands of all kinds from relatives, friends, neighbors, creditors, commercial partners, and The Influence TV on Society, so on. In Dakar, people cope with these #x201C;bombardments#x201D; by putting their cash out of reach: liquidity (i.e., cash) is Essay about What converted in financial relations. Some literally put a physical distance between themselves and their money. For example, one woman opened a bank account on the opposite side of town. Accessing her savings was expensive because she had to pay the Influence TV on Society bus fare to at Errors Essay go to the bank and return home. Most of the Essay The Influence time, however, money is What is Addiction? put out of reach by converting liquidity into mutual debt, especially in rotating savings and credit associations, or #x201C;tontines.#x201D; A tontine is a group of persons, usually women, who gather for a series of meetings. Each member contributes to a collective #x201C;pot,#x201D; which is then given to one member, who is subsequently excluded from receiving the pot in future meetings, while still being obliged to contribute to it. The meeting process is about of Reality Society repeated until each member has received the pot. The order in which they do so is decided at the beginning of the process, usually by the leader of the group (the #x201C;mother#x201D; of the tontine). Once money circulates in a tontine, or is of Mexican lent to someone, or is Essay The Influence of Reality TV on engaged in and adverse any kind of credit relationship, it is out of reach for a given period of time.
In this way, people save money without keeping any cash. About TV On Society? There is then no alternative but to turn down those who ask for help, because cash is and adverse selection not available immediately. Money is thus put out of reach in numerous financial networks. Essay About The Influence Of Reality TV On? In other words, financial management is based on an #x201C;illiquidity preference#x201D; (Shipton 1990: 16#x2013;19). If liquidity, as Keynes stated ( 1973: 293), is a link between the present and the future, it takes the form here not of Evolving Structure of Mexican Cartels speculative hoarding, but of a network of TV on relations. Work Chart? Illiquidity preference also means that money is available to of Reality irrigate financial networks. The velocity of money is extremely high, because no cash is left idle. People often say that cash burns their fingers: as soon as it is received, it is either spent or converted into a financial relation, as an #x201C;investment,#x201D; as my interlocutors#x2014;and especially women#x2014;often put it.
Financial relations form numerous circuits, each of which has a different temporality, which may be from a few days to several years, hence the importance of synchronization of the financial networks. Financial networks, which are mostly managed by women, are not simply the financial basis of the local economy; because money is the most valuable form of relation, they are also, and above all, the m and warp and woof of sociality. The bombardment image and the idea of social or relational investment are used by my interlocutors to describe their financial practices. About Influence? These are very evocative metaphors for the financial logic at stake, and are quite easy to understand, but they are also profoundly misleading. The conversion of liquidity into relations is not a mere financial strategy; it lies at the very foundations of sociality. Illiquidity is the means by which people manage their relations. In a monetarized and pervasive sociality such as Dakar#x2019;s, it is the very condition for action. Agency hinges on two elements: firstly, the conversion of liquidity into financial relationships; and, secondly, the synchronization of financial relations#x2014;that is, the hazard possibility of having access to cash when it is needed. The trouble here is that the Influence of Reality TV on Society temporality of the Drug Cartels various sociofinancial relations in Essay about The of Reality which a person is involved is never homogeneous. In Dakar, only social chart lifecycle ceremonies in which women ostentatiously exchange hundreds of gifts to honor kinship relations can efficiently synchronize financial networks in order to Essay Influence TV on gather large amounts of money, whereas one of the is Addiction? basic propositions of economics is of Reality TV on that only markets can synchronize in this way. Hierarchy: Economy and ceremonial exchanges.
Financial relations in the local economy are continually being disrupted by the illiquidity of debtors. On the supply side, the illiquidity preference is indeed a means of making savings and thus a way of financing investment, but on the demand side, it is also a significant insolvency factor. Furthermore, small businesspeople have to cope with the constant claims and problems of their relatives, in a context where there is no distinction between the money allocated to households and businesses. In order to maintain their economic activities, people strive to separate commercial circuits from the rest of their sociofinancial relations as clearly as possible, especially to preserve working capital (Guerin 2003, 2006; Moya forthcoming). In general, people find it very hard to successfully synchronize even a small number of What is Addiction? sociofinancial networks at the same time in order to maintain or develop their economic activities. Of Reality TV On Society? Likewise, because solidarity is social work theory chart always a relation between two individuals, even in the case of an unexpected problem such as illness, people can never activate more than a few relations in Essay The Influence TV on Society their search for funds unless they have a wealthy relative who is able to support them (i.e., in this context, a migrant or someone earning a salary). On the other hand, ceremonies performed by women for lifecycle events, especially birth and marriage ceremonies, usually mobilize dozens of the very same financial networks (Moya 2004; Buggenhagen 2012). About What Is Addiction?? They often involve more than two hundred people and huge amounts of money. It is not unusual to see more than one year of an entire household#x2019;s annual income collected in just a few days and put into Essay The Influence of Reality circulation for a birth ceremony by one woman in a single evening. In marriage and birth ceremonies, women exchange money and moral and adverse, clothes to honor kinship relationships, especially affinity. It is impossible to describe the about The of Reality TV on Society complex logic of the Structure Cartels ceremonial exchange system here owing to lack of space, but it might be summarized by Essay TV on Society, saying that the ceremonial gifts among women in social theory chart birth and marriage ceremonies represent the manner by which affinity and the succession of generations are construed as having value, and become operative in about Influence of Reality Society the order of social relations (Moya forthcoming).
Women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are the only events that can ensure the synchronization of all of a person#x2019;s sociofinancial relations and their transformation into cash. For example, in each tontine (rotating savings and selection, credit association), the order of recipients is Essay The of Reality TV on Society fixed at the beginning of each cycle. Regardless of the purpose of the tontine (savings, business, clothing, or a ceremony), if a participant (and almost all of them are women) is involved in a marriage or birth ceremony, she will be systematically moved to the top of the list, thereby disrupting any expectations the remaining recipients might have, or any calculations they might have made. Every woman involved in a ceremony also brings or sends a gift of money#x2014;called ndawtal#x2014; for Can A Boat Float, one of the main actors of the Essay about The Influence of Reality TV on Society ceremony they have come to support, whether it be a relative, a friend, or a neighbor . Ndawtal are reciprocal solidarity gifts that are clearly conceptually distinguished from ceremonial acts ( teraanga ). S Recruitment? Every ndawtal received will require a return of twice 5 the sum given initially. Each  ndawtal is recorded in a ledger, which the recipient is supposed to consult (but usually women have a very precise memory of it) prior to the next ceremony (birth or marriage). Essay About The Influence? While people who lend money usually struggle to get it back, no one is Cartels ever concerned in the case of ndawtal . A woman will commonly receive dozens of these gifts for a birth ceremony. In other words, unlike solidarity or economic activities, lifecycle ceremonies organized by women activate numerous financial networks simultaneously in Essay about The Influence TV on Society order to honor kinship relations through ceremonial gifts, thereby collecting funds that it would be impossible to raise for any other purpose. I carried out a limited survey of 350 individuals that suggests that women#x2019;s ceremonial funding mobilizes nearly one-third of Structure of Mexican Cartels Essay overall savings. The sociofinancial system in Dakar has a peculiar morphology. There are no boundaries between financial spheres of about The of Reality TV on exchange (Bohannan 1955) comparable to those described by numerous authors, such as Parker Shipton (1989) among the Luo of about Cardboard Boat Keyna, Sharon Hutchinson (1996) among the Nuer of Sudan, Jean and John Comaroff (1990) among the Tshidi of South Africa, or Viviana Zelizer (1994) in American households in about The Influence Society the 1940s (see also Bloch and Parry 1989).
In each case, moral boundaries are drawn between financial spheres of exchange, which in some cases can be overcome by forms of conversion (Guyer 2004). For example, among the Luo of Kenya (Shipton 1989), money obtained from theft, won in a lottery, or gained from the m and sale of lineage land, gold, tobacco, or cannabis is considered #x201C;bitter#x201D;: that is, dangerous and Influence, associated with spirits. It cannot be used for is Addiction?, transactions involving kinship relations unless purification ceremonies are performed. Essay About Of Reality? In Dakar, there is one single monetary circuit without moral boundaries of any kind, especially when it comes to ceremonial exchanges: the origins of work theory chart money given at a ceremony to honor a relative are of no concern to the recipient and vice versa. It very common to use a 500 CFA franc note received at a ceremony for the fare back home, or to purchase the next morning#x2019;s breakfast.
Some people even repay debts of all kinds with money received as bridewealth payments or given by about of Reality, relatives by marriage to honor them at a birth or a marriage ceremony. Urban sociality is comprised of flows of financial relations activated by individuals. It is not structured by morally bounded spheres of exchange. Sociality is hierarchized 6 in terms of agency: that is, the capacity to synchronize relations and convert them into cash. In the local financial system, and about is Addiction?, thus in sociality, economy is subordinated to women#x2019;s ceremonies. This is not to suggest that women#x2019;s exchanges in of Reality TV on marriage and birth ceremonies collect more money than anything else: in Essay about What is Addiction? absolute terms, more money circulates in the economy than in women#x2019;s ceremonies. Nor is Essay of Reality TV on Society it the case that the A look at Errors Essay entire economy of Dakar is organized through ceremonial exchanges or even relationality. Rather, my argument is that from the point of view of finance and agency, women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges are valued more highly than economics. When they perform a marriage or birth ceremony, women manage to activate (i.e., to Essay about of Reality TV on Society synchronize and convert into cash) all the financial relations they are involved in, whereas this is not possible for about What is Addiction?, economic (or any other) purposes.
On the contrary, economic life suffers from the desynchronization of financial relations, and the illiquidity preference generates structural insolvability and a constant disruption of financial temporalities. The hierarchy between the economy and ceremonies in Dakar is meaningful from a comparative perspective: that is, from the point of view of the primacy of the economic dimension in Euro-America. I am not contrasting two distinct types of economies here and assuming that they are somehow comparable (e.g., as a gift economy and a commodity economy). My argument rests on the placement of two very different economic forms within two different social formations: primacy and autonomy in relation to politics in Euro-America, and Influence of Reality Society, subordination in relation to ceremonies in Dakar. S Recruitment? This comparison both elicits and justifies the purpose of an investigation, and in Essay about Influence TV on this case the purpose is not women#x2019;s birth and marriage exchange ceremonies as such, but a value: the primacy of these ceremonies in Dakar#x2019;s sociality. Financial hierarchy is a structural fact, but not a matter of morality: men and women constantly complain about ceremonial expenses, and denounce them as a waste ( yaax ) of Source money. Of course, my interlocutors in Dakar also usually acknowledge that feasting and Essay, performing family ceremonies, especially gift exchanges, is prestigious, and even fun. Everyone, especially women, has a lot to say when it comes to ceremonies: how they are absurdly costly, yet very pleasant, events ( neex ); how this or that ceremony should be performed; how this or that ceremony has been performed; how this ceremonial gift was carried out, or how this or that praise was offered#x2014;rightly or wrongly; how this (e.g., Muslim rituals) is absolutely mandatory, or that (e.g., bridewealth or ceremonial gifts) is optional; how there are times when one should not skimp on expenses and times when one should not spend too much, and so on. In other words, everyone has an opinion on a number of issues, and social work theory chart, each ceremony gives rise to numerous comments. Essay About Influence Of Reality Society? Organizing and attending and spending large sums of money on lifecycle ceremonies is something of an about inevitable fact, for women in particular, even though everyone also complains about the Essay The Influence TV on Society excessive spending, and condemns these ceremonies as wasteful events.
The amount of money mobilized and spent in ceremonies perplexes my interlocutors deeply. For example, a few days after a birth ceremony that she had organized (she spent more than one million CFA francs that day), Sokhna S., a forty-five-year-old woman, said to me: You know, in Essay about What is Addiction? France, downtown [i.e., Dakar city centre], or even among migrants [the families who receive remittances from migrants living in places such as France, Italy, Spain, or the United States], one can always find money. Here it is not good: family ceremonies exhaust everyone, especially the girl#x2019;s mother [the person who organizes marriage and birth ceremonies]. It is so hard for her. But even those who receive a lot, they never manage to keep something at the end of the day. Everybody condemns that.
Every one of us. Even me. I disagree with this enormous waste. We could have done business with that money, we could have done development [in French]. I am an activist for Essay about of Reality TV on Society, development. Structure Of Mexican Cartels Essay? Ceremonial events ( xew ) #x2026; our husbands, they also moan about them all the time#x2026;. But you know, these are just words. We only talk.
And we do the ceremonies, that#x2019;s all. That#x2019;s what we do here, we do ceremonies, maximum ! [in French, then she laughs] That#x2019;s the way it goes. I will now focus on the nature of this apparent contradiction and Essay Influence Society, the feeling of perplexity that stems from it. When asked why they need to perform ceremonies, or why so many people and so much money come together on these occasions, my interlocutors#x2019; answer has always been the Source Monitoring: Essay same: #x201C;It is our aada #x201D; ( su#x00F1;u aada la ). This answer is hard to Essay Society understand. The word aada comes from Arabic, and is in common use from Senegal to Indonesia ( aadet ). In Wolof, it means #x201C;custom.#x201D; The term does not convey any idea of Essay about What is Addiction? tradition in the sense of continuity, repetition over time, or practices inherited from the past, however, whether from Essay Influence of Reality TV on Society, ancestors or relatives from a previous generation. Rather, aada means the common, well-established ways of being and doing things.
When my interlocutors gave me this answer, it was obviously a way of signifying the difference between how they do things such as ceremonies and how they imagine white #x201C;Euro-Americans#x201D; ( tubab ) like me do comparable things. But it has never been a justification based on tradition: in fact, the term aada is also often used more or less explicitly to signify a synchronic distinction. People distinguish their own aada from m and, that of others: for example, to compare the Wolof ways of doing things with those peculiar to other regional ethnic groups such as the Serer ( seereer ), Tukulor ( haalpulaar#x2019;en ), or Moors ( naar ). However, my interlocutors have never been especially concerned with identity claims or the idea of following a tradition inherited from the past. Furthermore, the term aada not only signifies an external differentiation (us versus others); it also distinguishes one particular type of institution and practice from another, especially when it comes to the financial dimensions of women#x2019;s ceremonial practices. There are numerous types of costly and ostentatious gifts: mutual exchanges ( joqalante ) based on civility and honor; ceremonial gifts that honor relations ( teraanga ) and countergifts ( njukkal ); bridewealth payments ( may bu j#x00EB;kk and warugar ); the Essay about The TV on various gifts before ( waajtaay ) and s recruitment, during ( yeebi ) ceremonies celebrating the entry of the bride into her husband#x2019;s home; the various gifts before ( ruy ) and during birth ceremonies, especially gifts to honor female husbands ( teral nj#x00EB;kke ) 7 or affinity in general ( teral goro ); gifts before a journey to and from Essay about The of Reality TV on Society, Mecca; offerings to affines during Ramadan ( suukaru koor ); or reciprocal gifts for ceremonial support ( ndawtal ). M And S Recruitment? All of Influence these are thought of as aada because they are ostentatious exchanges that require a considerable amount of money. In other words, aada means female exchange ceremonies in general ( xew ), but above all lavish spending and financial exuberance during ceremonies. In this sense, the custom ( aada ) designates what seems a priori to be its most modern dimension, namely the financial aspect of female ceremonies. One of my interlocutors, alternating between French and Wolof, explained to me:
Awa [in French]: This should be nothing but reasonable mutual aid. But whenever we can, we lapse into folklore. Islam condemns it. Folklore #x2026; Isma#x00EB;l [in French]: Folklore? What do you mean? Awa [in French and Wolof]: Folklore, you know#x2026;. All of this is aada. Here, we put aada everywhere.
Here, we go too far at every opportunity. Money matters, clothes, teraanga and the like, this is aada , folklore. Ceremonies, exuberant expenses, squandering, this is our aada . Custom ( aada ) is Evolving Structure of Mexican Cartels also thought of as negative and harmful. We do not, therefore, find justification of a particular culture in relation to a hegemonic culture comparable to the one Dumont (1994) studied in the case of Germany facing French revolutionary ideas. It is the exact opposite: according to my interlocutors, financial exuberance in birth and marriage ceremonies is not only a local cultural idiosyncrasy but, above all, constitutes a formidable obstacle that inhibits the full realization of universal values: development and Islam. Contradictions: Economic development and Islam. My interlocutors usually say that money spent on ceremonies is #x201C;wasted#x201D; ( yaax ) because otherwise it could be invested in Essay The Influence TV on economic activities. The structural adjustment programs imposed on A look, the Senegalese government by the IMF in the 1980s and 1990s in the wake of the Influence debt crisis and the neoliberal policies of the last two decades have significantly reduced the about role of the postcolonial state, partly to the benefit of NGOs. Numerous organizations dedicated to about Influence TV on development operate in Dakar. Women are the social theory privileged targets and recipients of development assistance funds and microfinance projects.
These financial flows irrigate the local financial system, but are of limited effectiveness owing to issues of financial mismanagement that are largely attributable not only to embezzlement but also to ceremonial expenditure (Ndione 1992; Guerin 2006). In the last twenty-five years, the Senegalese state (government, municipalities, and paragovernmental organizations), international agencies, NGOs, and microfinance institutions have dedicated a good deal of energy and resources to advertising good governance and The TV on, development. A local consequence of Essay this global movement has been the growing importance of ideas of fiscal austerity and control of expenditure. This rhetoric was not limited to the public sphere, to politicians, religious or community leaders (Buggenhagen 2012: 201#x2013;3); the Essay The of Reality TV on discourse on austerity and the NGOs#x2019; rhetoric on development and hazard and adverse selection, good governance is echoed by many ordinary people, women as well as men, even in poor suburbs. My interlocutors denounce ceremonial expenditure as irresponsible and in conflict with what they usually refer to as #x201C;good practice#x201D; or #x201C;good development practices#x201D;: that is, ultimately, economic rationality. In a poor country such as Senegal, economic development means improved living conditions. It is TV on Society a key sociopolitical goal, and also the way most of my interlocutors 8 perceive the future. Structure? Development is seen as an event that will result in radical, profound, and positive change. This change, which is still to come, will occur as soon as #x201C;the obstacles to development#x201D; have been overcome, after which economic rationality will prevail, and people will enjoy a better life. Many of these obstacles are attributed to local practices, to ceremonies as well as to Essay about Influence of Reality TV on corruption or patronage.
As emphasized by Source Monitoring: A look, Jean-Pierre Olivier de Sardan (1999) on the subject of West Africa, the same moral economy favors both corruption and about The Influence Society, ceremonial financial exuberance: gifts made as a result of a moral duty (such as solidarity, or thanks for Evolving Structure of Mexican Drug Cartels, service rendered), the importance of TV on Society ostentation, redistribution, kinship relations, or interpersonal mutual aid networks. Almost everyone condemns corruption and family ceremonies as vigorously as they put them into practice. On the subject of corruption, Olivier de Sardan (1999: 48) evokes #x201C;the general feeling of helplessness in the face of an Essay infernal mechanism#x201D;; this is comparable to what I have called my interlocutors#x2019; feeling of perplexity. The problem is identical in Essay The Influence the case of women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies: in both instances, particular local institutions prevent full realization of a universal moral ideal (economic rationality and development). The money that should be devoted to economic purposes is Evolving Cartels embezzled or wasted on lavish ceremonial expenditures. Aada, be it corruption or ceremonies, represents an inevitable obstacle that everyone wants to Essay about The Influence TV on overcome, although no one knows how. Aada in general, and Monitoring: Essay, ceremonies in particular, are also contrary to Islam and condemned in its name. Sufi leaders sometimes argue that money spent on ceremonies should instead be used for religious purposes, such as zakat 9 (Buggenhagen 2012: 177).
Mostly, however, the issue is not so much one of the allocation of Society funds per about Can A Cardboard, se as the fact that women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are contrary to Islam as an about The TV on order of value. In the late 1980s, religious leaders#x2014;Sufi as well as reformist#x2014;began issuing negative opinions on women#x2019;s expenses and clothing during religious celebrations and family gatherings, or even in Evolving Structure of Mexican Essay everyday life. The discussions focused on Essay The Influence of Reality TV on Society, the veil, of course, 10 but also on the low-cut necklines of their robes ( boubous ), erotic dances ( sabar ), music, or the practice of appearing in public wearing sumptuous clothing and make-up ( sa#x00F1;se ) in m and family ceremonies (Heath 1992). The greatest problem, however, has almost always been ostentatious female exchange ceremonies celebrating a birth or a marriage. Reformist Muslims condemn women#x2019;s ceremonies and aada in general as pre-Islamic unholy practices.
Sufi leaders are more moderate, but also denounce ostentatious and lavish spending on the same grounds (#x201C;God prohibits squandering#x201D;). Religious leaders do not have a monopoly of The of Reality TV on Society discussions such as these, however. My interlocutors also condemn aada and the huge ceremonial expenditure in the name of Essay about What Islam, but they rarely denounce ceremonial practices as inherently unholy. Essay About The? For the most part, they condemn them because the extravagant spending and ostentatious ceremonial exchanges of gifts contradict the temperance and restraint required of every Muslim. Ostentatious behavior and financial intemperance are viewed as #x00EB;ppal , which means both excess and an excessive desire for fame and superiority over others. More broadly, ostentation and financial exuberance in marriage and birth ceremonies are attributed by many men and women, religious leaders and ordinary believers, to custom ( aada ): that is, as a local peculiarity that contradicts the universal principles of s recruitment Islam. From contradictions to hierarchy: Unavowed value. I began this article by about The Influence of Reality, quoting vintage Bill Clinton. Theory? In a spirit of comparative fairness, I should mention that on October 18, 2014, Macky Sall, the current president of Senegal, made a vivid speech in which denounced #x201C;wastefulness#x201D; ( gaspillage in French) in about The of Reality Society family ceremonies as a fundamental problem in Senegal. Yet he is hardly the first. Moral? In 1905, in Kaolack, prominent citizens unsuccessfully tried to limit bridewealth payments by creating a price scale (Geismar 1933).
Over the The Influence of Reality last hundred years, many religious and political authorities have initiated failed attempts to keep ceremonial expenses under control (e.g. Robin 1947). In 1950, prominent members of the native community of Dakar ( Lebu ), who were mainly religious leaders, took the initiative to write a code reforming #x201C;custom#x201D; ( aada ) entitled the Evolving Structure Drug Cartels Essay #x201C;Matrimonial Pact of Dakar#x201D; ( Pacte matrimonial de Dakar ), which included, among other things, capping expenses for marriage, birth ceremonies, and funerals (Anonymous 1951). Essay About Of Reality Society? Soon after this, the colonial administration adopted the s recruitment code in Essay about The TV on the Jacquinot Decree of September 14, 1951. A few years after independence (in 1961), a law on ceremonial spending was passed on February 24, 1967 (Law No. 67-04); this law has been included in the Family Code since 1972.
It is still in effect, even though its lack of effectiveness has never been denied throughout the Essay past five decades. Not a month goes by in Senegal without heated public discussions launched by a prominent politician or religious leader that condemn ceremonial expenditure. In other words, when it comes to ceremonial expenditure, any power, be it religious or political, local or national, takes a stand against the harsh protraction of Essay about of Reality TV on Society women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges in marriages and birth ceremonies. Can A Cardboard Float? In this case, artificialism is directed not toward the transformation of society against the goodwill of Essay TV on individuals but to control of one element of local social life in order to Source A look at Errors realize universal values (economic rationality or Islam). The paradox is Influence of Reality TV on Society that everyone, and not only about Boat Float political or religious leaders, 11 agrees that ceremonial expenditures are harmful to the economic and moral wellbeing of individuals and the future of society in general.
But over the last century, the countless condemnations and numerous attempts to ban or control them have had no effect at all. So far, the situation may seem absolutely paradoxical, unless aada is considered as a sort of mysteriously powerful deus ex machina that pushes everyone to act reprehensibly. Women and men are puzzled by the contradictions at about The Influence of Reality, the core of their own social life in moral selection the same way, I think, as we #x201C;Euro-Americans#x201D; are affected by Influence TV on Society, the consequences of the autonomy and work theory chart, primacy of the Essay about The Influence of Reality TV on Society economy, be they financial crises, climate change, or other issues. To follow Dumont#x2019;s ideas, I would argue that this apparent paradox, and the profound sense of perplexity and helplessness shown by my interlocutors in Dakar, is generated by the impossibility of Can A Cardboard Boat Float recognizing value as such in Essay about the realm of discourse when it comes to women#x2019;s ceremonies. Or, to of Mexican Drug put it differently, the paradoxical moral contradictions that result in perplexity on the part of actors facing the limits of artificialism are indicators (for the anthropologist) that values are at stake. These configurations can#x2019;t simply be described as a contradiction between discourse and practice or even as a situation in which people are caught between competing values (cf. Joel Robbins#x2019; contribution to this issue). Women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are explicitly condemned in moral terms as #x201C;wastefulness,#x201D; as a local peculiarity ( aada ) that prevents the full realization of Islam and development. Condemnation of ceremonies represents the way contradiction is resolved in the realm of moral discourse and justification. My interlocutors condemn ceremonies when they have to justify them.
Yet the primacy of ceremonies in Dakar#x2019;s sociality suggests that we (anthropologists) nevertheless need to acknowledge that women#x2019;s ceremonies relate to something inescapably valuable, albeit implicit or inarticulate in my interlocutors#x2019; discourse#x2014; an unavowed value#x2014;hence their perplexity. This is a fundamental aspect of Society what Dumont called #x201C;an ideology.#x201D; In my opinion, Dumont#x2019;s formulas on moral, ideology are usually cryptic and mislead a lot of his readers. However, the originality of Essay about Influence TV on his view is to claim that since the fundamentals aspect of an ideology are likely to moral and adverse selection be implicit, only comparison can evince the necessary, yet sometimes unavowed, relations by which the different parts of an ideology hang together (Dumont 1977: 19#x2013;20). The discourse that sets ceremonies and The of Reality, economic development against each other is Evolving Structure of Mexican Essay framed as a moral issue relating to the allocation of (scarce) financial resources: money is wasted on women#x2019;s ceremonies, whereas it should be devoted to economic development. I described above the intimate link between money and sociality. Because the basic principle of sociality (and thus finance) is the preference for illiquidity, individuals cannot allocate financial resources according to their moral preferences.
Financial resources are elicited from others: the amount of money collected depends almost entirely on the social actors#x2019; opportunity to synchronize relations for a given purpose. Of Reality TV On? Here, moral discourse and m and s recruitment, the paradigm of choice eclipse value: from a financial point of view, women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are more highly valued than economics. As to Islam, it is not simply opposed to Essay Influence TV on Society ceremonies as another potential alternative in the allocation of financial resources; the problem is that ostentatious behavior and financial exuberance in s recruitment women#x2019;s ceremonies contradict the of Reality TV on Muslim morality of temperance and m and, restraint. Furthermore, the path of Islam 12 ( yoon 13 ) is about Society thought to be universal, but above all represents the highest value order, that of absolute submission of the individual to God. It means abiding by what is commanded in m and the divine words revealed in the Qur#x2019;an and the five pillars of Islam, and following the #x201C;highly recommended tradition#x201D; of imitation of the The Influence of Reality Society Prophet ( sunnah ), which includes lifecycle rituals such as that for moral hazard selection, a wedding ( takk ) or for naming a newborn ( tuddu ). Essay Influence TV On Society? According to all my interlocutors, the rituals recommended by Essay, Islam ( takk and tuddu ) are the only ones that need to be carried out when (respectively) a couple is about Influence of Reality TV on married or a baby is Drug Cartels Essay born.
However, Islam and women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies actually combine in the ritual organization of the lifecycle. On the occasion of a marriage or the birth of a child, particularly a firstborn, a Muslim wedding or a Muslim naming ritual are always followed by Essay about of Reality TV on Society, costly ceremonies during which women exchange lavish gifts to social work honor kinship relations. In other words, despite what my interlocutors say (#x201C;the others#x2019; view#x201D;), the recommended rituals of Islam are never enough in themselves. To put it bluntly, ceremonial exchanges among women in birth and marriage rituals are the about of Reality TV on Society manner in which affinity and the succession of work generations are construed as having value and become operative in the order of social relations (Moya forthcoming). To sum up, not only should we acknowledge the value of women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies, even though they may be condemned in the name of Islam and economic rationality, but Islam and women#x2019;s ceremonies belong to about two complementary orders of value in a hierarchical relation: on and adverse, the one hand, that of Essay The Influence of Reality Islam, which is a universal and transcendent order that defines the relationship between the individual and God, without whose blessing ( Baraka ) no action or relationship is possible; and on the other hand, at a subordinate level, the Evolving Drug Cartels Essay ceremonial agency of women, who operate relations, especially kinship. Women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges of money and clothing implement, as it were, the relations created (among men) in Muslim rituals under the auspices of God#x2019;s blessing ( Baraka ), otherwise the relations created in Essay about Influence Society the order of Essay is Addiction? Islam will have no value and no effect as relations. Although it is Influence not made explicit by social actors, it is a hierarchical relationship in which each element has to play its part, and which structures the sociality of Dakar. This configuration is theory chart not a mere #x201C;coexistence of opposites #x2026; with no specific formula#x201D; between competing values, as in about The Influence of Reality Society the case of economics and m and s recruitment, politics in Euro-America. Essay The Of Reality Society? In Dakar, the #x201C;formula#x201D; is social chart a hierarchical one, even though it is not recognized as such by my interlocutors. In this case, moral contradictions eclipse hierarchy. In other words, the way values relate to each other cannot merely be described as a struggle, that is, a relation of power between them, even if moral contradictions dominate in both cases.
From a comparative point of view, in Essay about Influence the Euro-American case, economics and politics have been competing since the nineteenth century to fully realize the moral individual: that is, for the paramount position within an individualistic configuration. It a question of power. About The Of Reality Society? In Senegal, on the other hand, Islam and ceremonial exchanges in lifecycle events have been opposed for at least a century, however, individualistic values (Islam and economic development) are superior values that are encompassed in a hierarchical relation. In Senegal, the m and s recruitment issue of ever-rising expenditure in family ceremonies is far from new. The phenomenon has been sufficiently striking that for more than a century, religious and political authorities have struggled incessantly (and fruitlessly) to limit them. Ceremonial practices have evolved over time. However, the ethnography of the mid-1970s on the Wolof countryside around Senegal (e.g., Diop 1985; Rabain 1994) suggests that women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies of birth and The TV on, marriage were far more modest, but already costly, and had a structure that was similar to that observed in Dakar since 2000 (Buggenhagen 2012; Moya forthcoming). This does not mean that society does not change, or that urbanization has had only a superficial impact: on hazard, the contrary, the transformations brought about by the city are far from Influence of Reality TV on Society, superficial or meaningless. Social Work? For example, in Dakar, the urbanization process has almost wiped out the lineage system that was commonly thought of as the basis of kinship and social organization in this region. Kinship is nevertheless still essential in Essay The Society Dakar#x2019;s sociality. The role of of Mexican Drug Cartels Essay kinship networks in African cities is well known in the organization of Essay The Influence of Reality TV on residential systems, the urban integration of migrants, solidarity, or economic activities (Houseman 1995).
In Dakar, however, kinship is not only a network capital that is mobilized as a resource to cope with other issues: on the contrary, every sociofinancial network is Monitoring: Essay susceptible to being mobilized to finance women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies. The urban situation did not generate, or even reveal, the Essay The Influence of Reality Society #x201C;ceremonial phenomenon#x201D; itself; the transformations induced by the city fueled, and thus shed light on, a trend in Wolof sociality that was probably already there, albeit far less visible. Firstly, in a metropolis of three million inhabitants, the number of possible (financial) relations is s recruitment extremely high: people can potentially take part in a large number of financial networks of various sizes. Secondly, in Dakar, most women are involved in income-generating activities, and they also manage household finances. Essay About The Influence TV On Society? Accordingly, the amounts of Can A Boat Float liquidity managed by women are also very significant.
These two dynamics (more relations and more money) combine with the of Reality TV on Society preference for illiquidity. Sociofinancial networks developed exponentially, as did the hazard and adverse amounts collected by women for birth and marriage ceremonies. 14. The amount of money spent on women#x2019;s ceremonies is in itself an isolated feature. It is Essay Society not proof of a fundamental difference between social formations.
In Euro-America, marriage and birth ceremonies also generate a great deal of expense, but in social chart Dakar, money and relations are two sides of the same coin: the financial system is the other side of sociality. In Dakar#x2019;s pervasive sociality, agency hinges on the illiquidity preference and the synchronization of sociofinancial relations, and only lifecycle ceremonies, in which women honor kinship relations through ceremonial actions, successfully manage to synchronize all types of financial relations. The primacy of ceremonies and about Influence of Reality, the subordinate position of the economic aspect in Dakar#x2019;s sociality elicit an important#x2014;and yet overlooked#x2014;distinction between Senegal and Euro-America. However, following Dumont, this difference is merely a starting point: it needs to be relativized from within, that is, replaced in a broader configuration. Women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies do not appear to about Can A Cardboard Boat be morally valued: on the contrary, they are explicitly condemned. I have suggested that the primacy of women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies over about The of Reality, economics in Dakar#x2019;s sociality leads to a distinction between morality and values: women#x2019;s ceremonies are an #x201C;unavowed value.#x201D; Moral contradictions of this kind mark the contrast between the various levels of value and, possibly, the existence of a hierarchy that is a configuration in Source Monitoring: A look Essay which partially incompatible conceptions not only coexist or impinge on each other, but are articulated within the same social formation. Finally, the persistence and development of women#x2019;s ceremonies illustrate how value systems actually limit artificialism, especially when it comes to about Influence TV on Society unavowed values. But recognizing hierarchy does not amount to forgoing the Evolving Structure Essay will to change, whether it be in regard to lavish spending on women#x2019;s ceremonies in Dakar, the primacy of the economic dimension in Euro-America, or any other subject. If there is a political stance to Essay about Influence be found in Dumont#x2019;s anthropology, it might be that awareness of the social work theory chart limitations that values impose on power (individual will or politics) is the very condition for effective action. It is worth noting that, thirty-six years after the first edition of about The TV on Society his first book, La Tarasque , Dumont wrote a postscript (#x201C;Late generalization#x201D;) about the persistence of hierarchical relations in m and s recruitment individualist social formations. The Of Reality Society? He concluded with a comment on Gregory Bateson#x2019;s analysis of Alcoholics Anonymous (Bateson 1972: 309#x2013;37).
15 According to Dumont, addiction is an expression of Essay What hierarchy in individualist terms, and AA is an example of the of Reality limits to and conditions for change. In Dumont#x2019;s terms: The principle is simple: the patient is doomed to fail as long as he feels able to tackle the bottle, which is equivalent to trying to about Boat Float pull oneself up by one#x2019;s bootstraps. The necessary condition for getting out of this vicious circle is for Essay about of Reality Society, the subject to understand that he cannot be defined independently of his dependency; and that solely the recognition of m and s recruitment his self-will, the acceptance of a more comprehensive and powerful addiction, can allow him to escape his torment. (Dumont  1987: 237) To summarize, according to Dumont, an alcoholic is confronted by a seeming paradox: on Essay about of Reality TV on Society, the basis of his ideals, he believes in his own free will and independence, but empirically he is an addict.
And Dumont (1987: 238) concludes that #x201C;the necessary condition of Source Monitoring: A look at Errors his salvation is the full recognition of his addiction, before resting on another to overcome the former. Essay? If one can generalize, the lesson is Source Monitoring: A look at Errors harsh for the modern ego.#x201D; Akin, David, and Joel Robbins, eds. 1999. About The Of Reality TV On Society? Money and modernity: State and local currencies in contemporary Melanesia . Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Bateson, Gregory. 1972. Steps to an ecology of mind . New York: Ballantine. Bloch, Maurice, and s recruitment, Jonathan Parry, eds. 1989. Money and the morality of exchange . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bohannan, Paul. 1955. #x201C;Some principles of exchange and investment among the Tiv.#x201D; American Anthropologist 57 (1): 60#x2013;70. Buggenhagen, Beth. 2012. Muslim families in global Senegal: Money takes care of shame . Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Comaroff, Jean, and John L. Essay About The Of Reality TV On? Comaroff.
1990, #x201C;Goodly beast, beastly goods: Cattle and commodities in a South African context.#x201D; American Ethnologist 17 (2): 195#x2013;216. Detienne, Marcel. Comparing the incomparable . Stanford: Stanford University Press. Diop, Abdoulaye Bara. 1985. La famille wolof: Tradition et changement . Paris: Karthala. Dumont, Louis. (1951) 1987.
La Tarasque: Essai de description d#x2019;un fait local d#x2019;un point de vue ethnographique . Paris: Gallimard. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. Monitoring:? 1977. The Influence Society? From Mandeville to Structure Drug Marx: The genesis and Essay The TV on Society, triumph of Evolving economic ideology . Chicago: University of about TV on Chicago Press. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. (1977) 1985. Boat? Homo Aequalis I: Gen#x00E8;se et #x00E9;panouissement de l#x2019;id#x00E9;ologie #x00E9;conomique . Paris: Gallimard. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1980. Homo hierarchicus: The caste system and its implications . The Influence Of Reality? Translated by Mark Sainsbury, Louis Dumont, and Basia Gulatit.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1983. #x201C;Pr#x00E9;face.#x201D; In La grande transformation: Aux origines politiques et #x00E9;conomiques de notre temps , Karl Polanyi, i#x2013;xx. Paris: Gallimard. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1986. Hazard? Essays on individualism: Modern ideology in anthropological perspective . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1991.
Homo #x00E6;qualis II: L#x2019;id#x00E9;ologie allemande: France-Allemagne et retour . About Influence Of Reality TV On Society? Paris: Gallimard. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1994. German Ideology: From France to Germany and back . M And S Recruitment? Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Geismar, Lucien. 1933.
Recueil des coutumes civiles des races au S#x00E9;n#x00E9;gal . Essay Influence Of Reality TV On Society? Saint-Louis: Imprimerie du Gouvernement. Geschiere, Peter. 2000. #x201C;Money versus kinship: Subversion or consolidation? Contrasting examples from Africa and the Pacific.#x201D; Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology 1 (1): 54#x2013;78. Guerin, Isabelle. Can A Boat Float? 2003. Femmes et #x00E9;conomie solidaire . Paris: La Decouverte.
#x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 2006. #x201C;Women and money: Lessons from Essay about Influence TV on Society, Senegal#x201D;, Development and s recruitment, Change 37 (3): 549#x2013;70. Guyer, Jane. 2004. Marginal gains: Monetary transactions in Atlantic Africa . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Heath, Deborah.
1992. #x201C;Fashion, anti-fashion, and heteroglossia in urban Senegal.#x201D; American Ethnologist 19 (1): 19#x2013;33. Houseman, Michael. 1995. Essay The Influence TV On? #x201C;Kinship networks in Africa: Past and future#x201D;, African Anthropology 4: 11#x2013;23. Hutchinson, Sharon Elaine. 1996. Nuer dilemmas: Coping with money, war, and the state . Berkeley: University of California Press.
Isaac, Barry. Moral Selection? 2005. #x201C;Karl Polanyi.#x201D; In Handbook of economic anthropology , edited by James G. Carrier, 14#x2013;25. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Keynes, John Maynard. (1936) 1973. The general theory of employment, interest, and Essay about The Influence TV on Society, money . London: Macmillan and Cambridge University Press. Latour, Bruno, and about, Vincent A. L#x00E9;pinay. 2009. The science of passionate interests: An introduction to Gabriel Tarde#x2019;s economic anthropology . Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press. Marie, Alain, ed. 1997. L#x2019;Afrique des individus: Itin#x00E9;raires citadins d#x2019;Afrique contemporaine (Abidjan, Bamako, Dakar, Niamey) . Paris: Karthala.
#x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 2000. #x201C;Individualization strategies among city dwellers in contemporary Africa: Balancing the shortcomings of community solidarity and the individualism of the Essay of Reality struggle for survival.#x201D; International Review of Social History 45 (S8): 137#x2013;57. Moya, Isma#x00EB;l. 2004. #x201C;Le brouet c#x00E9;r#x00E9;moniel: Jeu financier ou institution sociale? Thiaroye sur Mer (Dakar, S#x00E9;n#x00E9;gal).#x201D; In Exclusion et liens financiers , edited by Isabelle Guerin and Jean-Michel Servet, 121#x2013;36. S Recruitment? Paris: Economica. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. Forthcoming. De l#x2019;argent aux valeurs: Economie, genre et islam #x00E0; Dakar . Nanterre: Soci#x00E9;t#x00E9; d#x2019;ethnologie. Ndione, Emmanuel.
1992. The Influence Of Reality TV On? Le don et le recours . A Look At Errors Essay? Dakar: Enda Editions. Olivier de Sardan, Jean-Pierre. 1999. #x201C;A moral economy of corruption in Africa?#x201D; Journal of Modern African Studies 37: 25#x2013;52. Polanyi, Karl. 1944. The great transformation: The political and economic origins of our time , Boston: Beacon Press. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1957, #x201C;The economy as an Essay Influence instituted process.#x201D; In Trade and markets in the early empires , edited by Karl Polanyi, Conrad M. Arsenberg, and Harry W. Pearson, 243#x2013;70. New York: Free Press. Rabain, Jacqueline.
1994. L#x2019;enfant du lignage: Du sevrage #x00E0; la classe d#x2019;#x00E2;ge . Paris: Payot. Robin Jacques. 1947. #x201C;L#x2019;#x00E9;volution du mariage coutumier chez les musulmans du S#x00E9;n#x00E9;gal.#x201D; Africa XVII (3): 192#x2013;201. Shipton, Parker. 1989. Bitter money: Cultural economy and some African meanings of Monitoring: A look forbidden commodities . Washington, DC: American Anthropological Association. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1990. #x201C;How Gambians save and what their strategies imply for international aid.#x201D; Agriculture and Rural Development Department, World Bank, Washington, DC. Thompson, Edward P. 1971. #x201C;The moral economy of the English crowd in the eighteenth century.#x201D; Past #x0026; Present 50: 76#x2013;136. Zelizer, Viviana A. 1994.
The social meaning of money: Pin money, paychecks, poor relief and other currencies . New York: Basic Books. Une valeur inavouable: Economie, comparaison, et hi#x00E9;rarchie #x00E0; Dakar. R#x00E9;sum#x00E9; : Toute analyse anthropologique, selon Louis Dumont, a pour point de d#x00E9;part une comparaison: c#x2019;est une exp#x00E9;rimentation qui, suscitant des diff#x00E9;rences, apporte des id#x00E9;es et justifie un point de vue analytique. Sur quelle sorte de diff#x00E9;rence une exp#x00E9;rience comparative peut-elle s#x2019;appuyer dans une m#x00E9;tropole africaine globalis#x00E9;e comme Dakar ? Je sugg#x00E8;re que l#x2019;autonomie et la primaut#x00E9; de l#x2019;#x00E9;conomique en Euro-Am#x00E9;rique peut fournir le point de d#x00E9;part d#x2019;un contraste radical. Ce texte examine tout d#x2019;abord le travail de Louis Dumont sur l#x2019;#x00E9;conomique comme une valeur en Euro-Am#x00E9;rique en relation au politique.
Il porte ensuite sur Dakar, o#x00F9; l#x2019;argent et les relations sont les deux faces de la m#x00EA;me m#x00E9;daille. L#x2019;#x00E9;tude des circuits financiers permet d#x2019;explorer la socialit#x00E9; dakaroise dans laquelle les #x00E9;changes c#x00E9;r#x00E9;moniels entre femmes sont plus valoris#x00E9;s que l#x2019;#x00E9;conomie, tout en #x00E9;tant vivement condamn#x00E9;s comme des pratiques coutumi#x00E8;res emp#x00EA;chant l#x2019;av#x00E8;nement du d#x00E9;veloppement #x00E9;conomique et de l#x2019;islam. En confrontant ces contradictions morales #x00E0; la primaut#x00E9; des c#x00E9;r#x00E9;monies f#x00E9;minines sur l#x2019;#x00E9;conomie, le texte propose de distinguer moralit#x00E9; et valeurs et de reconna#x00EE;tre la valeur #x00AB; inavouable #x00BB; des c#x00E9;r#x00E9;monies f#x00E9;minines. Les contradictions de ce type signalent le contraste entre diff#x00E9;rents niveaux de valeur et l#x2019;existence d#x2019;une hi#x00E9;rarchie qui articule des valeurs contradictoires au sein de la m#x00EA;me soci#x00E9;t#x00E9;. Isma#x00EB;l M OYA is a former economist who converted to social anthropology under the influence of TV on Society his ongoing fieldwork in a poor suburb neighborhood of moral Dakar, Senegal. He is Charg#x00E9; de Recherche at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, France), and about of Reality Society, a member of the Laboratoire d#x2019;ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative (Universit#x00E9; de Nanterre, France). His current research interests includes ritual, gender, social hierarchies, Islamic reformism, and forms of representation. CNRS, Laboratoire d#x2019;ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative, UMR 7186. Maison Arch#x00E9;ologie #x0026; Ethnologie Ren#x00E9;-Ginouv#x00E8;s. 21, All#x00E9;e de l#x2019;universit#x00E9; 92023 Nanterre cedex.
1. Monitoring: At Errors Essay? Dumont (1983) wrote the preface to the French edition of The great transformation . 2. The idea of an economic (or a political) anthropology #x201C;does not make sense with respect to Essay about The Influence of Reality the progress of Cardboard knowledge#x201D; (Dumont 1986: 105). 3. Many of these assume, for that matter, that #x201C;the economy#x201D; is a given. 4. TV On? Political economy, according to Polanyi (1944: 116#x2013;35), is the very discovery of the existence of society in the modern sense. Humans are linked by relations of economic interdependence. They form an #x201C;economic society,#x201D; subject to laws that are not human, but natural laws. 5. #x201C;Twice#x201D; meaning giving back the initial gift and then honoring ( teral ) the giver for his or her previous gift with an identical one; this is the Wolofs#x2019; concept of What reciprocity. 6. In the Essay Influence of Reality Society Dumontian sense that some motives are valued more highly than others (Dumont 1986: 269).
7. In Wolof, a woman calls her husband j#x00EB;kker and his sisters (in a very broad sense; the term for sister being jigeen , which means woman) are called nj#x00EB;kke , or sometimes j#x00EB;kker as well. Both the husband and of Mexican Drug Essay, his #x201C;sisters#x201D; call the wife #x201C; jabar .#x201D; In other words, a marriage relation is composed of a wife ( jabar ), her husband ( j#x00EB;kker ), and her female husbands ( nj#x00EB;kke ). 8. Those who are not reformist Muslims. 9. The Influence TV On Society? Zakat ( sarax in Wolof), the obligatory almsgiving to the poor, is the third pillar of Islam. In Senegal, Sufi brotherhoods collect zakat for their charity work (e.g., to help health centers, schools, or the poor). 10. Most women in Dakar are not veiled. 11. M And S Recruitment? Such leaders are renowned for about The Influence, the huge birth or marriage ceremonies performed in their families (except in the case of the still very limited numbers of reformist Muslims, such as Salafis).
12. Islam has been a major component of Western Sahel societies for more than five hundred years. 13. In Wolof, yoon means both the way, the law, justice, and religion. 14.
In his contribution to this issue, Andr#x00E9; Iteanu makes a comparable point about social theory how change reinvigorates values that were previously subordinate, dormant, or hidden.
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1998 ap bio essay Teacher Sourcebook for Science Teaching. 1. Homeostatic maintenance of about The of Reality optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in moral hazard and adverse selection, vertebrate organisms. About The Influence TV On. (a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and describe the effect. of each hormone on blood glucose levels. (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in Can A Cardboard, (a), identify ONE target cell and discuss the Essay The Influence TV on mechanism by which the. hormone can alter activity in that target cell. Include in your discussion a description of reception, cellular. transduction, and response. (c) Compare the cell-signaling mechanisms of steroid hormones and protein hormones. 3. A molecule of about messenger RNA (mRNA) has just been synthesized in the nucleus of a human cell. a) What types of modifications may occur to this RNA before it leaves the nucleus? b) Once in the cytoplasm, how is the mRNA translated to a protein? c) If the cell is a secretory cell, how is the protein from part (b) eventually targeted, packaged, and Essay of Reality TV on Society, secreted to Essay about is Addiction? the exterior of the cell?
1. Essay The Influence TV On. A difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is seen in m and s recruitment, the organization of their genetic material. The TV On. a) DISCUSS the organization of the genetic material in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. b) CONTRAST the following activities in prokaryotes and Evolving of Mexican Cartels Essay, eukaryotes. - Replicaton of The DNA. - Transcription or translation. 4. Scientists seeking to determine which molecule is responsible for the transmission of characteristics from one generation to the next knew that the. (1) copy itself precisely. (2) be stable but able to be changed. (3) be complex enough to determine the organism's phenotype. Monitoring: A Look At Errors Essay. EXPLAIN how DNA meets each of the three criteria stated above. Select ONE of the criteria stated above and DESCRIBE experimental evidence used to determine that DNA is the hereditary material. The diagram below shows a segment of DNA with a total length of 4,900 base pairs. The arrows indicate reaction sites for restriction enzymes (enzyme X and enzyme Y). segment above. Assume that the digestions occurred under appropriate conditions and went to about Influence Society completion.
II. DNA digested with only enzyme Y. A Look At Errors Essay. III. DNA digested with enzyme X and enzyme Y combined. IV. Undigested DNA. (1) The mechanism of action of restriction enzymes. (2) The different results you would expect if a mutation occurred at Influence of Reality TV on, the recognition site for enzyme Y. Biological recognition is important in many processes at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels. Select three of the following, and for each of the three that you have chosen, explain how the process of recognition occurs and give an example. b. Essay Can A Cardboard Float. Neurotransmitters are recognized in the synapse. c. Antigens trigger antibody responses. d. Nucleic acids are complementary. e. About TV On. Target cells respond to specific hormones. Describe the steps of protein synthesis, beginning with the attachments of a messenger RNA molecule to Evolving Structure of Mexican Drug Cartels the small subunit of a ribosome and Essay about Influence of Reality TV on Society, ending with the release of the polypeptide from the ribosome. Include in your answer a discussion of about What is Addiction? how the different types of RNA function in this process.
Describe the biochemical composition, structure, and replication of DNA. Discuss how recombinant DNA techniques may be used to correct a point mutation. Describe the operon hypothesis and discuss how it explains the control of. messenger RNA production and the regulation of protein synthesis in. Describe the production and Essay of Reality TV on, processing of a protein that will be exported from a. eukaryotic cell. Begin with the separation of the messenger RNA from the DNA. template and end with the release of the protein at the plasma membrane.
Experiments by the following scientists provided critical information concerning. Essay About Can A Boat Float. DNA. Describe each classical experiment and indicate how it provided evidence. for the chemical nature of the gene. a. Hershey and Essay The Influence of Reality TV on Society, Chase - bacteriophage replication. b. Griffith and Avery - bacterial transformation. c. Meselson and Stahl - DNA replication in bacteria. A portion of a specific DNA molecule consists of the following sequence of Evolving Drug nucleotide triplets: TAC GAA CTT CGG TCC. Influence TV On Society. This DNA sequence codes for the following short polypeptide: methionine - leucine - glutamic acid - proline - arginine. a) Describe the steps in the synthesis of this polypeptide. b) What would be the effect of a deletion or an addition in one of the s recruitment DNA nucleotides? What would be the effect of Essay about The Influence TV on Society a substitution in one of the nucleotides? In relation to the chemical nature of the gene, describe: a. the Can A chemical structure of the gene. b. the replication (self-copying) of the gene. c. gene mutations, including chromosomal aberrations. Proteins are composed of amino acid subunits which form stable. a. Describe how the genetic instructions coded in DNA are translated into the. Essay The Influence Of Reality. primary structure (sequence of about Boat Float amino acid subunits) of a protein molecule. b. Explain how interactions among the individual amino acid subunits influence. the transformation of the molecule into its three-dimensional structure and.
how they stabilize it. Describe protein synthesis in terms of molecular structures of the. Essay About Influence Of Reality. nucleic acids and using a specific example, explain how a new phenotypic. characteristic may result from a change in m and s recruitment, DNA. Proteins and nucleic acids are fundamental molecules of the living state. a. Write word equations for the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, using appropriate subunits. b. A wide variety of macromolecules exists in proteins and nucleic acids. For each group, explain how it is possible to have such great variety of structure with a relatively small number of different subunits. c. Proteins functioning as enzymes exhibit precise specifications. Discuss the levels of structural organization within proteins which are responsible for specific molecular interaction. About The Influence Of Reality Society. The formation of Watson-Crick complementary base pairs between single. strands of social molecules of nucleic acids occurs in at least three separate reactions. Discuss each of these reactions from the following points of view: a. the type of nucleic acids involved. b. the role of each nucleic acid in the duplication of cellular. Biologists and biochemists have made outstanding progress within the past. quarter century in elucidating principles and structures which govern the. activities of Essay about The Influence of Reality TV on living matter.
These areas of progress include the structure. and code of the DNA molecule. Discuss this development and its impact on. biological thought and progress. What. Your answer should include: b. the about The names of the most prominent investigators involved. Social Chart. c. the nature of its impact on biology. Discuss the role of each of the following in Essay of Reality Society, protein synthesis: a. soluble or transfer RNA. b. messenger RNA. Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA has been described as the chemical basis. of heredity. Monitoring: Essay. Discuss present-day concepts regarding its: a. chemical nature and Influence TV on, physical structure. b. mode of duplication. c. relationship to protein synthesis. Discuss the gene, with regard to structure, duplication, mutation, and. nature of action. 4. The diagram above shows the succession of communities from annual plants to hardwood trees in a specific area over a period of m and time. Essay Of Reality TV On Society. (a) Discuss the expected changes in biodiversity as the Monitoring: at Errors Essay stages of succession progress as shown in the diagram above. (b) Describe and explain THREE changes in abiotic conditions over time that lead to the succession, as shown in the diagram above. (c) For each of the following disturbances, discuss the immediate and long-term effects on ecosystem succession. (i) A volcano erupts, covering a 10-square-kilometer portion of a mature forest with lava. (ii) A 10- square-kilometer portion of a mature forest is clear-cut.
2. An experiment was conducted to measure the reaction rate of the human salivary enzyme #945; -amylase. Essay Influence TV On. Ten mL of a concentrated starch solution and 1.0 mL of #945; -amylase solution were placed in a test tube. The test tube was inverted several times to mix the solution and then incubated at 25°C. The amount of product (maltose) present was measured every 10 minutes for an hour. The results are given in the table below. (a) Graph the data on the axes provided and Essay about, calculate the Essay Influence TV on rate of the reaction for work chart the time period 0 to 30 minutes. (b) Explain why a change in the reaction rate was observed after 30 minutes. (c) Draw and label another line on Essay Influence Society, the graph to predict the results if the concentration of #945; -amylase was doubled. Can A Cardboard Boat. Explain your predicted results. (d) Identify TWO environmental factors that can change the rate of an enzyme-mediated reaction. Essay The Of Reality TV On. Discuss how each of those two factors would affect the reaction rate of an enzyme. 1. Homeostatic maintenance of optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in vertebrate organisms. Work Theory Chart. (a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels.
Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and describe the effect. of each hormone on blood glucose levels. (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in Essay about Influence of Reality TV on Society, (a), identify ONE target cell and discuss the mechanism by which the. hormone can alter activity in Essay, that target cell. Include in Essay The of Reality Society, your discussion a description of social chart reception, cellular. transduction, and response. (c) Compare the cell-signaling mechanisms of steroid hormones and about The Influence of Reality Society, protein hormones. Biological recognition is important in many processes at the molecular, cellular, and Essay Can A Cardboard Float, organismal levels. Select three of the following, and for each of the three that you have chosen, explain how the Essay The Society process of recognition occurs and give an example. b. Neurotransmitters are recognized in the synapse. c. Antigens trigger antibody responses. d. Nucleic acids are complementary. e. Target cells respond to specific hormones. Source A Look. 1. The cell cycle is fundamental to the reproduction of eukaryotic cells. (a) Describe the phases of the cell cycle. (b) Explain the role of THREE of the following in mitosis or cytokinesis. ( c) Describe how the cell cycle is regulated and discuss ONE consequence of abnormal regulation. 2006B RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 1. Sexual reproduction requires that half of the chromosomes in a zygote come from one parent and the other half from the second parent. a) DESCRIBE the process by which a germ cell's complement of chromosomes is halved in the formation of gametes. b) Choose ONE organism or group of organisms that reproduce asexually. DESCRIBE the Essay about The of Reality TV on Society mode of asexual reproduction in that organism and explain the advantages to the organism of asexual reproduction. c) Choose ONE organism or group of organisms that reproduce sexually.
DESCRIBE the mode of sexual reproduction in that organism and explain the advantages to the organism of sexual reproduction. 1. Meiosis reduces chromosome number and rearranges genetic information. a ) EXPLAIN how the reduction and rearrangement are accomplished in meiosis. b) Several human disorders occur as a result of defects in the meiotic process. IDENTIFY ONE such chromosomal abnormality; what effects does it have on the phenotype of people with the disorder? DESCRIBE how this abnormality could result from a defect in meiosis. c) Production of offspring by parthenogenesis or cloning bypasses the typical meiotic process. DESCRIBE parthenogenesis or cloning and COMPARE the genomes of the offspring with those of the parents. 2008 Q1 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 1. The physical structure of a protein often reflects and Can A Cardboard Boat Float, affects its function. (a) Describe THREE types of chemical bonds/interactions found in proteins. For each type, describe its role in determining protein structure.
(b) Discuss how the structure of a protein affects the function of TWO of the following. Regulation of enzyme activity. 2002 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. The Of Reality Society. Structure related to function is one of the unifying themes in biology. This relationship between structure and function is about Cardboard Float evident in the macromolecules in living systems. Essay Influence Society. For THREE of the FIVE in the following list, describe the structure of the molecule and explain how that structure aids in its function. a. Starch and glycogen as energy storage molecules. b. Cellulose and chitin as structural molecules. d. phospholipids and their role in cell membranes. e. DNA and Essay Float, its role in Essay about TV on, determining characteristics in organisms. Proteins and nucleic acids are fundamental molecules of the living state. a. Social Work Theory Chart. Write word equations for the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, using appropriate subunits. The Influence TV On. b. A wide variety of macromolecules exists in proteins and nucleic acids. For each group, explain how it is work theory chart possible to have such great variety of. structure with a relatively small number of different subunits. c. Proteins functioning as enzymes exhibit precise specifications. Discuss. the levels of structural organization within proteins which are. responsible for specific molecular interactions.
Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA has been described as the chemical basis. of about TV on heredity. Discuss present-day concepts regarding its: a. chemical nature and physical structure. b. mode of duplication. c. relationship to protein synthesis. 1.During an investigation of a freshwater lake, an AP Biology student discovers a previously unknown microscopic organism. Further study shows that the unicellular organism is eukaryotic. (a) Identify FOUR organelles that should be present in the eukaryotic organism and moral and adverse, describe the function of each organelle. (b) Prokaryotic cells lack membrane-bound organelles found in eukaryotes. However, prokaryotes must perform many of the same functions as eukaryotes.
For THREE of the organelles identified in part (a), explain how prokaryotic cells carry out the associated functions. (c) According to the endosymbiotic theory, some organelles are believed to have evolved through a symbiotic relationship between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The Of Reality Society. Describe THREE observations that support the endosymbiotic theory. 2006 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Respones. 1. A major distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is the presences of membrane bound organelles in eukaryotes. a) DESCRIBE the structure and function of TWO eukaryotic membrane-bound organelles other than the nucleus. b) Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have some non-membrane-bound organelles in common. DESCRIBE the function of TWO of the following and DISCUSS how each differs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. c) EXPLAIN the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of Essay Float eukaryotic cells and DISCUSS an example of evidence supporting this theory.
2002 Q4 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 4. The following experiment was designed to test whether different concentration gradients affect the rate of diffusion. Essay The Influence Of Reality Society. In this experiment, four solutions (0%, NaCl, 1% NaCl, 5% NaCl, and 10% NaCl) were tested under indentical conditions. Fifteen milliliters (mL) of 0% NaCl were put. a bag formed of dialysis tubing that is permeable to Na+, Cl-, and waer. The same was done for each NaCl solution. Each bag was submerged in a. separate beaker containing 300 mL of distilled water. The concentration of NaCl in mg/mL in the water outside each bag was measured in 40-second intervals. The results from the 5% bag are shown in the table below. a) On the axes provided, GRAPH the data for the 5% NaCl solution. b) Using the same set of axes, DRAW and LABEL three additional lines representing the results that you would predict for the 0% NaCl, 1% NaCl, and. and 10% NaCl solutions. EXPLAIN your predictions. c) Farmlands located near coastal regions are being threatened by encroaching seawater seeping into Essay about is Addiction?, the soil. In terms of water movement into or out of. Essay About The Of Reality Society. plant cells, EXPLAIN why seawater could decrease crop production.
Include a discussion of water potential in your answer. Cells transport substances across their membranes. Choose THREE of the following four types of cellular transport. For each of the three transport types you choose, a) describe the transport process and moral selection, explain how the organization of cell membranes functions in the movement of specific molecules. across the membrane. b) explain the significance of each type of transport to a specific cell (you may use different cell types as examples.) True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in Essay The TV on, the table below. Source Monitoring: At Errors Essay. True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. All the F1 offspring had stunted wings. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females.
All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and stunted wings. The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in the table below. (a) What conclusions can be drawn from cross I and cross II? Explain how the data support your conclusions for each cross. Essay Of Reality TV On. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from cross III? Explain how the data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the theory islands fly population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above. True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. F1 flies were crossed, and Essay The Influence, the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. All the F1 offspring had stunted wings. Work Theory. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below.
True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and stunted wings. The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in the table below. (a) What conclusions can be drawn from cross I and Essay about of Reality, cross II? Explain how the data support your conclusions for each cross. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from cross III? Explain how the data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the islands fly population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above. 1. The unique properties (characteristics) of water make life possible on Earth.
Select three properties of water and. a) for each property, identify and define the property and explain it in terms of the physical/chemical nature of water. b) for each property, describe one example of how the property affects the functioning of living organisms. 2. Ecological succession describes the Source at Errors Essay pattern of Essay The changes in communities over time. Boat Float. The graph below shows changes in plant diversity following the abandonment of an agricultural field in a temperate biome. (a) Discuss the differences in Essay Influence Society, plant diversity shown in the graph and explain how the changes affect the animal species composition between years 0 and 120. (b) Identify TWO biotic and TWO abiotic factors and discuss how each could influence the pattern of about Can A Boat Float ecological succession. (c) Design a controlled experiment to determine how the diversity of plant species in a newly abandoned field would be affected by large herbivores. 1. The cell cycle is fundamental to the reproduction of eukaryotic cells. (a) Describe the phases of the cell cycle. (b) Explain the role of THREE of the following in mitosis or cytokinesis. ( c) Describe how the cell cycle is regulated and discuss ONE consequence of abnormal regulation. 1. Homeostatic maintenance of optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in vertebrate organisms. (a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and describe the effect. of each hormone on blood glucose levels. (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in (a), identify ONE target cell and discuss the Essay Influence of Reality Society mechanism by which the. hormone can alter activity in that target cell. A Look At Errors Essay. Include in your discussion a description of reception, cellular. transduction, and response. (c) Compare the cell-signaling mechanisms of steroid hormones and The Society, protein hormones.
2. An experiment was conducted to measure the reaction rate of the human salivary enzyme #945; -amylase. Ten mL of a concentrated starch solution and 1.0 mL of #945; -amylase solution were placed in and adverse, a test tube. The test tube was inverted several times to The TV on Society mix the solution and then incubated at 25°C. The amount of product (maltose) present was measured every 10 minutes for an hour. The results are given in the table below. (a) Graph the data on the axes provided and calculate the rate of the reaction for the time period 0 to 30 minutes. Evolving Structure Of Mexican Drug Cartels. (b) Explain why a change in the reaction rate was observed after 30 minutes. (c) Draw and label another line on the graph to predict the results if the concentration of #945; -amylase was doubled. Influence. Explain your predicted results. (d) Identify TWO environmental factors that can change the rate of an enzyme-mediated reaction. M And S Recruitment. Discuss how each of those two factors would affect the reaction rate of an enzyme. True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females.
All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in Society, the table below. True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. All the F1 offspring had stunted wings. Essay Can A Cardboard Boat. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in Essay about The, the table below. True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and Cardboard, stunted wings.
The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in the table below. Explain how the data support your conclusions for each cross. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from cross III? Explain how the data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the islands fly population is in Essay about The Influence of Reality Society, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above. 4. The diagram above shows the succession of Essay What communities from annual plants to about TV on Society hardwood trees in a specific area over hazard selection, a period of time. About Of Reality TV On Society. (a) Discuss the expected changes in biodiversity as the m and s recruitment stages of succession progress as shown in Essay The of Reality TV on Society, the diagram above. (b) Describe and explain THREE changes in abiotic conditions over Essay, time that lead to the succession, as shown in the diagram above. (c) For each of the following disturbances, discuss the immediate and long-term effects on ecosystem succession. (i) A volcano erupts, covering a 10-square-kilometer portion of a mature forest with lava. Influence Of Reality Society. (ii) A 10- square-kilometer portion of about Can A Cardboard Boat Float a mature forest is clear-cut.
3. A molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) has just been synthesized in the nucleus of a human cell. a) What types of modifications may occur to this RNA before it leaves the nucleus? b) Once in the cytoplasm, how is the mRNA translated to a protein? c) If the cell is a secretory cell, how is the protein from part (b) eventually targeted, packaged, and secreted to the exterior of the cell?
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coursework a-g What if I don't have any activities or awards? Will I be penalized? Activities and awards are not required. Knowing what you have done outside of school simply adds to our understanding of you as an Essay about The TV on applicant.
We call academic subjects (history/social studies, English, etc.) the 'a-g' subject areas. Moral Hazard. Here, we want to know about other courses you have taken that have helped shape you but that might not have been granted academic credit. We want to know which have been most significant to you. We want to know which have been most significant to you. We want to Essay The Influence of Reality Society know which have been most significant to A look Essay you. We want to know which have been most significant to The Influence TV on you. Having this information gives us a more complete picture of you. We want to Evolving of Mexican Cartels know which have been most significant to you. We want to know which have been most significant to you. back. I did not qualify for a fee waiver.
What should I do if I can't afford to apply? Select check as your method of payment, then print out your bill and Essay about The Influence Society send it to the application center along with a College Board fee waiver, EOPS fee waiver or letter stating your family income and Essay Cardboard Boat how many people are supported by that income. If your fee waiver is not accepted, you will be notified by the UC Application Center. No. Application fees are nonrefundable. If I've already submitted my application and want to apply to an additional campus, should I start a new application? No.
If the campus you want to apply to is still open, you can add it to your existing application. Of Reality TV On. You will have to work pay an additional application fee. Some majors are open only to certain types of Essay about Influence applicants (e.g., freshmen, junior-level transfers). Additionally, campuses have limited offerings for sophomore transfers and second baccalaureate and limited status applicants. Majors also are limited after the November filing period.
If the program you want to pursue is Essay Cardboard Boat, not an official double major program, select one major as the primary and the second major as the alternate. This is an option to about of Reality TV on select another area of potential interest should you not meet the Essay about Can A Float, selection criteria for a specific major or academic area of study (e.g., Engineering, Biological Sciences, Theater, etc.). If you do not have an alternate major choice, the system defaults to Essay about The of Reality TV on Society 'no alternate major.' Some campuses do not allow an alternate major choice. For freshman applicants, each campus has an option for an undeclared or undecided major. It may be found within a specific college (e.g., College of Letters and Science) or found in a listing of and adverse all undeclared majors (e.g., Irvine, Riverside and Santa Cruz's Undeclared Majors). Essay About The Influence TV On. Undecided/Undeclared generally is Evolving of Mexican Cartels, not an option for junior-level transfer applicants. Some majors require additional information for Essay Influence of Reality Society the admissions process.
Please follow the instructions given specifically for these majors within the moral hazard and adverse selection, published deadlines. How do I provide my best scores (i.e., super score) from different test dates? UC does not accept a super score. Please self-report only the SAT test date with the highest total score or the ACT test date with the The Influence TV on Society, highest composite score. Moral Hazard And Adverse Selection. Scores from other test dates can be ordered and about The Influence of Reality reported officially from the testing agency. Work Theory. back. If you haven't taken an exam, try to take it by December. If you are unable to do so, check the appropriate box and explain why in the space provided. Failing to take the exams may affect your admission. back. All requirements for freshman admission, including the about The TV on, examination requirement, must be completed prior to high school graduation. back. We only Evolving Structure of Mexican Drug Essay accept the Math Level 2 exam, however, you may choose to send your official Math Level 1 score in about Influence, order to clear a math subject area deficiency. back. No, but if you have taken or plan to take any AP exams, report them on Evolving Essay the AP Exam page.
This provides us with additional information about of Reality TV on, your academic history. back. Predicted International Baccalaureate (IB) results should be reported on the International External Exams page. Completed IB exams should be reported on the IB Exams page. back. No, but if you have taken or plan to take any IB exams, report them on the IB Exam page. S Recruitment. This provides us with additional information about The of Reality Society, your academic history. back. You can make a note of this in the Additional Comments area in the Personal Insight section. Essay About Can A Cardboard. back. Only international students enrolled in secondary school outside of the U.S. should report their predicted IB exam scores on the International External Exams page. For all students, completed and/or planned IB exams should be reported on the IB Exams page. back. Only international students enrolled in secondary school outside of the U.S. should report their predicted IB exam scores. Report only The Influence TV on Society counselor- or school-predicted IB exam scores; do not report self-predicted scores. Monitoring: A Look At Errors Essay. back.
Predicted International Baccalaureate (IB) results should be reported on the International External Exam page. Completed IB exams should be reported on the IB Exam page. Essay Of Reality TV On Society. back. If you have or will have AP or IB scores, request that the official score report be sent by the testing agency to the UC campus where you plan to enroll, after you have accepted the offer of admission; unlike ACT and SAT scores, AP and IB scores are not shared with each campus to which you have applied. back. The TOEFL and IELTS are English proficiency exams for students whose native language is not English and who have had the Can A, majority of their education in secondary/high school and college/university in a country where English is not the The Influence of Reality Society, native language. back. The minimum accepted score for Essay about What the TOEFL is 80 for the Internet-based test and 550 for the paper-based test. The IELTS examination is accepted with a 6.5 or better band score (academic modules). For admission selection, a UC campus may require a score higher than the minimum. back. Report all external exams completed and planned on the International External Exams page.
Select the grades/marks received exactly as they appear on your certified results sheet rather than the mark assigned by your teacher at Essay about of Reality TV on, the end of the course. If your exam was scored using a grade scale not listed on the International External Exams page, select 'other' and manually enter your results. Evolving Structure Of Mexican Cartels Essay. And, finally, if you sat for the same subject more than once, you must report the grades earned from each sitting. If only part of your schooling included external exams, report your school courses and grades as they will be listed on your official secondary school transcript in Essay The of Reality TV on, the Academic History section of the application. back. Yes. We do not require Subject Tests, but if you have taken them and s recruitment want to Influence of Reality Society report your scores we will consider them in our review of your application.
Some majors at Essay about Can A Cardboard Float, some campuses recommend specific Subject Tests. back. Yes, the application center will forward your scores to all campuses to which you have applied. About Of Reality TV On. You still must arrange to have official scores sent by the testing agency to at least one campus. back. Freshman and Sophomore Applicants. Upper Division Transfer Applicants. Can I submit my transcripts instead of entering all my coursework and Essay about What is Addiction? grades? No. Do not send transcripts unless a campus Admissions Office requests them.
If you are admitted you will be required to submit official transcripts. back. Report all external exams completed and planned on the International External Exams page in the Test Score section. Select the The Influence TV on, grades/marks received exactly as they appear on your certified results sheet rather than the mark assigned by your teacher at the end of the course. If your exam was scored using a grade scale not listed on the International External Exams page, select 'other' and manually enter your results. And, finally, if you sat for the same subject more than once, you must report the grades earned from s recruitment, each sitting. back. Yes. List the courses you took and The TV on Society grades you earned for each term, even if you repeated them or plan to m and s recruitment repeat them. Essay Of Reality. back. Freshman and Sophomore Applicants. Some middle-school courses in mathematics and language other than English count toward UC's subject requirement. back. Select Less than full year under the Term Period if you did not complete and pass the equivalent of two full semesters of the course. Theory. back.
We call academic subjects (history/social science, English, etc.) the 'a-g' subject areas. Each accredited California high school has a list of courses that have been certified by about Influence, UC as meeting the Essay about is Addiction?, 'a-g' subject requirements. If you attended school outside of California, list your courses in the appropriate academic subject areas. back. Integrated math courses (e.g., Math II, Math III, etc.) with geometry content may be equated with a standard course in geometry. back. You can meet this requirement in one of Essay about Society several ways, including through SAT Subject Tests. Evolving Structure Essay. You can also have your high school principal certify your proficiency in a language other than English. Essay The TV On. Tell us how you have met this requirement in the Additional Comments section. back. Enter your honors level courses, as identified by your high school, by social work, selecting HL as the Honors Type for the course(s). back. UC approves courses at all accredited California high schools as meeting the 'a-g' requirements. About The Of Reality TV On. Some courses are approved as honors-level courses, meaning they meet higher standards. Moral Hazard. back. In calculating your high school GPA, we don't count pluses and about of Reality TV on Society minuses. back.
Indicate summer course enrollment with your school information for and adverse selection each academic year. You will be asked to enter summer courses separately after each grade level. About The Influence Of Reality. If you took college courses, enter them in social work theory, the Colleges Courses section. back. If the online school has an approved UC course list, add the school as one of the high schools you attended. We no longer allow principal certification of online courses. About Of Reality. back. If you took a course through a community college, regardless of the hazard and adverse, physical location of the course, enter the Influence TV on, community college in your list of colleges attended while in Source Monitoring:, high school. back.
The additional honors point is awarded to college-level courses that are transferable to Essay the University of Evolving Structure of Mexican Drug California. High school-level courses taken at a community college do not receive the Essay about The Influence, honors designation. back. For the off-term, enter the grade of NO (No Course). back. If your school''s term system is Semester (2 final grades per year), enter your summer grade in one of the grade fields and enter NO for the other grade field. What. If your school's term system is Trimester(3 final grades per year), enter your summer grade(s) in 2 of the grade fields and NO for Essay about of Reality TV on Society the other grade field. If your school's term system is Quarter (4 final grades per year), enter your 2 summer grades received and m and s recruitment NO for the other 2 grade fields. back. Complete the Academic History as best you can.
Be sure to list all schools attended, beginning with grade nine, even though grade nine may have been completed at Essay about Influence Society, a junior high or middle school. Report all academic subjects completed and grades/marks earned each year exactly as they appear on m and your official secondary school transcript or academic record. UC has experienced international admission specialists who are knowledgeable about the different grading systems and methods of reporting coursework in different countries. If you sat/will sit for international external exams, report your exam subjects and grades on the International External Exams page in the Test Score section. You can also contact an International Admissions Specialist at the campus you want to Essay Society attend. Their contact information is included on the campus pages of the UC admissions website. back.
Knowing your high school record helps us determine if you're eligible for admission prior to Essay about junior standing. We accept sophomore transfer students only if they met UC admission requirements in high school or met all but the subject requirement and have taken the missing subjects in Influence of Reality TV on, college. back. In the United States, 12th grade is equivalent to Essay What the year of schooling before you attend university. If you attended school in a system where primary and secondary education total 13 years (Germany or Great Britain, for example), list your 13th year of coursework under 12th grade and work backward through 11th, 10th and 9th grades. It's also important to note that we often use the words 'college' and 'university' interchangeably. In the U.S., college level is the same as university level; college is Influence of Reality, not upper-level secondary school. back. Each California community college has a list of courses that have been certified as meeting the 'a-g' subject requirements. back. If you attend a school where you earn a high school diploma and college credit at Drug Cartels, the same time, enter the high school you attend and the classes taken at the high school first. After you complete your high school information, you will be asked about colleges and Influence of Reality TV on college courses taken while in high school. back. If you are admitted, you must arrange to have a final, official high school transcript (showing your date of graduation) sent to the campus where you plan to enroll.
Unless a campus requests it, do not send a transcript during the application process. back. You must report all colleges/universities you have attended and all coursework attempted, regardless of Essay about Can A Cardboard Boat how long you attended or the grades you earned, whether courses were completed or whether you believe the record will affect your chances for admission or yield transfer credit. If you provide incomplete or incorrect information, you may jeopardize your UC admission or enrollment. back. Report military courses (not academic courses completed at a college or university) in the Additional Comments box - not in the Colleges and Essay The TV on Courses section. Do not submit any transcripts at this time. If you are admitted and accept an offer of admission, you can then submit official military transcripts (e.g., ACE, SMAART) to m and s recruitment the UC campus of your choice. UC may award transfer credit for some of your military courses if the content is equivalent to a course taught by the University of California. back.
You are not required to submit your military transcript unless you want them to be reviewed for possible transfer credit. However, if you do not submit them by the stated deadline after you have been admitted, the admission office may not be able to about The TV on review them after you begin classes at the campus. back. Visit the American Council on Education (ACE) website at: acenet.edu - search for military transcripts. back. You will be able to update your application. About five weeks after the application submission deadline, you must log in to your application and complete the transfer academic update to confirm or change your planned coursework. back. Manually enter the course as Course Title-Part 1, Course Title-Part 2, etc. Please explain in the Additional Comments section of Other Academic History. back. Yes.
Many transfer students who didn't participate in a transfer admission program enroll at UC. back. If you are a sophomore transfer applicant and were eligible for m and s recruitment admission out of high school or have satisfied the of Reality Society, missing subjects, you do not have to complete the seven-course pattern. If you are a junior or senior transfer applicant, you should plan to complete these courses by the deadline required by your chosen campus(es). back. Enter this information in the Additional Comments area. back. IGETC is a series of courses California community college students can take to satisfy the social chart, lower-division general education/breadth requirements at UC. If is Essay about of Reality Society, not an admission requirement. If you have followed an IGETC plan since entering a community college, see which campuses programs accept IGETC. back. All UC undergraduates must demonstrate proficiency in writing. You can fulfill this requirement by completing a transferable college English composition course worth 4 quarter (3 semester) units. More back.
Select STLIP (still in progress) for social work your course grades. Submit your academic update before the priority deadline and update your grades as soon as you receive them. back. Once you've submitted the Essay The Influence TV on, Transfer Academic Update, you may log back in and make necessary changes. back. If you are admitted, you must arrange to have final, official transcripts sent to the campus where you plan to enroll. Unless a campus requests it, do not send a transcript during the application process. back. Upper Division Transfer Applicants. You will need to retrieve this information from UC TAP in order to verify your identity and initiate the import into the application for Essay about Can A Cardboard Boat Float admission to the University. UC TAP accounts and about The Influence the UC admissions application accounts are NOT directly linked. back.
Even though personal and demographic information are contained in UC TAP, only the academic history (school, coursework and UC TAP/TAG information) will be available for import into the UC application. back. Make sure you are using the correct UC TAP login ID and Essay Can A Boat UC TAP email. back. UC Transfer Admission Planner data are current as of the Essay The of Reality, date noted at the top of the page. If your last import is before that date, you will need to make the same updates here as they will not be reflected in the imported data. Social Theory Chart. back. If the of Reality TV on, system is unable to make the match between your UC TAP account and about What is Addiction? your application, you should manually enter your information. back. Freshman and about of Reality TV on Sophomore Applicants. Upper Division Transfer Applicants. I attend a British System college. Source At Errors. How should I enter my school? If you are completing Advanced Level examinations in the British System (United Kingdom, Singapore, etc.), indicate your last school attended as your high school of graduation, even though your school may be called a college or junior college. We often use the words 'college' and 'university' interchangeably.
College level is the same as university level. College is not upper-level secondary school in Essay about Influence TV on, the U.S. Source Monitoring: A Look. back. Freshman and Sophomore Applicants. If your California high school does not appear in the list, check that you have typed the name correctly. Try entering just the Influence, unique words in your school name and leaving out words such as High School, College, or Saint. M And. If your school is not in Essay The of Reality, California and does not appear in m and s recruitment, the list (or no matches appear), enter the full name of the school, the city and institution type, then click 'Add This.' back. Specialized curriculum focuses on a particular academic or career-technical area of study. Essay About The. A career pathway/academy is a cohort of students within a school who typically participate for three years in a state-funded California Partnership Academy with a focus on an area of career interest. A magnet school accepts students based on their interest and proven talent in an academic area of emphasis (e.g., the m and, arts, or science and technology) and nurtures student development in that area. If your school does not have a specialized curriculum, leave this blank. Do not select Other. back.
List 'Home School/Home Study' as your school name. For diploma/certification received, list either GED or High School Proficiency. If you took courses through an online provider, a correspondence school or other accredited program, list the institution's name and dates of Essay about TV on Society attendance, and any certificate received. Some campuses may require additional information such as a portfolio. About Is Addiction?. For specific requirements, contact the Essay Influence of Reality TV on, individual campus. back. Enter all the requested information and answer 'Yes' to the question asking if this is the school you graduated from. For diploma/certification received, select any equivalency you earned (e.g., GED or High School Proficiency) if applicable or Other and type None. Please explain why you did not graduate from high school in the Additional Comments section of Other Academic History. back. If your school's grading system isn't listed, choose Other from the dropdown menu and moral hazard and adverse selection enter your school's system. Do not select Other if the only differences are plus and minus letter grades.
If your grades are from a school outside the The of Reality TV on Society, U.S., do not convert them; enter your marks exactly as issued by your school when you are asked for Essay about is Addiction? your grades. If you attend school in Korea, which uses a ranking system (1-9), please report both your rank and The your raw score in each course. Essay. Grades should be reported as follows: rank/raw score (e.g., 2/94). About The Influence Of Reality TV On. We have experienced international admission specialists who are knowledgeable about the at Errors Essay, different grading systems and methods of reporting coursework in different countries. About Of Reality TV On. back. Enter the m and, dates as if there were no gap in attendance, starting with the about of Reality Society, earliest date you attended the school and ending with the most recent. back. If the online provider has an approved UC course list (e.g., Laurel Springs Online, UCCP, EPGY), add the work theory chart, provider as one of the high schools you attended.
If the The of Reality TV on, online course is being certified by your high school principal and will appear on your high school transcript, you can self-enter the course as part of the curriculum taken at your high school. back. If you took a course through a community college, regardless of the physical location of the course, enter the community college in your list of colleges attended while in high school. back. If you attend a school where you earn a high school diploma and college credit at the same time, enter the high school you attend and the classes taken at the high school first. After you complete your high school information, you will be asked about colleges and college courses taken while in high school, step 3 In This Section. back. If your college is in California, check that you have typed the social work theory, name correctly. About The Society. Try entering just the selection, unique words in your school name and leaving out words such as High School, College, or Saint. If your school is TV on, not in California and does not appear in the list (or no matches appear), enter the full name of the about, school, the city and institution type, then click 'Add This.' back. Enter the Essay Influence TV on, dates as if there were no gap in attendance, starting with the earliest date you attended the of Mexican Drug Cartels, school and ending with the most recent. back. Indicate as your current college the Essay Influence of Reality, one where you are carrying the most units. back.
Check with your California community college counselor to see if your degree is an approved Associate of Arts or Associate of Science degree for Evolving Drug Transfer (i.e., AA-T, AS-T, SB 1440 degree). Select Associate's if your degree is Influence of Reality, not one of the approved degree programs or you are attending a community college outside of California. What. back. If your school's grading system isn't listed, choose Other from the dropdown menu and enter your school's system. Do not select Other if the only differences are plus and minus letter grades. Essay. If your grades are from a school outside the s recruitment, U.S., do not convert them; enter your marks exactly as issued by your school when you are asked for your grades. Essay About The Of Reality TV On. back. Upper Division Transfer Applicants. It helps us understand your academic history and the path you've taken. List the high school you graduate from or last attended. back. Finish typing the name of your school and click 'Add.' Answer the questions that follow. back. If you received a GED or certificate, enter that information in the space provided.
Otherwise, leave the space blank. back. You will need to retrieve this information from UC TAP in A look Essay, order to verify your identity and initiate the import into the application for admission to the University. UC TAP accounts and the UC admissions application accounts are NOT directly linked. back. Even though personal and Essay about The demographic information are contained in UC TAP, only the Evolving of Mexican Drug Cartels, academic history (school, coursework and Essay about The of Reality TV on Society UC TAP/TAG information) will be available for import into the UC application. back. Make sure you are using the correct UC TAP login ID and UC TAP email. back. UC Transfer Admission Planner data are current as of the date noted at Boat Float, the top of the page. About The TV On. If your last import is before that date, you will need to m and s recruitment make the same updates here as they will not be reflected in the imported data. back. If the system is about The Influence of Reality TV on, unable to make the Evolving Structure of Mexican Drug Essay, match between your UC TAP account and of Reality your application, you should manually enter your information. Is Addiction?. back. When will I find out if I've been granted a scholarship? The campus will inform you after you are admitted.
Yes, your eligibility will be confirmed prior to any scholarship being awarded. It is strongly recommended that all U.S. About The Influence Of Reality Society. citizens, eligible non-citizens, and Essay about What is Addiction? undocumented students who meet AB540 requirements apply for financial aid (including grants and loans). About The Influence Of Reality. The deadline to apply is March 2 of the year you plan to start. I have one parent/legal guardian. Do I have to fill out both parent sections? Enter only the information that is relevant to your family situation. You may leave the job title and Essay about is Addiction? number of years blank. While most students under 24 do not meet the criteria for financial independence, if this accurately describes your situation and you support yourself solely with your own resources (employment, commercial/institutional loans in your name only, financial aid and savings from earnings,) you should claim independent status. Your response to this question helps us understand your unique family situation and does not have any bearing on financial aid determinations.
It helps us understand your unique family situation. Your response helps us understand your unique family situation and does not have any bearing on financial aid determinations. Estimate the Essay about of Reality TV on Society, total you earn each year before taxes are taken out. For parent income, that includes money earned by your parents and step-parents who contribute to your support. Essay Can A Boat Float. If you're married, include your spouse's income. Income can include wages, salary, commissions, income from self-employment; Social Security, dividends or interest, public assistance or welfare payments, unemployment compensation, pensions or annuities, alimony or child support payments, and regular contributions from Essay The of Reality, persons not living in about, the household. Do not include any financial aid you've received. Check the box indicating you are a dependent of a U.S. Essay About Influence Of Reality TV On. service member or veteran. I don't have an s recruitment email address. Should I use a different user name? You must provide a valid email address so campuses can quickly contact you to update or clarify any information in your application.
If you do not have one, you can easily sign up for a free email account through sites such as Yahoo Mail or Gmail. back. You can reset your password by answering the secret question you have set up. back. This is a question that is Essay The Influence of Reality Society, easy for hazard and adverse you to answer but difficult for others to The of Reality Society guess. For instance, your question might be, 'What is about Can A Cardboard, your grandmother's first name?' or 'What city was Mom born in?' back. Enter your legal name first. This is the name, for example, that appears on your passport. back. Common suffixes are Jr., II or 3rd. Leave this field blank if you don't have one. back. If you use a name that you wish to be known or identified by, and is different from your legal name, you can submit a request for a name change to the campus upon enrollment. back.
UC needs a phone number at which we can contact you. Please provide the number of about TV on Society a friend, neighbor or relative. back. Yes, enter the actual address. back. Plus 4 is a four-digit number added to a Zip code to provide a more precise location than the Zip code alone. If you don't know your Plus 4, leave this field blank. back. The current address is the address the University will use for mailed (postal mail) correspondence to you regarding the admissions process. If you are an Source Monitoring: international applicant, list your home country mailing address as your permanent address if it is Essay about The TV on Society, different from your current address. back. We use the Source Monitoring: at Errors, Social Security Number you provide to accurately and reliably merge your application to the official ACT and/or SAT scores we receive from the testing agencies and, if you apply for financial aid, your Free Application for Federal Student Aid. We also report it to the Internal Revenue Service, pursuant to the Taxpayer's Relief Act of 1997. You are required to disclose your Social Security Number if you have one. Influence Of Reality TV On Society. This notification is provided to you as required by about Cardboard, the Federal Privacy Act of 1974.
The university's record-keeping systems related to this application were established prior to January 1, 1975, pursuant to Essay the authority granted to Essay Can A Cardboard Boat Float the Regents of the University of California under Article IX, Section 9 of the California Constitution. back. If you are using Firefox, you need to upgrade your browser to at least Firefox 3.6. Earlier versions of Firefox won't allow you to Essay about The of Reality TV on Society enter your full Social Security Number. back. If you have a valid Social Security Number (SSN) - for instance, because of immigration proceedings - enter it in the application. If you have an SSN for work purposes (usually through DACA), enter that number. If you don't have a valid SSN or SSN for work purposes, but DO have an Individual Tax Payer Identification Number (ITIN), use the ITIN in Source Monitoring: Essay, place of an SSN. If you don't have a valid SSN, SSN for work purposes, or ITIN, leave this item blank. back. Every K-12 student in California public schools is assigned a statewide ID number. The unique 10-digit number enables the state Department of Education to Essay TV on Society comply with federal data-reporting requirements as students progress from work theory chart, year to year and school to school.
Providing this number is Essay about of Reality TV on, optional. back. It helps us understand your unique situation. To give us a complete picture of who you are, you may wish to discuss your military service and/or foster care experience in Essay about is Addiction?, one or more of your personal insight question responses. back. The Educational Opportunity Program (EOP) provides assistance through mentorship, academic programs, financial assistance, counseling/advising, and Essay about Influence of Reality TV on Society other campus support services to those who are first-generation college students, and/or from low-income and educationally disadvantaged backgrounds. In addition to assisting students through to graduation, EOP helps prepare students for admission to graduate and professional schools.
EOP serves students from all ethnic backgrounds, and is open only to California residents and to American Indians from any state. back. Providing the LGBT community with the option to self-identify supports the m and s recruitment, University's priorities of creating an Essay about TV on Society inclusive and Essay about Can A Cardboard Float welcoming campus environment across the UC system. As with all other demographic questions on the admission application, providing gender identity and sexual orientation data will be voluntary, optional, and about Influence as required by law, not impact admission decisions. back. Bisexual- A person whose primary sexual and affectional orientation is toward people of the same and other genders, or toward people regardless of their gender. Gay - A sexual and affectional orientation toward people of the same gender. Heterosexual/Straight - A sexual orientation in which a person feels physically and emotionally attracted to people of a gender other than their own. Lesbian - A woman whose primary sexual and affectional orientation is toward people of the same gender. Essay About Float. back. Gender Non-Conforming - People who do not subscribe to gender expressions or roles expected of The them by society. Structure Cartels. Genderqueer - A person whose gender identity and/or gender expression falls outside of the dominant social norm of the assigned sex, is beyond genders, or is some combination. Transgender - Used most often as an umbrella term; some commonly held definitions: someone whose gender identity or expression does not fit within dominant group social constructs of assigned sex and gender a gender outside of the man/woman binary having no gender or multiple genders Trans Man/Trans Male - A female-to-male (FTM) transgender person who was assigned female at birth, but whose gender identity is that of a man.
Trans Woman/Trans Female - A male-to-female (MTF) transgender person who was assigned male at Essay The of Reality TV on, birth, but whose gender identity is Source Monitoring: A look Essay, that of Essay The of Reality TV on a woman. back. This information is used for social statistical purposes only by UC, government agencies and researchers. Providing this information is optional, and it does not affect your chances of admission. Essay About The Of Reality Society. back. Select all categories that apply to m and s recruitment you. back. Why is Essay about Influence of Reality TV on Society, my residency status important? UC has different admission requirements for California and moral hazard selection non-California residents. back. No. The three years for a student's 9th through 12th grades need not be consecutive or completed at a single California school. For example, if a student attended 9th grade at a California middle or high school, left the state to attend 10th grade in another state, and returned to Influence a second California high school to complete 11th and selection 12th grades, that student would still meet the requirement of three years of Essay about The Society high school attendance in California. back. We consider any of the three as the equivalent of graduating: a. S Recruitment. A diploma from a California high school; b. A High School Equivalency Certificate, issued by the California State GED Office; or.
c. A Certificate of The TV on Society Proficiency, resulting from the California High School Proficiency Examination. back. Select Other and then type in the country name. A Look. back. Permanent residency refers to a person's immigration status: The person is legally authorized to about The Influence of Reality TV on live and Essay work in the country permanently. If you currently hold a foreign visa, you are not a U.S. permanent resident. back. The recommended choice for all undocumented applicants is No Selection. This includes undocumented students with Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) status. This does not automatically afford you benefits of about The Society AB540 or the California Dream Act. More information about eligibility for these benefits can be found here . back. The information you provide here will be used to assess your legal residence for purposes of university fees and nonresident tuition. The criteria used for this purpose are different from those used in the admissions process.
Providing this information is Essay What, optional. It will be helpful if you answer these questions now; however, your residence classification for Essay The Influence Society tuition purposes will be determined only after you have been admitted and after you submit your Statement of Legal Residence to the campus residence deputy. Moral. back. If your parents' state of legal residency is The Influence TV on Society, unknown, select 'No.' back. For information about UC's residency requirements for purposes of tuition and fees, please see our website. back. For the purpose of and adverse selection determining if an about The Society applicant must meet California resident versus non-resident admission requirements, the Essay about, admission office bases the decision on a U.S. citizen/permanent resident student's length of enrollment at a California high school; for determining if a student must pay resident versus non-resident tuition, the Registrar's office bases the decision on the residency of the Essay The, parent(s)/legal guardian(s). back. Can I submit different personal insight responses for each campus I apply to? No. Essay Can A Float. You can only submit one application, including one set of personal insight responses to the personal insight questions, and Essay Influence of Reality TV on Society they will be sent to each of your campus choices. Yes, you can edit your personal insight responses up until you submit your application.
Different programs have different methods for counting words. Please edit your personal insight question responses to meet the word limit as set in the application. This Additional Comments area can be used to explain anything that may be unclear in Monitoring: Essay, other parts of your application. The Additional Comments area in the Academic History portion of the The Influence of Reality TV on Society, application can be used to explain circumstances that affected your academic record. The purpose of the about is Addiction?, Additional Comments areas is NOT to answer an additional personal insight question.
State of Legal Residence/Parent Contact Information. One of the application steps is shown as incomplete and I can't figure out why. Review all pages of the step to be sure your responses are valid and that you have completed all items and corrected all errors. If you are still having trouble, contact the Help Desk. back. For transfer applicants, you'll need to delete some of the courses you've entered. Grade point unit is the numerical value of a grade multiplied by Essay The Influence of Reality Society, the number of units for social work the course. Letter grades are assigned a numeric value as follows: A=4 points, B=3 points, C=2 points and D=1 point, F=0. Essay The Influence Of Reality TV On. The grade point unit total is social, calculated by adding all the grade point units for each course. An A in a course of 3 semester units will earn 12 semester grade points.
If your school is on a semester system, the quarter grade points are derived by multiplying the calculated semester grade point by 1.5 (e.g., 12 semester grade points is equal to 18 quarter grade point units). A B in a course of 5 quarter units will earn 15 quarter grade points. If your school is on a quarter system, the semester grade points are derived by dividing the calculated quarter grade point by 1.5 (15 quarter grade points is equal to The Influence 10 semester grade point units). Moral Selection. back. Click View Application to view and print your entire application. back. You will receive an Essay The of Reality email shortly after you submit noting that your application was received. If you're a transfer applicant, you will be asked to log in to your applications and update your academic history. Campuses notify freshman applicants of their admissions decisions by March 31, and transfer applicants by April 30. back. If your school participates in about What, the ELC program, a note will appear on your My UC Application, Application Status page indicating whether you are in the top 9 percent of The Influence Society your class. back.
UC conducts a pre-admissions verification with a random sample of applicants, who are notified in early January that they must submit verification documents in order to be considered for What admission. Applicants may be asked to verify an item from one of the following application sections: Honors and about The Influence Society Awards, Extracurricular Activities, Volunteer Work and Monitoring: A look at Errors Essay Community Service, Educational Preparation Programs, Employment, Academic History and Essay of Reality the Personal Insight question responses. Falsification is the basis for a denial or revocation of admission to UC. Failure to submit the and adverse, required documentation by the deadline will result in applications being withdrawn from Essay The, further consideration at all campuses. back. For information about s recruitment, UC's residency requirements for purposes of tuition and fees, please see our website. Essay TV On. back. For the about Can A Float, purpose of determining if an applicant must meet California resident versus non-resident admission requirements, the about Influence TV on, admission office bases the decision on a U.S. citizen/permanent resident student's length of enrollment at a California high school; for determining if a student must pay resident versus non-resident tuition, the Registrar's office bases the decision on the residency of the parent(s)/legal guardian(s). back. Identify your legal guardian as Parent 1; if you have two guardians, identify the second as Parent 2. back. These questions are optional.
In general, if you are over the age of 24, married, have dependents, are financially self-sufficient, or a U.S. military veteran, you do not need to provide parent/guardian information. S Recruitment. back. UC determines residency based on information you provide in The TV on, the Statement of about What Legal Residence (SLR) - a form all newly admitted students submit to about The Influence Society the campus residence deputy in A look Essay, the Office of the Registrar. You submit this form after committing to The a campus by work theory, filing your Statement of The of Reality Society Intent to Register (SIR). back. This section is optional. By filling out this section, your parent(s)/guardian(s) may receive information about special parent- or family-focused programs and/or events and of Mexican other information about the University of California. This information will not be shared with parties outside the University of California community. back. The purpose of this section is not to grant permission to discuss your application with your parent(s)/guardian(s).
The permissions are granted in the Release Authorizations section of the application where you indicate with whom UC may discuss your application. back. What is the application deadline for Essay about The of Reality Society this term? We'll help you figure out the correct selection. Apply as a freshman if you are graduating high school next spring and you plan to enroll at UC in the fall. You will get credit for the college work you've done, but we consider you a freshman applicant. Apply as a freshman if you are graduating high school next spring and you plan to Essay about Cardboard Boat Float enroll at Essay The Society, UC in the fall. You will get credit for the college work you've done, but we consider you a freshman applicant. If your coursework is exclusively from a California community college, apply as a junior. UC limits community college unit credit to Structure of Mexican Cartels Essay a maximum of 70 semester (105 quarter) units, but grants subject credit for Essay about Influence of Reality Society coursework beyond that.
Please explain the circumstances in the Additional Comments in the Personal Insight section. Yes. The application center will automatically forward any updates you make to your application. If your school participates in the ELC program, a note will appear on your My UC Application, Application Status page indicating whether you are in the top 9 percent of Monitoring: A look Essay your class. Copyright Regents of the about Influence of Reality TV on Society, University of California.