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Organizational analysis essay

How to Make a Resume: A Step-by-Step Guide (+30 Examples) For most people, writing a good resume is Organizational Essay, tough, and it takes time. And the worst part comes when you finally think that you have a great resume, but you're still not getting interviews. Wouldn't it be wonderful if you could figure out how to criterion def, make a resume that would get you an interview almost EVERY time you applied for Organizational, a job? It is if you follow the process that I am about to Essay, share with you step-by-step. And BEST of all, this resume writing process is Essay, quick, and it's proven to land you interviews. That's true even if you want to write your first resume and have no experience, or if you're a professional who wants to know how to criterion def, write a resume that stands out. Here's what you're going to find:

How to write a resume for a job with examples for every section. Quick but little-known tips to follow to Organizational Analysis Essay, get up to 10x MORE INTERVIEWS. Answers to all of your questions about deserve how to make the Essay, best resume for Essay, a job. How to Organizational, create a resume online that you can track and send to get more interviews. A checklist that will help you make sure you know how to prepare a great resume. Here's an example of how to make a good resume for work versus a great resume.

What's the difference? Is it the way it looks? Not only. We've optimized the sample resume on the right to follow the advice that I will share with you in this article. So how do you make a resume? Let me show you step-by-step:

Resume vs. CV. What's the Computer Crime Essay, difference? Hello, blank page. Now, what? A resume is a document that showcases your work experience, education, and skills so that you can apply for a job. What's the difference between a resume and a CV? Curriculum Vitae (CV) is Analysis Essay, a Latin phrase meaning course of life and Essay is a document that entails much more than a resume. Not only is a CV longer than a resume, but it showcases accomplishments and experience in much greater detail. Organizational Analysis Essay. It's the election, ideal document for academics. So, knowing how to Organizational, write an Computer Crime Essay, academic resume is knowing how to write a CV.

If you need to Organizational Essay, know more, read our guide: CV vs. Resume: What is the Difference? When to Use Which (Examples) Once you know if you should write a CV or resume, it's time to choose the right format. How to Choose a Professional Resume Format. What does a resume look like? There are three types of election, professional resume formats: Most job seekers choose the reverse-chronological resume format. Here's what a sample resume looks like written in the reverse-chronological format: Traditional Familiar to Recruiters. Experienced professionals can highlight skills.

Career changers can emphasize transferrable skills. Uncommon and not as familiar to recruiters. Not suggested for Essay, entry-level job seekers. Entry-level job seekers can emphasize skills instead of Essay, experience. Recruiters may think you're hiding something. Still not sure which professional resume format is Organizational, best for you?

Need to see examples of resumes with different layouts? Read our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How To Choose The Best One [Examples] Contact Information Is Not as Basic as It Seems. Despite the professional resume format you choose, your contact information goes at Essay Deborah the top. Here is how to write a resume contact section: Adding your address is optional. Analysis. It is no longer necessary to when invented, add it to Organizational Essay, a modern resume. Plus, it might be better to when was elevator invented, exclude it if you are applying for Organizational Essay, a job that isn’t local. Your email address should be professional which means: Choosing a sophisticated email provider. Not using your current work email.

Instead, create a professional, private email address. Avoiding email addresses from when you were in high school. It won’t amuse recruiters to see johnlikesgoats@hotmail.com or sexysara@gmail.com . Criterion Def. Okay, maybe it will amuse them a little bit, but they won’t call you for an interview. Adding URLs to your personal website or blog directs recruiters to your portfolio or extra work that you want to show without cluttering up your perfect resume. Pro Tip: Make sure you review your social media accounts to check for unprofessional content. When you add a link to your social media profiles, make sure they're optimized to give recruiters the Organizational Analysis, best impression. Not sure how to Essay on Deborah Gray I a, optimize your LinkedIn profile to attract employers? Read our guide: How to Optimize Your LinkedIn Profile To Get More Jobs Here’s How the Best Candidates Start Their Resumes.

Again, what does a resume look like? Well, you know that contact information comes first. But what comes next? Education? Experience? Does it matter where you put things when you're deciding how to make a resume? The short answer is yes, it does matter. Organizational. That's because your best stuff should go in the top third of your resume. And the Computer Crime, best way to Organizational, start any killer resume is with an introduction to yourself. Think of it like this: The top of your resume is the penthouse - the most important piece of real estate on the document.

But why? The average recruiter spends six seconds scanning your resume in between reading Facebook messages from grandma, drinking coffee, and deciding what's for lunch. She is looking for very specific information, and she is only going to look for it in the top third of your resume. If you do not grab her attention - game over. That's why a creative resume summary or objective can save the day. Here's a sample resume: What is a resume summary statement? A resume summary is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and skill set. It should also demonstrate why you'll be a valuable hire.

Boyfriend Material experienced at laying coats over gore v bush election, mud puddles, opening doors, and pulling out chairs. Analysis Essay. Charming, funny, and a great conversationalist seeking to leverage 10+ years of experience delivering anecdotes to entertain you through boring social events. Essay Service Management. Has an MA in Essay hand holding and a license to gore v bush election, cook romantic dinners. What is a resume objective statement? A resume objective achieves the same thing as a resume summary. The difference is how you write one and who should use it. Experienced Chef interested in becoming a Zoo Keeper. Analysis Essay. Tons of experience with picky clients who need to be fed with the right food at gore election the right time. Want to apply my patience and understanding of complicated clients to taking care of Analysis, angry lions at do celebrities the Zoo.

This candidate chose an effective resume objective over a summary because he is changing his career from chef to Organizational Analysis Essay, zookeeper. Either way, the point is to focus on the employer's needs and not your own. Who should use an objective for was elevator, a resume? Entry-level Applicants and Students Career Changers Professionals Targeting Specific Positions. You can also choose to Organizational Analysis Essay, write something called a professional profile . When considering how to write a resume profile, think of it as a hybrid that crosses elements of the objective and the summary. A good resume profile lists your qualifications, experience, and education regarding the company’s needs and values. Election. It can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list with resume bullet points.

Wouldn't it be nice to have some resume examples of summaries tailored specifically to your profession? Read our guide: A Resume Summary That Will Get You The Job [7 Secret Steps] How to Write a Resume Experience Section That's More Than a List. The first section that should appear in the body of an Organizational, excellent resume is the section that will best show off your skills and accomplishments. For most of you, that will probably be the experience section. Let's say you're learning how to Essay on Ar’n’t I a, make a student resume, or have little or no work experience. In that case, lead with your education or skills section. But do you know how to write a resume employment history? When you start writing a resume experience section you will want to keep a few things in mind: Write your job history in reverse-chronological order - start with your current position. Analysis Essay. Include around six bullet points describing the do celebrities privacy, scope of your responsibilities.

Tailor each of these bullets points to reflect the Organizational Analysis, skills listed in the job description. Follow the bullet point format (see below), and include facts and figures. You should try to include achievements that show your professional impact. Tell a career story that reinforces your professinal persona. Sample Resume Experience Entry: Spearhead a global brand strategy for our top performing product.

Analyze market trends and recommend solutions resulting in a 10% upswing in sales annually. Prepare Portfolio Deployment Plans. Head up a team of 10+ marketing specialists. Organize marketing materials. Responsible for brand strategy. Responsible for criterion def, analyzing market trends. Analysis. Responsible for a team of marketing specialists. Now, what if you have career gaps in your job history or a habit of job hopping? Let’s face it. Criterion Def. Not all of Analysis Essay, us have a pristine job history. And it's difficult to know how to do celebrities deserve, create a resume that addresses career gaps without cheating.

One approach is to include a brief explanation next to each job. By briefly stating that your stay became short lived due to downsizing or relocation, you will reassure the recruiter that you're not a risky candidate. Chronic career hoppers may be tempted to tamper with dates, leaving only the years in their experience section: Excluding the months makes it look like you worked a year instead of three months. But it's a dirty trick that employers know well, which makes it a big no, no. Pro Tip: Feel free to Organizational Analysis, list “non-traditional” work in your experience section - like volunteer jobs or freelance work. Is Your Education Section Underperforming?

It Might Be. You should also write your education section of criterion def, your resume in reverse-chronological order, with your most recent degree appearing first. Usually, you will want to include the type of Organizational Essay, degree, your major, your university, and any honors or awards you received. You can skip your GPA. But if you're a recent college graduate who's making a student resume, it's okay to add your GPA if it's 3.5 or higher. You can also include a coursework narrative. For professionals, the Computer Crime, inclusion of a coursework narrative is another way to Organizational Analysis Essay, reinforce a professional persona.

Do you know how to make a resume when you have a GED or didn't graduate? Not sure how to write a degree on a resume? We can help with that. Deborah Gray White’s Ar’n’t I A. Check out our article: How To Put Your Education On A Resume [Tips Examples] Why You Need to Focus on Your Skills Section. When you consider how to make a good resume that stands out Organizational Essay , it has everything to of Customer Service Management, do with sprinkling your skills throughout your resume. But, it also makes sense to have a big section labeled “ SKILLS .” Use the key skills listed in the job description.

This will also help you create a modern resume for a job that will pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. Essay. More about that later. Recruiters should be able to Essay Analysis of Customer Service Management, see two things when they look at Organizational Analysis your skills for a resume: You have the skill set they want and criterion def requested in Organizational Analysis the job post. You have extra skills that prove you are a valuable worker. Do you want to know how to make a great resume for Computer Essay, a job that showcases the Organizational Analysis, best resume skills? I thought so. Read our guide: What Skills To Put On a Resume [Examples + 6 Proven Tips] How to Computer Crime Essay, Add Other Resume Sections While Making an Effective Resume. Here are some additional resume sections you can consider adding if you don't feel the Analysis, traditional resume sections are doing it for you. Students and Computer Essay fresh graduates - you may want to consider adding a separate section for Organizational Essay, awards or honors, or a section for extracurricular activities.

If you've got a technical background - you might want to consider an extra section for Analysis Service Management, certificates, licenses, or software. Some professionals who have opted for Analysis, making a resume for work over an academic CV might still want to Gray White’s Ar’n’t Woman?, add a section for publications or conferences. Others may want to add a section that shows off their command of languages or other achievements and Organizational Essay projects. Whatever you decide to Essay White’s Ar’n’t, add, just make sure that your additions don't overwhelm your resume. Analysis Essay. You still want everything to was elevator, fit onto one page if possible.

No One Adds a Hobbies Section, But It Works So Well. The hobbies section of a resume is optional. Organizational Analysis Essay. But, I recommend adding one if you have space. Adding your interests shows off extra skills for a resume, makes your resume stand out, and gives the hiring manager a fuller image of Essay Analysis of Customer Management, you. Your interests are also a way to make yourself more attractive and memorable to your potential employer.

You can always cut this section later if your resume is too long. Not convinced? Well, it's true. Adding a hobbies and interests section can boost a contemporary resume. Analysis Essay. Find out how: Best Examples Of Hobbies Interests To Put On A Resume (5 Tips) How to Write a Perfect Resume Tailored to the Job Description. Did you know that R2D2 might run a scan on your resume before a human does?

On average, a corporate job offer attracts up to 250 resumes . Of those, 4 to 6 candidates will get invited for an interview. And only one person will get the job. With that many resumes to deserve, sift through, recruiters are using something called Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. The software compares your resume to the job description based on Essay, keywords. How to prepare a resume that will make it through ATS?

You need to tailor your resume. Tailoring a resume to the job description is adding keywords and information from the of Customer, job offer. For starters, you're going to Organizational, want to when invented, make a master resume. A master resume is an updated version of Organizational, all your work experience, skills, and accomplishments. When you sit down to criterion def, write a tailored version of your resume, you will pick and choose material from your master resume to match the specific job for which you are applying. To further tailor the content to Analysis Essay, the job description, you're going to add keywords that you find in criterion def the offer. Let's say you want to apply for a job as a copywriter.

The job description says: Able to work on several campaigns at once, sometimes under pressure and often to tight deadlines. To tailor your basic resume, you will want to add some of the Organizational Analysis, phrases verbatim to your experience section. For example: Work on several campaigns at once. To make it more powerful, you can add details such as the number of campaigns you can juggle at Crime Essay once. Here is an example of a resume job description with all of the keywords highlighted along with a resume sample that we've tailored to match.

Need more in-depth information about how to Essay, make a resume that's tailored to the job description? Need more resume samples? Read our guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description How to Prepare a Resume That Will Attract ANY Recruiter. If you're struggling with how to make a good resume stand out, all you need to Essay Analysis of Customer, do is make things quantifiable. Wherever possible. Everywhere. Analysis Essay. Because using numbers gives the recruiter some tangible proof of an achievement. Here are some basic resume examples of achievements:

The hiring manager now sees quantifiable, specific proof of your achievements. Using numbers also improves the readability of the text, and draws the eye of the recruiter. No One Adds Achievements, But It Works So Well. Adding achievements to your resume is an Essay, extremely effective way of selling your skills and Organizational experience. All you have to do is was elevator, add your achievements as resume bullet points in Organizational Essay your experience section. You will want to when was elevator, use the PAR ( Problem Action Result ) Approach to Analysis Essay, writing your achievements:

Here're a few right and wrong resume examples of how to write achievements: Problem : My previous employer wanted to increase revenue. Action : I created a new marketing campaign on Facebook. Result : We saw an increase in sales by 15% and an increase in revenue by gore 10%. Not sure how to quantify your achievements? Want more examples of accomplishments to put on a contemporary resume? Read our guide: Examples of Professional Achievements To Put On A Resume [3 Tips] Turn Boring Words Into Action Words - Here’s How. How many times have you used the Organizational Essay, phrase responsible for in your experience section? More than once? You may want to consider mixing up your vocabulary. Overusing words and Essay on Gray Ar’n’t I a phrases like “responsible for” or “manage” is boring.

Now, while you should avoid jargon and empty words, action verbs can spice up your resume and make it stand out. Also, be sure to use the present tense when describing your current role. Here're a few before and after resume examples: Pro Tip: Don't overdo it. You don't want to Analysis Essay, sound like a freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary.

And avoid resume buzzwords like synergy. Service Management. Trust me. The Best Candidates Know How to Show Their Career Progression. What makes a good resume? CEO, Director, Manager - all you need is a big, impressive title, right?

At this point, you probably figured out that knowing how to Organizational Essay, build a resume goes far beyond listing fancy titles. What really matters, is whether those titles are backed up by a story of career progression. For example, describing yourself as a social media manager won’t be credible if all you did was the marketing for your parent’s pizza place. You have to show a steady progression into a management position. Gore. Each former role should reinforce your place in the next one. Rather than repeating duties when you describe previous roles, write about the new tasks you took on when you advanced. Responsible for the creation of Organizational, a global brand strategy for a major category. Service. Prepare Category and Portfolio Deployment Plans. Analyze market trends and Essay recommend solutions. Team Management (10 marketing specialists).

Marketing Specialist / Senior Marketing Specialist: Planned and implemented promotional campaigns. Cooperated with interactive agencies. Managed project budgets and timeline control. Researched information. Assisted during promotional campaigns. See how these responsibilities evolve?

What if you're a student and need to know how to make a resume with no experience. Read our dedicated guide on Essay on Deborah I a, how to Organizational Analysis, write a resume for gore v bush, students: The Complete Guide To Writing A Student Resume [13 Tips, Examples] How to Create a Resume That Draws Attention to Promotions. Highlighting your promotions shows potential employers that your previous supervisors valued your work performance. Analysis. Even lateral moves suggest that you were able to handle diverse responsibilities. Here are a few ways to describe your promotions while writing a resume:

Repeatedly recognized for Management, top performance through fast-track promotions and Organizational Analysis Essay selection for Essay, high-priority initiatives. Earned promotion following a superior performance, and demonstrated ability to quickly learn and Organizational master complex concepts. What if you moved up within the same organization? You don’t have to mention the name of the same company more than once. It will make even the best resume look messy. Criterion Def. Here’s what to Essay, do instead: COMPANY NAME City, State, 2001 to Present. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Describe responsibilities and Deborah Gray White’s I a achievements. Describe responsibilities and achievements.

Here's a Quick Tip on How Make Your Resume Easy to Read. Need to know how to make a resume easy for a recruiter to read? It's as simple as aligning your text to the left. To make your text even more skimmable use the Analysis Essay, same resume font and Essay font size, and make strategic use of bold, italics, and caps. The bulk of your resume will consist of bullet points.

Here's how to construct them: Spearheaded a targeted email campaign that resulted in a 15% upswing in newsletter registration. You might also want to consider how to Analysis Essay, create a resume using templates. Professional resume templates can make your documents cleaner and easier to read. They also save you time and energy. Let's face it. No one likes trying to control one-inch margins in Word. Is a Font Ruining Your Awesome Resume?

While choosing a basic resume font may seem like a silly chore - it's not. A good font will ensure that your resume is readable. What is the best font for a resume? The best font for a resume is one that a recruiter can read with no effort. Stick with fonts that sound like hipster baby names - Arial, Helvetica, Calibri, and criterion def Verdana. What is the best resume font size?

The Goldilocks font size is 10-12 points - not too big and Analysis Essay not too small. Keep it uniform. The bottom line is making sure you don't sacrifice resume margins, white space, or font size in an attempt to gore v bush, cram everything onto one page. Still not sure about what font to Organizational Analysis, choose while writing a resume? Read our guide about the best resume fonts: What Is The Best Font For A Resume (+10 Examples Tips) Here Is the Essay, Best Way to Organizational Essay, Save Your Resume. When you're done writing your perfect resume, it's time to when was elevator, consider how to make a resume file. And that's not as obvious as it sounds. The best advice is to Analysis Essay, save your resume as a PDF and give it your name.

When you save your resume as a PDF, there is no chance that the Computer Crime, formatting will glitch and get messed up when a recruiter opens the file. Do keep in mind that if your resume has to pass ATS software, Cylons don't like special formatting or graphics. Read the instructions explaining how to Organizational, send your resume, because you may need to send something other than a PDF. How should you name your files? The recruiter won’t have to search for that crazy space smuggler’s resume when they want to refer to it. Not sold on saving your file as a PDF document? Need to see some pros and Essay on Ar’n’t cons about different file formats? Read our guide: Word VS PDF Resume: What Is The Best Resume Format?

Here Is an Organizational Analysis, Easy Way to Keep a Resume Short. How long should an ideal resume be? One page or two? Most contemporary resume guidelines will tell you that while making a resume, you should do your best to keep it to one page. But you don’t want to force it, and Computer Crime Essay that isn't true for everyone. The best thing to do is to go through at Organizational the end and when was elevator invented trim as much fat as possible without losing the value. Here are three tips on how to make a resume for a job shorter: If you aren't sure how long your resume should be or need more advice on how to make a resume shorter, read our guide: How Long Should a Resume Be?

Everything You Need To Know Little Known Tools That Will Proofread Your Resume for You. One of the Essay, worst things you can do is criterion def, send out Organizational Analysis Essay a basic resume that is full of Essay, grammar and spelling mistakes. You need to Organizational Analysis Essay, proofread your resume. It doesn’t matter if you already know how to write a resume that stands out. Even the best resumes need to be proofread by a second person. Whoever you chose can also give you an objective opinion about how you’ve presented yourself.

Start by when was elevator proofreading your resume with the help of apps like Grammarly, Language Tool, or other language tools. Next, ask your mom, your partner, your best friend, your neighbor - whoever - to read over your resume for you. How to Clean Up Your Online Image. Before sending your resume, you will want to check your online presence. That's because 59% of recruiters research candidates online after reading their resumes. Let's say you're sure you know how to write a resume and you follow all of Analysis, our advice. That won't matter if you skip this step. Start by entering your name into Google to Computer Essay, see what comes up in the results.

Most of you will find links to your social media profiles. As long as you cleared your profiles of unprofessional content, you should be good to go. If you have a more common name like Jane Smith, for example, you may not find much about yourself at all. Some of you might be disturbed to find extremely personal content such as your bank account number, an image of your signature, or sexually explicit images that have been posted without your consent. If this happens, you can ask Google to remove the information from the Essay, Internet for you. If you find some embarrassing content on a web page, Google suggests that it is Essay Service Management, best to contact the Organizational Analysis, webmaster (owner) to have the image or content removed. Here’s the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. A cover letter is still needed when you send a resume to Computer Essay, a potential employer.

Up to 45% of recruiters will reject resumes without cover letters. So, even if you know how to write a resume, you can forget about landing the Essay, job if you don't send a cover letter. Your cover letter or application letter is where you can expand upon things that you need to keep brief on your resume. It also needs to be tailored to the job for which you are applying. As for resume references, they're the Analysis, one thing you truly don't need anymore. Analysis Essay. So, lose the phrase references upon Computer Essay request.

Okay, so you need a cover letter. But do you know how to write an application letter? And better yet, how do you write a convincing one? Read our guide: How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] Why Sending a Personal Message Can Be a Big Win. When you send your resume to a general email address like jobs@company.com , your resume is entering a swamp of identical messages from other candidates. One thing you can do to Organizational Analysis, differentiate your message is to try to find out the name of the person who will be reading your resume and when was elevator invented send them a personal email. This is Analysis Essay, not the best solution in on Gray White’s Ar’n’t I a every case. You will need to Organizational, decide if a hiring manager will see the Essay Analysis Service Management, gesture as clever or creepy. Pro Tip : If you use our resume builder, ( create your resume here ) you have the option to Analysis Essay, publish your resume and send a link to employers. Sending a link will allow you to track views and downloads so that you know how well your resume is election, performing.

Want to send a personal message but can't find the Organizational, hiring manager's email address? Need to know how to write a resume email? We've got you covered: How To Email Your Resume To Get More Replies From Employers Once you've sent your resume, it's a good idea to track it. Essay Analysis. You can install a free sales tool like Mixmax or YesWare to Essay, help you. Knowing if recruiters have opened and read your email will enable you to follow-up promptly or find different email addresses. Your resume is your passport to job interviews. And knowing how to make a resume for a job is the first step on any career path. So, take the Computer Essay, time and energy to Organizational, think about how to write a resume well and Computer Crime how to tailor it to Organizational Essay, the job description. If you can do that, you're well on when was elevator invented, your way to the next level - the interview. Bonus: Check out Organizational our ultimate checklist of 56 things you need to do before you send your resume.

How many have you missed? Download: “Resume 101 Checklist.” Are there any great resume writing tips we need to include in the article? Do you have any questions about how to on White’s I a, make a resume for your position? Add a comment. I’ll be happy to Organizational, answer. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.

She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.

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50 Incredible, Historical Speeches You Should Watch Online. Analysis Essay? You hope that your professors will be good speakers who can keep your interest for at least the length of a class period, but more often than not, you#8217;ll have a teacher or two each semester who drones on Computer Crime Essay, and on and doesn#8217;t make you feel passionate about the Essay, subject. They could take tips from these speakers who have inspired thousands or even millions of people around the world, some even long after they#8217;ve died. Here are 50 incredible, historical speeches you should watch online. These commencement speakers include presidents, a professor, political strategist and do celebrities deserve privacy industry leader.

Take note of their communication skills as you listen. John F. Kennedy at American University : On June 10, 1963, President JFK gave the commencement address at American University, first celebrating the institution of American universities, and then discussing the Organizational Analysis, #8220;new face of war#8221; and its great cost. Kennedy implores the graduates to pursue peace, even though it is not as dramatic as the election, pursuit of war, and references the end to the Cold War. Randy Pausch at Carnegie Mellon : Randy Pausch#8217;s #8220;Last Lecture#8221; became an Internet sensation and inspiration for people around the Analysis Essay, world who felt moved by the professor#8217;s battle with cancer and his insistence on the power and significance of achieving your childhood dreams. Here, a visibly ill Pausch, delivers the commencement address at Carnegie Mellon. James Carville at Tulane University : Louisiana native and colorful political strategist James Carville gave a rousing, sincere speech to the graduates of Tulane University of 2008, the first class to graduate since Hurricane Katrina interrupted their studies and nearly destroyed the city of criterion def New Orleans. Barack Obama at Notre Dame : When students and faculty at Notre Dame expressed disappointment and even outrage that President Barack Obama would speak at the school#8217;s 2009 graduation ceremony, the national media covered the debate from start to finish. In the Organizational Essay, end, Obama did give the speech despite the Crime Essay, controversy over Analysis Essay, his support of abortion, which the Catholic university disapproved of. Steve Jobs at Stanford : Computer science pioneer Steve Jobs gave an emotional but inspirational speech to the 2005 graduates of Stanford University, ending with the criterion def, line #8220;Stay hungry, stay foolish,#8221; a message that Jobs has always wished for himself and which he wished for the graduates. This speech is especially recommended for business students. Presidents are natural and practiced leaders and Organizational Analysis Essay give some of the when was elevator invented, most impressive speeches.

Here is Organizational Analysis a selection of some of the most important speeches of the 20th century, which offer insight into homeland security and defense, criminal justice, and other areas of Essay Service Management study. Organizational? Barack Obama Election Night Speech : Moments after being elected the first ever African American President of the United States, Obama addresses the nation live from Chicago. Ronald Reagan#8217;s 40th Anniversary of D-Day Speech : Watch President Ronald Reagan give an illustrative 40th anniversary of D-Day speech on criterion def, #8220;a lonely, windswept point#8221; on the beach at Normandy. Analysis Essay? Lyndon Johnson Remarks on Signing the Civil Rights Bill : President LBJ explains to the American public the significance of his signing the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Gray Ar’n’t Woman?? George W. Bush Post 9/11 Speech : After terrorists hijacked airplanes and flew them into the World Trade Center and Analysis Essay the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, shocked and when invented grief-stricken Americans turned to their TV sets that evening to listen to President George W. Analysis? Bush tell them what to do next. Essay Analysis Of Customer? Ich Bin Ein Berliner : President John F. Kennedy visited the Berlin Wall to Essay give this encouraging speech to the everyday citizens who suffered under Communism and do celebrities deserve privacy cheered when Kennedy repeated #8220;Let them come to Berlin.#8221;

President Nixon Announcing Resignation : Scandalized President Richard Nixon addresses the nation in this speech, announcing his resignation after Watergate. #8220;Tear Down This Wall#8221; : Listen to Analysis Essay Ronald Reagan#8217;s famous #8220;Tear Down This Wall#8221; speech in Berlin in front of the famous Berlin Wall. Election? George W. Bush#8217;s Bullhorn Speech : What is now known as Bush#8217;s #8220;Bullhorn Speech#8221; started as a casual impromptu rally for the recovery workers at Organizational Ground Zero, just after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Bush stood on top of a hill of rubble and yelled to the crowd #8220;I can hear you! The rest of the world hears you!#8221; JFK Inaugural Address : JFK#8217;s inaugural address is criterion def one of the Organizational Analysis, most famous swearing-in speeches in history. The Challenger Explosion : Reagan shares news of the Challenger Explosion from the Oval Office. Here you will find speeches that inspired social change and encouraged audiences to become better citizens of the world. Although they can be enjoyed by everyone, these speeches are especially recommended for when, online psychology students, sociology students, and human services students. William Faulkner Nobel Prize speech : Look at a photograph of author William Faulkner accepting his Nobel Prize as you listen to his speech about the condition of the human spirit and the human heart.

LBJ We Shall Overcome : This video uses LBJ#8217;s famous We Shall Overcome speech as part of a video montage celebrating the civil rights movement. Malcolm X By Any Means Necessary : Malcolm X addresses friends and enemies and explains how he#8217;ll fight for civil rights #8220;by any means necessary.#8221; Death of Martin Luther King, Jr., Robert Kennedy : Robert Kennedy announces the death of MLK and Essay then eulogizes the civil rights leader in this 1968 speech. Lou Gehrig#8217;s speech : Lou Gehrig gives his farewell to criterion def baseball speech on the 4th of July at Yankee Stadium. Mario Savio : Listen to this exciting, impassioned speech from a very worked up Mario Savio, a member of the Berkeley Free Speech Movement. Give Them Hope Speech : Harvey Milk aims to Organizational give gay people around the country a feeling of hope that they belong in do celebrities privacy, society and have rights and deserve respect. Reagan#8217;s Evil Empire Speech : Ronald Reagan gives his famous Evil Empire speech to the National Association of Evangelicals. Nelson Mandela Released 1990 : When Nelson Mandela was released from prison in Organizational Analysis, 1990, he gave this speech to supporters. Jimmy Valvano#8217;s ESPY Speech : Dying basketball coach Jimmy Valvano delivered this famous, inspiring speech at the first ever ESPYs in 1993. He died of cancer two months later. Bill Cosby Famous Pound Cake Speech : Comedian Bill Cosby gives a touching but humorous speech in honor of the 50th anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education.

Mahatma Gandhi Speech : Gandhi gave this speech at deserve privacy Kingsley Hall in London in Analysis Essay, 1931. In it, he discusses the when invented, nature of Analysis Essay rule and religion. Listen to v bush election speeches from Hitler, Churchill, Eisenhower and other military leaders about war and Analysis Essay peace. FDR Pearl Harbor Address : Just after the Computer Essay, United States is attacked by Essay Japan at criterion def Pearl Harbor, President Franklin Roosevelt addresses the Essay, country and Congress in his famous #8220;date which will live in of Customer Management, infamy#8221; speech. Total War Speech : This video has English subtitles so that you can understand Joseph Goebbels#8217; speech calling for total war in 1943.

Sir Winston Churchill Finest Hour : This photo montage accompanies audio of Winston Churchill#8217;s #8220;finest hour#8221; speech, which he gave June 18, 1940, and in which he asked the British to help him fight so that they would not enter into #8220;a new dark age.#8221; We Shall Fight on the Beaches, Winston Churchill : Listen to Churchill#8217;s signature British mumble as he rallies his country to fight in World War II. These miscellaneous political speeches are from Essay, figures like Jesse Jackson, Margaret Thatcher and Ted Kennedy. The Dream Shall Never Die : Senator Edward Kennedy speaks at Deborah Gray Ar’n’t Woman? the 1980 Democratic National Convention shares one of his favorite Tennyson quotes and tells Americans that #8220;the dream shall never die#8221; even though he will not run for president. Jesse Jackson David and Goliath speech : Then Presidential candidate Jesse Jackson delivers this famous speech at Tendley Baptist Church January 16, 1984. Tony Blair resignation speech : Powerful but ultimately unpopular Primte Minister Tony Blair gives his resignation speech on June 27, 2007, here.

Senator Barack Obama#8217;s DNC speech : Presidential candidate Barack Obama gives this major speech at the 2008 DNC in Denver, officially accepting the nomination for president. William Jennings Bryan Cross of Gold Speech : Listen to audio of William Jennings Bryan#8217;s 1923 speech in Organizational, which he spoke about the criterion def, gold standard and silver mining. Mario Cuomo 1984 Convention Speech : This #8220;tale of Organizational Analysis two cities#8221; from Mario Cuomo at the DNC in 1984 attacks Reagan in a time of staunch conservatism.

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conservative essays Liberals in Analysis the United States have been losing political debates to conservatives for a quarter century. In order to start winning again, liberals must answer two simple questions: what is conservatism, and when was elevator what is Organizational Analysis, wrong with it? As it happens, the answers to these questions are also simple: Q: What is conservatism? A: Conservatism is the domination of society by an aristocracy. Q: What is wrong with conservatism? A: Conservatism is incompatible with democracy, prosperity, and civilization in general. It is a destructive system of Essay, inequality and prejudice that is founded on deception and has no place in the modern world. These ideas are not new. Indeed they were common sense until recently.

Nowadays, though, most of the people who call themselves conservatives have little notion of Organizational Analysis, what conservatism even is. They have been deceived by one of the great public relations campaigns of human history. Only by analyzing this deception will it become possible to Computer revive democracy in the United States. //1 The Main Arguments of Conservatism. From the pharaohs of ancient Egypt to the self-regarding thugs of ancient Rome to the glorified warlords of medieval and absolutist Europe, in nearly every urbanized society throughout human history, there have been people who have tried to constitute themselves as an aristocracy. These people and their allies are the conservatives. The tactics of conservatism vary widely by place and Analysis time. But the most central feature of conservatism is criterion def, deference: a psychologically internalized attitude on the part of the common people that the aristocracy are better people than they are. Modern-day liberals often theorize that conservatives use social issues as a way to mask economic objectives, but this is almost backward: the true goal of conservatism is to establish an aristocracy, which is a social and psychological condition of inequality. Economic inequality and regressive taxation, while certainly welcomed by the aristocracy, are best understood as a means to their actual goal, which is simply to Analysis Essay be aristocrats. More generally, it is crucial to conservatism that the people must literally love the order that dominates them.

Of course this notion sounds bizarre to modern ears, but it is perfectly overt in the writings of leading conservative theorists such as Burke. Crime Essay? Democracy, for them, is not about the mechanisms of voting and Organizational Analysis office-holding. In fact conservatives hold a wide variety of opinions about such secondary formal matters. For conservatives, rather, democracy is a psychological condition. Criterion Def? People who believe that the aristocracy rightfully dominates society because of its intrinsic superiority are conservatives; democrats, by contrast, believe that they are of equal social worth. Conservatism is the antithesis of democracy. This has been true for thousands of years.

The defenders of aristocracy represent aristocracy as a natural phenomenon, but in reality it is the most artificial thing on earth. Although one of the goals of every aristocracy is to make its preferred social order seem permanent and timeless, in reality conservatism must be reinvented in every generation. This is Essay, true for many reasons, including internal conflicts among the aristocrats; institutional shifts due to climate, markets, or warfare; and ideological gains and losses in the perpetual struggle against democracy. In some societies the aristocracy is rigid, closed, and stratified, while in others it is more of an aspiration among various fluid and gore election factionalized groups. The situation in the United States right now is Organizational Essay, toward the latter end of the spectrum. A main goal in life of all aristocrats, however, is to Essay Analysis of Customer Service Management pass on their positions of privilege to their children, and many of the aspiring aristocrats of the United States are appointing their children to Analysis Essay positions in government and in the archipelago of of Customer, think tanks that promote conservative theories.

Conservatism in every place and time is founded on Organizational Essay, deception. The deceptions of conservatism today are especially sophisticated, simply because culture today is do celebrities deserve privacy, sufficiently democratic that the myths of earlier times will no longer suffice. Before analyzing current-day conservatism's machinery of deception, let us outline the main arguments of conservatism. Although these arguments have changed little through history, they might seem unfamiliar to many people today, indeed even to people who claim to be conservatives. That unfamiliarity is a very recent phenomenon. Yet it is only through the classical arguments and their fallacies that we can begin to analyze how conservatism operates now. According to the first type of argument, found for example in Burke, social institutions are a kind of capital. A properly ordered society will be blessed with large quantities of Analysis Essay, this capital. This capital has very particular properties.

It is a sprawling tangle of gore, social arrangements and patterns of thought, passed down through generations as part of the culture. It is generally tacit in nature and cannot be rationally analyzed. It is fragile and must be conserved, because a society that lacks it will collapse into Organizational Analysis Essay anarchy and tyranny. Innovation is bad, therefore, and prejudice is good. Although the institutions can tolerate incremental reforms around the edges, systematic questioning is a threat to social order. In particular, rational thought is evil. Nothing can be worse for the conservative than rational thought, because people who think rationally might decide to try replacing inherited institutions with new ones, something that a conservative regards as impossible.

This is where the word conservative comes from: the Essay, supposed importance of conserving established institutions. This argument is not wholly false. Institutions are in fact sprawling tangles of social arrangements and patterns of thought, passed down through generations as part of the Organizational Analysis, culture. And people who think they can reengineer the v bush, whole of human society overnight are generally mistaken. The people of ancien regime France were oppressed by the conservative order of their time, but indeed their revolution did not work, and would probably not have worked even if conservatives from elsewhere were not militarily attacking them.

After all, the conservative order had gone to Organizational insane lengths to deprive them of the education, practical experience, and patterns of thought that would be required to operate a democracy. They could not invent those things overnight. Even so, the argument about conserving institutions is mostly untrue. Most institutions are less fragile and more dynamic than conservatives claim. Large amounts of institutional innovation happen in every generation. If people lack a rational analysis of institutions, that is when, mostly a product of conservatism rather than an Organizational Analysis, argument for it. And although conservatism has historically claimed to conserve institutions, history makes clear that conservatism is only interested in conserving particular kinds of institutions: the when was elevator, institutions that reinforce conservative power. Conservatism rarely tries to conserve institutions such as Social Security and welfare that decrease the common people's dependency on the aristocracy and the social authorities that serve it. To the Organizational Analysis Essay, contrary, they represent those institutions in various twisted ways as dangerous to to the gore, social order generally or to their beneficiaries in particular. The opposite of conservatism is democracy, and contempt for Organizational Essay democracy is a constant thread in the history of conservative argument.

Instead, conservatism has argued that society ought to be organized in a hierarchy of orders and classes and controlled by its uppermost hierarchical stratum, the aristocracy. Many of these arguments against egalitarianism are ancient, and most of them are routinely heard on the radio. Gore? One tends to hear the arguments in bits and pieces, for example the emphatic if vague claim that people are different. Of course, most of these arguments, if considered rationally, actually argue for meritocracy rather than for aristocracy. Meritocracy is a democratic principle. George Bush, however, was apparently scarred for life by having been one of the last students admitted to Yale under its old aristocratic admissions system, and having to attend classes with students admitted under the Analysis, meritocratic system who considered themselves to be smarter than him. Although he has lately claimed to oppose the system of legacy admissions from which he benefitted, that is a tactic, part of a package deal to eliminate affirmative action, thereby allowing conservative social hierarchies to be reaffirmed in other ways. American culture still being comparatively healthy, overt arguments for aristocracy (for example, that the Computer Essay, children of aristocrats learn by osmosis the profound arts of government and thereby acquire a wisdom that mere experts cannot match) are still relatively unusual. Instead, conservatism must proceed through complicated indirection, and the next few sections of this article will explain in some detail how this works. The issue is not that rich people are bad, or that hierarchical types of organization have no place in a democracy.

Nor are the descendents of aristocrats necessarily bad people if they do not try to perpetuate conservative types of Organizational Analysis Essay, domination over society. Computer Essay? The issue is Analysis, both narrow and enormous: no aristocracy should be allowed to Crime trick the rest of Analysis Essay, society into deferring to it. But isn't conservatism about freedom? Of course everyone wants freedom, and so conservatism has no choice but to promise freedom to its subjects. In reality conservatism has meant complicated things by freedom, and v bush the reality of Analysis Essay, conservatism in practice has scarcely corresponded even to the contorted definitions in conservative texts. To start with, conservatism constantly shifts in its degree of authoritarianism. Conservative rhetors, in the Wall Street Journal for example, have no difficulty claiming to be the party of freedom in one breath and attacking civil liberties in the next.

The real situation with conservatism and freedom is Essay Deborah Gray White’s Ar’n’t, best understood in historical context. Conservatism constantly changes, always adapting itself to provide the Analysis Essay, minimum amount of freedom that is required to hold together a dominant coalition in the society. Essay? In Burke's day, for example, this meant an alliance between traditional social authorities and Organizational Essay the rising business class. Although the business class has always defined its agenda in terms of when, something it calls freedom, in Organizational reality conservatism from the criterion def, 18th century onward has simply implied a shift from one kind of government intervention in Organizational Analysis the economy to another, quite different kind, together with a continuation of medieval models of Crime Essay, cultural domination. This is a central conservative argument: freedom is impossible unless the common people internalize aristocratic domination. Indeed, many conservative theorists to the present day have argued that freedom is not possible at all. Without the internalized domination of conservatism, it is argued, social order would require the external domination of state terror. In a sense this argument is correct: historically conservatives have routinely resorted to terror when internalized domination has not worked. What is unthinkable by design here is the possibility that people might organize their lives in a democratic fashion. This alliance between traditional social authorities and the business class is artificial.

The market continually undermines the institutions of cultural domination. It does this partly through its constant revolutionizing of institutions generally and partly by Analysis encouraging a culture of invented, entrepreneurial initiative. As a result, the alliance must be continually reinvented, all the while pretending that its reinventions simply reinstate an eternal order. Conservatism promotes (and so does liberalism, misguidedly) the idea that liberalism is about activist government where conservatism is not. This is absurd.

It is unrelated to the history of conservative government. Conservatism promotes activist government that acts in the interests of the aristocracy. This has been true for thousands of years. What is distinctive about liberalism is not that it promotes activist government but that it promotes government that acts in the interests of the majority. Democratic government, however, is not simply majoritarian.

It is, rather, one institutional expression of a democratic type of culture that is still very much in the process of being invented. //2 How Conservatism Works. Conservative social orders have often described themselves as civilized, and so one reads in the Wall Street Journal that the enemies of Organizational Analysis, civilization hate bow ties. But what conservatism calls civilization is little but the domination of an aristocracy. Every aspect of Computer Essay, social life is Organizational Analysis, subordinated to this goal. That is not civilization. The reality is quite the opposite.

To impose its order on criterion def, society, conservatism must destroy civilization. In particular conservatism must destroy conscience, democracy, reason, and Analysis Essay language. * The Destruction of Conscience. Liberalism is a movement of conscience. Liberals speak endlessly of conscience. Privacy? Yet conservative rhetors have taken to acting as if they owned the language of conscience.

They even routinely assert that liberals disparage conscience. The magnitude of the falsehood here is so great that decent people have been set back on Analysis Essay, their heels. Conservatism continually twists the Essay Gray White’s I a, language of conscience into its opposite. It has no choice: conservatism is unjust, and Organizational Essay cannot survive except by pretending to Essay Deborah White’s I a be the opposite of what it is. Conservative arguments are often arbitrary in nature. Consider, for example, the controversy over Elian Gonzalez.

Conservatism claims that the Analysis Essay, universe is ordered by absolutes. This would certainly make life easier if it was true. The difficulty is that the absolutes constantly conflict with one another. When the absolutes do not conflict, there is rarely any controversy. But when absolutes do conflict, conservatism is forced into sophistry. In the case of Elian Gonzalez, two absolutes conflicted: keeping families together and not making people return to when was elevator tyrannies. In a democratic society, the decision would be made through rational debate. Conservatism, however, required picking one of the two absolutes arbitrarily (based perhaps on tactical politics in Florida) and simply accusing anyone who disagreed of flouting absolutes and thereby nihilistically denying the fundamental order of the universe. This happens every day. Arbitrariness replaces reason with authority.

When arbitrariness becomes established in the culture, democracy decays and Analysis Essay it becomes possible for aristocracies to deserve privacy dominate people's minds. Another example of conservative twisting of the language of conscience is the argument, in the context of the attacks of 9/11 and Organizational Essay the war in Iraq, that holding our side to things like the Geneva Convention implies an equivalence between ourselves and our enemies. This is was elevator invented, a logical fallacy. The fallacy is Organizational Essay, something like: they kill so they are bad, but we are good so it is okay for us to kill. The argument that everything we do is okay so long as it is not as bad as the election, most extreme evil in the world is a rejection of Essay, nearly all of Computer Essay, civilization.

It is precisely the destruction of conscience. Or take the notion of political correctness. It is true that movements of conscience have piled demands onto people faster than the Analysis Essay, culture can absorb them. That is an unfortunate side-effect of Essay Gray White’s I a, social progress. Conservatism, however, twists language to make the inconvenience of conscience sound like a kind of oppression.

The campaign against political correctness is thus a search-and-destroy campaign against all vestiges of Organizational Analysis, conscience in Computer Crime Essay society. The flamboyant nastiness of rhetors such as Rush Limbaugh and Ann Coulter represents the destruction of conscience as a type of Organizational Analysis, liberation. They are like cultists, continually egging on their audiences to destroy their own minds by punching through one layer after another of their consciences. Once I wrote on the Internet that bears in zoos are miserable and should be let go. In response to this, I received an e-mail viciously mocking me as an animal rights wacko. This is an example of the destruction of conscience. Deborah Gray I A? Any human being with a halfways functioning conscience will be capable of Essay, rationally debating the notion that unhappy bears in zoos should be let go. Of course, rational people might have other opinions. They might claim that the Essay Gray White’s I a, bears are not actually miserable, or that they would be just as miserable in the forest.

Conservatism, though, has stereotyped concern for animals by associating it with its most extreme fringe. This sort of mockery of conscience has become systematic and commonplace. * The Destruction of Democracy. For thousands of years, conservatism was universally understood as being in opposition to democracy. Having lost much of its ability to Analysis attack democracy openly, conservatism has tried in recent years to redefine the word democracy while engaging in deception to make the substance of democracy unthinkable. Conservative rhetors, for example, have been using the word government in a way that does not distinguish between legitimate democracy and totalitarianism.

Then there is the notion that politicians who offer health care reforms, for example, are claiming to be better people than the rest of Essay, us. This is Organizational, a particularly toxic distortion. Offering reforms is a basic part of democracy, something that every citizen can do. Even more toxic is the notion that those who criticize the president are claiming to be better people than he is. This is authoritarianism. Some conservative rhetors have taken to literally demonizing the very notion of a democratic opposition. On I A? Rush Limbaugh has argued at length that Tom Daschle resembles Satan simply because he opposes George Bush's policies.

Ever since then, Limbaugh has regularly identified Daschle as el diablo. Organizational Analysis? This is the emotional heart of conservatism: the do celebrities, notion that the conservative order is Analysis Essay, ordained by gore election God and that anyone and anything that opposes the conservative order is infinitely evil. * The Destruction of Reason. Conservatism has opposed rational thought for thousands of years. Organizational Analysis? What most people know nowadays as conservatism is basically a public relations campaign aimed at when, persuading them to lay down their capacity for Organizational Essay rational thought. Conservatism frequently attempts to Essay of Customer Service Management destroy rational thought, for example, by using language in ways that stand just out of reach of rational debate or rebuttal. Conservatism has used a wide variety of methods to destroy reason throughout history. Fortunately, many of Organizational Essay, these methods, such as the suppression of popular literacy, are incompatible with a modern economy.

Once the common people started becoming educated, more sophisticated methods of domination were required. Thus the invention of public relations, which is a kind of rationalized irrationality. The great innovation of conservatism in Essay Gray Woman? recent decades has been the systematic reinvention of politics using the technology of public relations. The main idea of public relations is the distinction between messages and facts. Organizational Analysis Essay? Messages are the Computer, things you want people to believe. A message should be vague enough that it is difficult to refute by Organizational Analysis Essay rational means. (People in politics refer to messages as strategies and people who devise strategies as strategists. The Democrats have strategists too, and it is not at all clear that they should, but they scarcely compare with the vast public relations machinery of the right.) It is useful to Essay on Deborah Gray White’s I a think of each message as a kind of pipeline: a steady stream of facts is Organizational Essay, selected (or twisted, or fabricated) to Crime Essay fit the message. Contrary facts are of course ignored. The goal is what the Organizational Essay, professionals call message repetition. This provides activists with something to do: come up with new facts to fit the conservative authorities' chosen messages.

Having become established in this way, messages must also be continually intertwined with one another. This is one job of pundits. To the public relations mind, the v bush, public sphere is a game in which the opposition tries to knock you off your message. Take the example of one successful message, Gore's lies. The purpose of the game was to Organizational return any interaction to the message, namely that Gore lies. Do Celebrities? So if it is noted that the supposed examples of Gore lying (e.g., his perfectly true claim to Organizational Analysis Essay have done onerous farm chores) were themselves untrue, common responses would include, that doesn't matter, what matters is Gore's lies, or the reasons people believe them is because of Crime, Gore's lies, or yes perhaps, but there are so many other examples of Organizational Essay, Gore's lies, or you're just trying to change the subject away from when was elevator Gore's lies, and so on. Many of these messages have become institutions.

Whole organizations exist to provide a pipeline of facts that underwrite the message of liberal media bias. These facts fall into numerous categories and Organizational Analysis Essay exemplify a wide range of Essay, fallacies. Some are just factually untrue, e.g., claims that the New York Times has failed to cover an Analysis Essay, event that it actually covered in detail. Other claimed examples of bias are non sequiturs, e.g., quotations from liberal columns that appear on the opinion pages, or quotations from liberals in news articles that also provided balancing quotes from conservatives. Others are illogical, e.g., media that report news events that represent bad news for the president. The methods of identifying bias are thus highly elastic. On Deborah White’s I A? In practice, everything in the media on political topics that diverges from conservative public relations messages is Organizational Analysis, contended to Ar’n’t I a Woman? be an example of liberal bias. The goal, clearly, is to purge the media of everything except conservatism. The word inaccurate has become something of a technical term in the political use of public relations. It means differs from our message. Public relations aims to break down reason and replace it with mental associations.

One tries to associate us with good things and Essay them with bad things. Thus, for Essay of Customer Management example, the famous memo from Newt Gingrich's (then) organization GOPAC entitled Language: A Key Mechanism of Control. It advised Republican candidates to associate themselves with words like building, dream, freedom, learn, light, preserve, success, and truth while associating opponents with words like bizarre, decay, ideological, lie, machine, pathetic, and traitors. The issue here is not whether these words are used at all; of course there do exist individual liberals that could be described using any of these words. The issue, rather, is a kind of cognitive surgery: systematically creating and destroying mental associations with little regard for truth. Note, in fact, that truth is one of the words that Gingrich advised appropriating in this fashion. Someone who thinks this way cannot even conceptualize truth. Conservative strategists construct their messages in a variety of more or less stereotyped ways. One of the most important patterns of conservative message-making is projection.

Projection is a psychological notion; it roughly means attacking someone by falsely claiming that they are attacking you. Conservative strategists engage in projection constantly. A commonplace example would be taking something from someone by claiming that they are in fact taking it from you. Or, having heard a careful and detailed refutation of something he has said, the projector might snap, you should not dismiss what I have said so quickly!. It is a false claim -- what he said was not dismissed -- that is an example of Organizational, itself -- he is dismissing what his opponent has said. Projection was an invented, important part of the Florida election controversy, for example when Republicans tried to get illegal ballots counted and prevent legal ballots from being counted, while claiming that Democrats were trying to Organizational steal the election.

* The Destruction of Language. Reason occurs mostly through the medium of language, and so the on Ar’n’t, destruction of reason requires the Analysis Essay, destruction of language. An underlying notion of conservative politics is that words and phrases of language are like territory in warfare: owned and controlled by one side or the other. One of the central goals of conservatism, as for example with Newt Gingrich's lists of words, is to take control of every word and phrase in do celebrities the English language. George Bush, likewise, owes his election in Organizational Analysis Essay great measure to a new language that his people engineered for him. His favorite word, for example, is heart. Essay? This type of linguistic engineering is highly evolved in the business milieu from which conservative public relations derives, and it is the day-to-day work of Essay, countless conservative think tanks. Bush's people, and criterion def the concentric circles of punditry around them, are worlds away from John Kerry deciding on a moment's notice that he is going to start the word values. They do not use a word unless they have an integrated communications strategy for taking control of that word throughout the Analysis Essay, whole of society. Bush's personal vocabulary is only a small part of conservative language warfare as a whole.

Since around 1990, conservative rhetors have been systematically turning language into a weapon against liberals. Words are used in twisted and exaggerated ways, or with the opposite of their customary meanings. When Was Elevator Invented? This affects the whole of the language. The goal of this distorted language is not simply to Analysis defeat an enemy but to destroy the minds of the people who believe themselves to be conservatives and who constantly challenge themselves to ever greater extremity in using it. A simple example of turning language into a weapon might be the word predictable, which has become a synonym for liberal. There is no rational argument in deserve this usage. Every such use of predictable can be refuted simply by substituting the word consistent.

It is simply invective. More importantly, conservative rhetors have been systematically mapping the language that has historically been used to Analysis describe the Crime, aristocracy and the traditional authorities that serve it, and have twisted those words into terms for liberals. This tactic has the dual advantage of both attacking the aristocracies' opponents and depriving them of the words that they have used to attack aristocracy. A simple example is the term race-baiting. In the Organizational Analysis, Nexis database, uses of invented, race-baiting undergo a sudden switch in the early 1990's. Before then, race-baiting referred to racists. Afterward, it referred in twisted way to people who oppose racism.

What happened is simple: conservative rhetors, tired of the political advantage that liberals had been getting from Analysis Essay their use of that word, took it away from them. A more complicated example is the word racist. Conservative rhetors have tried to take this word away as well by constantly coming up with new ways to stick the word onto liberals and their policies. For example they have referred to affirmative action as racist. This is false; it is an attempt to destroy language. Racism is the v bush, notion that one race is intrinsically better than another.

Affirmative action is arguably discriminatory, as a means of partially offsetting discrimination in other places and times, but it is not racist. Many conservative rhetors have even stuck the word racist on people just because they oppose racism. The notion seems to be that these people addressed themselves to the topic of race, and the word racist is sort of an adjective relating somehow to race. Analysis Essay? In any event this too is an attack on language. A recent example is the word hate. The civil rights movement had used the word hate to refer to Analysis terrorism and stereotyping against black people, and during the Essay, 1990's some in the press had identified as Clinton-haters people who had made vast numbers of bizarre claims that the Clintons had participated in murder and drug-dealing. Beginning around 2003, conservative rhetors took control of this word as well by labeling a variety of perfectly ordinary types of Essay on Deborah Gray White’s Ar’n’t I a Woman?, democratic opposition to George Bush as hate. In addition, they have constructed a large number of messages of the form liberals hate X (e.g., X=America) and established within their media apparatus a sophistical pipeline of facts to support each one.

This is also an example of the systematic breaking of Organizational Essay, associations. The word partisan entered into its current political circulation in Crime Essay the early 1990's when some liberals identified people like Newt Gingrich as partisan for doing things like the memo on language that I mentioned earlier. To the conservative way of Organizational, politics, there is nothing either true or false about the liberal claim. It is simply that liberals had taken control of some rhetorical territory: the word partisan. Conservative rhetors then set about taking control of the word themselves. They did this in a way that has become mechanical. They first claimed, falsely, that liberals were identifying as partisan any views other than their own. They thus inflated the word while projecting this inflation onto the liberals and of Customer Management disconnecting the word from the particular facts that the liberals had associated with it. Next, they started using the word partisan in the inflated, dishonest way that they had ascribed to their opponents. This is, very importantly, a way of attacking people simply for having a different opinion.

In twisting language this way, conservatives tell themselves that they are simply turning liberal unfairness back against the liberals. Organizational Analysis Essay? This too is projection. Another common theme of conservative strategy is that liberals are themselves an Computer Essay, aristocracy. (For those who are really keeping score, the sophisticated version of Analysis Essay, this is called the new class strategy, the message being that liberals are the American version of the Soviet nomenklatura.) Thus, for on Gray I a Woman? example, the constant pelting of liberals as elites, sticking this word and a mass of others semantically related to it onto Essay liberals on every possible occasion. Crime? A pipeline of facts has been established to underwrite this message as well. Organizational Analysis? Thus, for example, constant false conservative claims that the rich vote Democratic.

When Al Franken recently referred to when was elevator his new radio network as the media elite and proud of it, he demonstrated his oblivion to the workings of the conservative discourse that he claims to Analysis Essay contest. Further examples of this are endless. When a Republican senator referred to the few liberals, hardly any liberals gave any sign of getting what he meant: as all conservatives got just fine, he was appropriating the phrase the few, referring to the aristocracy as opposed to the many, and sticking this phrase in a false and on Deborah Gray I a Woman? mechanical way onto liberals. Rush Limbaugh asserts that they [liberals] think they are better than you, this of course being a phrase that had historically been applied (and applied correctly) to the aristocracy. Analysis? Conservative rhetors constantly make false or exaggerated claims that liberals are engaged in stereotyping -- the criticism of stereotyping having been one of history's most important rhetorical devices of democrats. And so on. The goal here is to make it impossible to criticize aristocracy. For an especially sorry example of this pattern, consider the privacy, word hierarchy. Conservatism is a hierarchical social system: a system of ranked orders and Analysis classes.

Yet in recent years conservatives have managed to stick this word onto liberals, the Essay on Deborah Gray Woman?, notion being that government (which liberals supposedly endorse and conservatives supposedly oppose) is hierarchical (whereas corporations, the military, and the church are somehow vaguely not). Liberals are losing because it does not even occur to them to refute this kind of mechanical antireason. It is often claimed in the media that snooty elitists on the coasts refer to Analysis Essay states in the middle of the country as flyover country. Yet I, who have lived in liberal areas of the coasts for most of my life, have never once heard this usage. In fact, as far as I can tell, the gore v bush, Nexis database does not contain a single example of anyone using the phrase flyover country to Essay disparage the non-coastal areas of the United States. Instead, it contains hundreds of criterion def, examples of people disparaging residents of the coasts by claiming that they use the Organizational Essay, phrase to describe the interior. The phrase is a special favorite of newspapers in gore Minneapolis and Denver. This is projection. Likewise, I have never heard the phrase political correctness used except to Analysis disparage the people who supposedly use it. Conservative remapping of the language of aristocracy and democracy has been incredibly thorough. Consider, for example, the terms entitlement and dependency.

The term entitlement originally referred to Computer Crime aristocrats. Aristocrats had titles, and they thought that they were thereby entitled to various things, particularly the deference of the common people. Everyone else, by contrast, was dependent on the aristocrats. This is conservatism. Yet in the 1990's, conservative rhetors decided that the people who actually claim entitlement are people on Organizational, welfare. They furthermore created an empirically false association between welfare and dependency. But, as I have mentioned, welfare is precisely a way of eliminating dependency on criterion def, the aristocracy and the cultural authorities that serve it. I do not recall anyone ever noting this inversion of meaning. Conservative strategists have also been remapping the language that has historically been applied to conservative religious authorities, sticking words such as orthodoxy, pious, dogma, and sanctimonious to Organizational Analysis liberals at criterion def, every turn.

//3 Conservatism in American History. Almost all of the Essay, early immigrants to America left behind societies that had been oppressed by conservatism. The democratic culture that Americans have built is truly one of the monuments of civilization. And American culture remains vibrant to this day despite centuries of conservative attack. Yet the history of American democracy has generally been taught in confused ways. This history might be sketched in v bush election terms of the great turning points that happened to occur around 1800 and 1900, followed by the great reaction that gathered steam in the decades leading up to 2000. America before the revolution was a conservative society. It lacked an entitled aristocracy, but it was dominated in very much the Organizational Analysis, same way by its gentry. Americans today have little way of knowing what this meant -- the election, hierarchical ties of personal dependency that organized people's psychology. We hear some echo of Organizational Analysis Essay, it in the hagiographies of George Bush, which are modeled on the way the gentry represented themselves. The Founding Fathers, men like Madison, Adams, and Washington, were, in do celebrities deserve privacy this sense, products of aristocratic society.

They did not make a revolution in order to establish democracy. Quite the contrary, they wanted to Organizational be aristocrats. They did not succeed. The revolution that they helped set in motion did not simply sweep away the church and crown of England. As scholars such as Gordon Wood have noted, it also swept away the entire social system of the gentry, and it did so with a suddenness and thoroughness that surprised and Essay amazed everyone who lived through it. So completely did Americans repudiate the conservative social system of the Analysis Essay, gentry, in fact, that they felt free to mythologize the Founding Fathers, forgetting the Founding Fathers' aristocratic ambitions and pretending that they, too, were revolutionary democrats. When Invented? This ahistorical practice of projecting all good things onto the Founding Fathers continues to the present day, and it is unfortunate because (as Michael Schudson has argued) it makes us forget all of the work that Americans have subsequently done to build the democratic institutions of Organizational Analysis Essay, today. In reality, Madison, Adams, and Washington were much like Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union. Like Gorbachev, they tried to criterion def reform an oppressive system without fundamentally changing it. And like Gorbachev, they were swept away by the very forces they helped set into motion.

The revolution, though, proceeded quite differently in the North and South, and led to a kind of Analysis, controlled experiment. The North repudiated conservatism altogether. Indeed it was the only society in modern history without an aristocracy, and as scholars such as the late Robert Wiebe have noted, its dynamic democratic culture was most extraordinary. Do Celebrities Deserve Privacy? It is unfortunate that we discuss this culture largely through the analysis of Alexis de Tocqueville, an aristocrat who wanted to graft medieval notions of social order onto a democratic culture that he found alien. In the South, by contrast, the conservative order of the gentry was modified to Organizational Analysis Essay something more resembling the oppressive latifundist systems of Latin America, relieved mainly by comparatively democratic religious institutions.

The Northern United States during the early 19th century was hardly perfect. Deborah Gray Ar’n’t? Left-over conservative hierarchies and patterns of psychology continued to damage people's minds and lives in numerous ways. Essay? But compared to the South, the North was, and has always been, a more dynamic and successful society. Southern conservatism has had to modify its strategies in recent decades, but its grip on the culture is tragically as strong as ever. Something more complicated happened around 1900. Railroads, the Crime, telegraph, and mass production made for massive new economies of scale, whereupon the invention of the corporation gave a new generation of would-be aristocrats new ways to reinvent themselves.

The complicated institutional and Organizational ideological events of this era can be understood in microcosm through the subsequent history of the word liberal, which forked into two quite different meanings. The word liberal had originally been part of an intramural dispute within the conservative alliance between the aristocracy and the rising business class. Their compromise, as I have noted, is that the aristocracy would maintain its social control for the benefit of both groups mainly through psychological means rather than through terror, and that economic regulation would henceforth be designed to benefit the business class. And both of these conditions would perversely be called freedom. The word liberal thus took its modern meaning in a struggle against the aristocracy's control of the state. Computer Crime Essay? Around 1900, however, the corporation emerged in a society in which democracy was relatively strong and the aristocracy was relatively weak. Antitrust and many other types of state regulation were not part of traditional aristocratic control, but were part of democracy. And this is why the word liberal forked. Organizational Analysis Essay? Democrats continued using the word in criterion def its original sense, to signify the struggle against aristocracy, in this case the new aristocracy of corporate power. Business interests, however, reinvented the Organizational, word to signify a struggle against something conceptualized very abstractly as government. In reality the new business meaning of the word, as worked out in detail by people like Hayek, went in an opposite direction from its original meaning: a struggle against the people, rather than against the aristocracy.

At the same time as the corporation provided the Essay, occasion for the founding of Analysis, a new aristocracy, however, a new middle class founded a large number of professions. Deborah Gray White’s I A? The relationship between the professional middle class and Analysis the aristocracy has been complicated throughout the 20th century. But whereas the goal of conservatism throughout history has primarily been to suppress the mob of common people, the conservatism of the late 20th century was especially vituperative in its campaigns against the relatively autonomous democratic cultures of the professions. One of the professions founded around 1900 was public relations. Early public relations texts were quite openly conservative, and public relations practitioners openly affirmed that their profession existed to manipulate the common people psychologically in order to ensure the Essay Deborah Ar’n’t I a Woman?, domination of society by a narrow elite.

Squeamishness on this matter is a recent phenomenon indeed. The modern history of conservatism begins around 1975, as corporate interests began to react to the democratic culture of the sixties. Organizational Analysis? This reaction can be traced in the public relations textbooks of the time. Elaborate new methods of public relations tried to prevent, coopt, and Deborah defeat democratic initiatives throughout the society. A new subfield of public relations, issues management, was founded at this time to deal strategically with political issues throughout their entire life cycle. One of the few political theories that has made note of the large-scale institutionalization of Essay, public relations is the early work of Jurgen Habermas.

Even more important was the invention of the think tank, and especially the systematic application of public relations to politics by when the most important of the conservative think tanks, the Analysis, Heritage Foundation. The Heritage Foundation's methods of issues management have had a fantastically corrosive effect on democracy. The great innovation of Ronald Reagan and Essay the political strategists who worked with him was to submerge conservatism's historically overt contempt for the common people. The contrast between Reagan's language and that of conservatives even a decade or two earlier is most striking. Jacques Barzun's The House of Organizational, Intellect (1959), for example, fairly bristles with contempt for was elevator invented demotic culture, the notion being that modern history is the inexorable erosion of Organizational Essay, aristocratic civilization by democracy.

On a political level, Reagan's strategy was to place wedges into the many divides in that era's popular democracy, including both the avoidable divides that the counterculture had opened up and the divides that had long been inherent in conservatism's hierarchical order. Reagan created a mythical working class whose values he conflated with those of the conservative order, and he opposed this to an equally mythical professional class of liberal wreckers. On Deborah White’s Ar’n’t I A? Democratic culture in the sixties had something of a workable theory of conservatism -- one that has largely been lost. But it was not enough of a theory to explain to working people why they are on the same side as hippies and gays. Although crude by comparison with conservative discourse only twenty years later, Reagan's strategy identified this difficulty with some precision. People like Ella Baker had explained the Analysis Essay, psychology of conservatism -- the internalized deference that makes a conservative order possible. Essay? But the new psychology of democracy does not happen overnight, and it did not become general in the culture.

In the 1990's, American conservatism institutionalized public relations methods of politics on a large scale, and Analysis Essay it used these methods in a savage campaign of delegitimizing democratic institutions. Computer Crime Essay? In particular, a new generation of highly trained conservative strategists evolved, on the foundation of classical public relations methods, a sophisticated practice of real-time politics that integrated ideology and tactics on a year-to-year, news-cycle-to-news-cycle, and often hour-to-hour basis. This practice employs advanced models of the dynamics of political issues so as to launch waves of precisely designed communications in countless well-analyzed loci throughout the society. For contemporary conservatism, a political issue -- a war, for example -- is Essay, a consumer product to be researched and Essay Analysis of Customer Management rolled out in a planned way with continuous empirical feedback from polling. So far as citizens can tell, such issues seem to materialize everywhere at once, swarming the culture with so many interrelated formulations that it becomes impossible to think, much less launch an effective rebuttal. Such a campaign is successful if it occupies precisely the ideological ground that can be occupied at Essay, a given moment, and it includes quite overt plans for holding that ground through the construction of a pipeline of facts and intertwining with other, subsequent issues. Although in one sense this machinery has a profound kinship with the priesthoods of ancient Egypt, in v bush another sense its radicalism -- its inhuman thoroughness -- has no precedent in history. Liberals have nothing remotely comparable. //4 The Discovery of Democracy. Humanity has struggled for Analysis Essay thousands of invented, years to emerge from the darkness of conservatism.

At every step of the way, conservatism has always had the advantage of a long historical learning curve. There have always been experts in the running of conservative society. Most of the Essay, stupid mistakes have been made and forgotten centuries ago. Conservatives have always had the leisure to write careful books justifying their rule. Democracy, by contrast, is Essay on Deborah Gray Ar’n’t Woman?, still very much in an experimental phase. And so, for example, the 1960's were one of the great episodes of Analysis, civilization in human history, and they were also a time when people did a lot of stupid things like take drugs. The history of Computer Crime, democracy has scarcely been written. Of what has been written, the great majority of democratic theory is based on the ancient Greek model of deliberative democracy.

Much has been written about the Greeks' limitation of citizenship to perhaps 10% of the population. But this is not the reason why the Greek model is inapplicable to the modern world. The real reason is that Greek democracy was emphatically predicated on a small city-state of a few thousand people, whereas modern societies have populations in Organizational Essay the tens and hundreds of Crime Essay, millions. The obvious adaptation to the difficulties of scale has been representation. But as a democratic institution representation has always been ambiguous. Organizational Analysis Essay? For conservatism, representation is a means of reifying social hierarchies. The Founding Fathers thought of themselves as innovators and modernizers, and the myth-making tradition has thoughtlessly agreed with them.

But in reality the US Constitution, as much as the British system it supposedly replaced, is little more than the Aristotelian tripartite model of king, aristocracy, and gentry (supposedly representing the commons), reformed to some degree as President, Senate, and House. Many people have noted that George Bush is consolidating executive power in a kind of elective kingship, but they have done little to place the Analysis of Customer Service, various elements of Bush's authoritarian institution-molding into historical context. In theoretical terms, though, it has been clear enough that representative democracy provides no satisfactory account of citizenship. Analysis Essay? Surely a genuine democracy would replace the Aristotelian model? Fortunately, there is little need to replace the Constitution beyond adding a right to privacy.

After all, as historians have noted, Americans almost immediately started using the Constitution in a considerably different way than the Founders intended -- in a democratic fashion, simply put, and not an aristocratic one. The president who claims to be a uniter not a divider is hearkening back to the myth-making of a would-be aristocracy that claims to was elevator invented be impartial and to stand above controversy while systematically using the machinery of government to crush its opponents. But his is not the winning side. Not that democracy is Organizational Essay, a done deal. One recent discovery is that democracy does not mean that everyone participates in when invented everything that affects them. Every citizen of a modern society participates in hundreds of institutions, and it is impossible to Organizational Essay be fully informed about all of them, much less sit through endless meetings relating to all of when was elevator invented, them. There are too many issues for everyone to be an expert on everything. It follows that citizens in a large modern polity specialize in particular issues. In fact this kind of issue entrepreneurship is not restricted to Organizational politics. It is central to the making of careers in nearly every institution of society.

Conservatism claims to own the theme of entrepreneurship, but then conservatism claims to gore own every theme. Analysis Essay? In reality, entrepreneurship on the part of the common people is antithetical to conservatism, and Essay on Deborah Gray Ar’n’t Woman? conservatism has learned and taught little about the skills of entrepreneurship, most particularly the Organizational Analysis, entrepreneurial cognition that identifies opportunities for various sorts of useful careers, whether civic, intellectual, professional, or economic. Entrepreneurship is not just for economic elites, and in fact never has been. One part of Essay Analysis Management, democracy, contrary to much socialist teaching, is the democratization of goods and skills, entrepreneurial skills for example, that had formerly been associated with the Organizational Analysis Essay, elite. Gore V Bush Election? American society has diverged dramatically from Organizational that of Europe largely because of the democratization of entrepreneurship, and criterion def that trend should continue with the Organizational Analysis, writing down and teaching of generalized entrepreneurial skills. The real discovery is that democracy is a particular kind of social organization of knowledge -- a sprawling landscape of overlapping knowledge spheres and a creative tension on any given issue between the experts and the laity. It is not a hierarchical divide between the knowledge-authorities in the professions and deserve a deferential citizenry; instead it democratizes the skills of knowledge-making among a citizenry that is plugged together in ways that increasingly resemble the institutional and cognitive structures of the professions. This generalized application of entrepreneurial skills in the context of a knowledge-intensive society -- and not simply the multiplication of Analysis Essay, associations that so impressed Tocqueville -- is Essay Deborah Gray White’s Ar’n’t I a Woman?, civil society.

The tremendous fashion for Analysis Essay civil society as a necessary complement and counterbalance to the state in a democracy, as launched in the 1980's by people like John Keane, has been one of the most hopeful aspects of recent democratic culture. V Bush? Indeed, one measure of the success of the Organizational, discourse of civil society has been that conservatism has felt the need to Computer Crime Essay destroy it by means of distorted theories of civil society that place the populace under the tutelage of the aristocracy and the cultural authorities that serve it. Economics, unfortunately, is still dominated by Organizational Analysis the ancien regime. This consists of three schools. Neoclassical economics is founded (as Philip Mirowski has argued) on superficial, indeed incoherent analogies to the mathematics of criterion def, classical mechanics whose main notion is equilibrium. Economies, it is held, are dynamic systems that are constantly moving to an optimal equilibrium, and government intervention will only move the economy to the wrong equilibrium. For a long time this theory has dominated academic economics for the simple reason that it provides a simple formula for creating a model of any economic phenomenon. Its great difficulty is that it ignores essentially all issues of Analysis, information and institutions -- important topics in the context of any modern economy. Austrian economics (associated with Hayek and Mises) began in the context of debates about the practicability of central planning in socialism; as such, it is organized around an on Deborah White’s, opposition between centralized economies (bad) and decentralized economies (good). Although preferable in some ways to Analysis Essay neoclassicism in its emphasis on information and institutions, as well as its rhetorical emphasis on entrepreneurship, it is nonetheless hopelessly simplistic.

It has almost no practitioners in academia for the simple reason that it is nearly useless for analyzing any real phenomena. A third school, a particular kind of game theory based on the work of John Nash, does have elaborate notions about information and at deserve, least a sketchy way of modeling institutions, and as a result has established itself as the major academic alternative to Analysis Essay neoclassicism. Unfortunately Nash game theory's foundations are no better than those of neoclassicism. Whereas neoclassicism, though ultimately incoherent, is actually a powerful and useful way of thinking about the invented, economy, Nash game theory is based, as Mirowski again has argued, on a disordered model of relationships between people. Fortunately it has no particular politics. The state of economics is Organizational, unfortunate for Essay Service Management democracy. Conservatism runs on ideologies that bear only a tangential relationship to reality, but democracy requires universal access to accurate theories about a large number of nontrivial institutions.

The socialist notion of Organizational, economic democracy essentially imports the Greek deliberative model into the workplace. As such it is probably useful as a counter to conservative psychologies of internalized deference that crush people's minds and prevent useful work from being done. It is, however, not remotely adequate to the reality of an interconnected modern economy, in which the Crime, workplace is hardly a natural unit. A better starting place is with analysis of the practical work of producing goods in social systems of Organizational, actual finite human beings -- that is, with analysis of information and institutions, as for example in the singular work of Thorstein Veblen, John Commons, Joseph Schumpeter, Karl Polanyi, John von Neumann, Mark Casson, Joseph Stiglitz, Paul David, Bruno Latour, and Michel Callon. This work emphasizes knowledge and deserve privacy the very general social conditions that are required to produce and use it. Simply put, knowledge is best produced in a liberal culture. This is why the most prosperous and innovative regions of the Organizational, United States are also the most politically liberal, and why the most conservative regions of the country are also the when was elevator invented, greatest beneficiaries of transfer payments. Liberals create wealth and government redistributes it to conservatives. This is, of course, the opposite of the Organizational Essay, received conservative opinion in the media, and indeed in most of Essay, academia. But it is true. Another connection between democracy and a modern economy is the democratic nature of entrepreneurialism.

People who reflexively defer to their social betters will never learn the social skills that are needed to found new types of Analysis, social relationships. This was clear enough in the interregnum in the 19th century between the fall of the American gentry and the rise of the modern corporation. An economy of generalized entrepreneurialism, moreover, requires an elaborate institutional matrix that is part public and part private. Gore? As scholars such as Linda Weiss have argued, the conservative spectre of a conflict between government and entrepreneurial activity is unrelated to the reality of entrepreneurship. To be sure, much has been learned about the kinds of government policies that do and do not lay the foundation for economic dynamism. It is quite correct, for example, that direct price controls in competitive commodity markets rarely accomplish anything. (Labor markets are a much more complicated case, in very much the ways that neoclassical economics exists to ignore.) Free trade would also be a good thing if it existed; in practice trade is distorted by subsidies and by uneven regulation of externalities such as pollution, and Organizational free trade negotiations are a kind of power politics that differs little from the gunboat diplomacy that opened markets in a one-sided way in former times. The point is scarcely that markets are inherently democratic. The economic properties of infrastructure and knowledge create economies of Analysis of Customer Management, scale that both produce cheap goods (a democratic effect) and Analysis concentrate power (an anti-democratic effect).

Conservatives employ the democratic rhetoric of on Deborah Gray White’s I a Woman?, entrepreneurialism to promote the opposite values of corporate centralization. But the 19th century's opinions about the political and economic necessity of Organizational Analysis Essay, antitrust are still true. More importantly, a wide range of public policies is required to facilitate a democratic economy and the more general democratic values on when was elevator, which it depends. Lastly, an important innovation of democracy during the sixties was the Organizational Analysis, rights revolution. Rights are democratic because they are limits to Essay Analysis Service Management arbitrary authority, and Organizational people who believe they have rights cannot be subjected to on Gray White’s Ar’n’t Woman? conservatism. Conservative rhetors have attacked the rights revolution in numerous ways as a kind of demotic chatter that contradicts the eternal wisdom of the conservative order. For conservatism, not accepting one's settled place in the traditional hierarchy of Analysis Essay, orders and classes is a kind of arrogance, and conservative vocabulary is criterion def, full of phrases such as self-important. Institutions, for conservatism, are more important than people. Organizational Analysis? For democracy, by contrast, things are more complicated. The rights revolution is hardly perfect. But the main difficulty with it is just that it is not enough.

A society is not founded on rights alone. Democracy requires that people learn and practice a range of nontrivial social skills. But then people are not likely to learn or practice those skills so long as they have internalized a conservative psychology of deference. The rights revolution breaks this cycle. Criterion Def? For the Organizational Analysis, civil rights movement, for example, learning to read was not simply a means of Computer Crime Essay, registering to vote, but was also a means of liberation from the psychology of conservatism. Democratic institutions, as opposed to the inherited mysteries of Essay, conservative institutions, are made of the everyday exercise of advanced social skills by people who are liberated in this sense. //5 How to criterion def Defeat Conservatism. Conservatism is almost gone. People no longer worship the pharaohs.

If the gentry were among us today we would have no notion of what they were talking about. For thousands of years, countless people have worked for the values of democracy in ways large and small. The industrialized vituperations of conservative propaganda measure their success. To defeat conservatism today, the main thing we have to Organizational do is to explain what it is and what is wrong with it. This is easy enough. * Rebut conservative arguments. This is my most important prescription. Liberals win political victories through rational debate. But after a victory is won, liberals tend to drop the issue and move along.

As a result, whole generations have grown up without ever hearing the arguments in favor of, for example, Social Security. Instead they have heard massive numbers of conservative arguments against liberalism, and Crime these arguments have generally gone unrebutted. Organizational? In order to save civilization, liberals need a new language, one in which it is easy to express rebuttals to the particular crop of Crime Essay, conservative arguments of the last few decades. And the way to invent that language is Essay, just to start rebutting the arguments, all of them. This means literally dozens of new arguments each day. Do not assume that rebutting conservative arguments is election, easy, or that a few phrases will suffice. Do not even assume that you know what is wrong with the conservative arguments that you hear, or even indeed what those arguments are, since they are often complicated and confusing in their internal structure. Do not just repeat a stock response that worked for some previous generation of liberals, because your audience has already heard that response and already knows what the counterargument is. Conservative rhetors have invested tremendous effort in working around liberals' existing language.

In the old days, racists were racists and polluters were polluters. But those old labels do not win arguments any more. Liberals must now provide new answers in plain language to the questions that ordinary citizens, having heard the Organizational Essay, arguments of conservatism, now have. Do environmental regulations work? Why do we protect the criterion def, civil liberties of Essay, terrorists? Are liberals anti-American? What do we need government for anyway? * Benchmark the Wall Street Journal. The Wall Street Journal's opinion page is the most important conservative publication, and it is often described as a bulletin board for Essay Deborah the conservatism. A better metaphor, however, would be a war room. Day by Analysis Essay day, the Wall Street Journal's editors detect liberal arguments coming over the horizon, and immediately they gather up and Crime Essay distribute the arguments that conservatives will need to rebut them.

Since the retirement of its late editor Robert Bartley, the Journal's opinion page has become more sophisticated. The crude lies and Analysis Essay belligerent irrationality of the Bartley era have not disappeared, but they have certainly been attenuated. Daniel Henninger in particular does something interesting with clouds of associations that are subrational but not quite fallacious. Liberals should not imitate the criterion def, antireason of the Journal or other distribution channels of conservative opinion. Organizational Analysis? Instead, as part of the hard work of inventing democracy, it will be necessary to Computer Essay tell the difference between methods that liberals ought to be applying in their own work, such as the Analysis, day-to-day rebuttal of arguments, and methods that liberals need to Computer Essay analyze and place in the same category as the priesthood of Egypt. * Build a better pundit. Political pundits in Organizational Analysis the media today are overwhelmingly conservative, and the few liberal pundits are overwhelmingly journalists rather than ideologists. It is difficult to identify a single pundit in the media who consistently explicates liberal ideology. When Was Elevator? It is time to build a democratic punditry. To start with, everyone in a modern democracy ought to receive practical instruction in the communication genres of the mass media. There is no reason why every student cannot learn to write a clear 700-word op-ed column that traces an arc from a news hook to some ideology to a new and useful argument that wins elections.

A society in which the average citizen writes an occasional op-ed column would certainly be a step toward democracy. But even if the skills of punditry are widespread, there is no substitute for professional pundits who can make brand names of themselves in the media, and talented people will not make careers out of democratic punditry until they are reasonably assured of being able to make money at it. This is where think tanks and their philanthropic funders come in. Analysis? Universities do not substitute for think tanks, because research is quite a different activity from punditry. Simply put, professional pundits need a wide variety of fallback options between media gigs. Conservative pundits grow fat on their own think tanks, and liberals need their own war rooms of democratic reason. * Say something new. Conservative rhetors win audiences largely because the things they are saying seem new.

People who read them or listen to them continually get the impression that they are being informed. If news and Computer Crime opinion editors seem biased against liberals, one reason is simply that liberals are not delivering the goods. Whenever you get ready to express a political opinion in Organizational the media, first ask whether you have ever heard that opinion in the media before (as opposed, for Analysis of Customer Service example, to Essay scholarly works). If so, figure out what the counterarguments are -- because there will be counterarguments -- and then proceed to base your column on the counterarguments to that. Get ahead of the curve. Democracy requires that the was elevator invented, great majority of citizens be capable of logical thought. The West, starting with the Greeks, has always taught logic in a narrow way. Logic does include the syllogism, but it also includes a great deal of Organizational, savoir faire about what constitutes a good argument, a good counterargument, and a good counterargument to that.

In particular, the citizen must have a kind of map of the arguments. Criterion Def? A caller to Rush Limbaugh said that liberals can't do the arguments, and he was right. Organizational Analysis? Existing curricula on critical thinking are unfortunately very weak. They should be founded on close analysis of actual irrationality. Many on the left unfortunately abandon reason because they believe that the actual basis of politics is something they call power.

People like this have no notion of what power is. For example, they will argue that reason is Deborah White’s I a Woman?, useless because the powers that be will not listen to Essay reason. Crime Essay? This is Analysis Essay, confusion. The purpose of reason is criterion def, not to petition the authorities but to help other citizens to cut through the darkness of conservative deception. Others on the left believe that reason is the property of the elite. This is true historically, but that is simply because the essence of conservatism is to deprive the common people of the Organizational Analysis, capacity to engage in democracy. Essay Of Customer Service Management? Many bad theories of democracy actually reinforce conservatism, and Organizational Analysis Essay this is one of them. Similarly, others on the left argue that requiring politics to be based on reason tilts the playing field in favor of the elite.

This is when, historically true as well, and Essay politics based on money does the same thing. But that is reality. Gore? The fact, again, is that democracy needs the citizenry to be educated, and the skills of reason are the foundation of Organizational Essay, democratic education. Democracy cannot be established in any other way. Aristocratic rule is not reinforced by the use of reason. The situation is quite the reverse: in order to fight off democratic values, conservatism must simulate reason, and pretend that conservative deception is itself reason when it is not.

Many conservative pundits, George Will and Thomas Sowell for example, make their living saying illogical things in do celebrities a reasonable tone of voice. Democracy will be impossible until the great majority of citizens can identify in Essay reasonable detail just how this trick works. * Conservatism is the when, problem. Contemporary conservatism's discourse is engineered with tremendous sophistication to get past the specific arguments that liberals know how to make. Conservative strategists, moreover, are willing to achieve their goals incrementally, depending on Organizational Analysis Essay, the arguments that liberals are capable of making at a given moment. Of course it is important for liberals to privacy make the arguments against each increment. But it is more important to explain what conservatism is in Analysis general, and criterion def then to explain what is wrong with it. For example, I once heard Rush Limbaugh discussing with a listener how school vouchers were just a conservative tactic, and how conservatives' real goal was to eliminate public funding for education altogether. This is the sort of thing that loses elections, and Organizational Essay yet I have never heard a liberal pundit discuss it. The extreme nature of conservatism -- not just the v bush election, extremity of Organizational Essay, its rhetoric but the deserve privacy, oppressiveness of its prescriptions for Organizational Essay society -- is clear enough in gore election the conservatives' own literature, but American culture no longer has the categories to identify what it is. Indeed, one can hear fascism, never mind conservatism, on the radio any day of the Analysis, week.

But Americans have mostly forgotten what fascism even is, so that they can listen to fascist rhetoric and it will actually sound kind of fresh. * Critically analyze leftover conservative theories. Liberal ideology is in disarray. After all, conservative ideology has dominated human thought for thousands of years, and it takes concentrated effort to liberate oneself from it. Such intellectual liberation will never happen without a detailed history of conservative theories -- which is to say, the ways in Essay Analysis of Customer Service Management which these theories have been designed to subordinate people's minds to a hierarchical social order dominated by an aristocracy. Lacking such a history, liberal ideology draws in random and confused ways on conservatism, giving it a sentimental update without particularly changing it. Organizational Analysis Essay? Or else liberalism spins out into something wishfully called radicalism, which at best inverts conservatism into something that does not work as well and Computer Crime does not liberate anyone either. Organizational Analysis Essay? A genuine tradition of liberatory social thought does indeed exist, but it must be disentangled from its opposite. As an example, let us consider the notion of social capital, which has been fashionable among both conservatives and liberals for some time now.

The conservative version of the social capital is a medieval ideology that justifies the hierarchical conservative order in terms of the values of community. This medieval notion of community is particularistic in nature: everyone in Analysis of Customer a community is Organizational Essay, knitted to everyone else through a system of roles and relationships into which they are born, and election which they supposedly accept and Analysis love. This network of relationships is made to was elevator invented sound harmonious, and objections to it are made to sound divisive, by neglecting to mention the oppression of the life-long hierarchical bonds that make it up. This is the kind of society whose passing Tocqueville lamented, and that is at the core of modern conservatism in authors such as Robert Nisbet. For Nisbet, modernity could only be understood in Analysis Essay a negative way as an gore, erosion of the Organizational, particular types of community and order that traditional institutions provided. This is what many conservatives mean when they value social capital, regret its decline, and urge its revival. This notion of social capital should be contrasted, for example, with Ernest Gellner's notion of the modern democratic citizen as modular, that is, as capable of moving about within the society, building and rebuilding relationships and gore election associations of diverse sorts, because of a set of social skills and social institutions that facilitate a generalized, dynamic mobility. The modular citizen gets a place in society not through birth or the bonds of an inherited order but through a gregarious kind of entrepreneurial innovation.

The difficulty with too many liberal notions of Organizational Analysis, social capital is Computer Crime, that they are oblivious to the tension between conservatism and democracy. As a result, they are vague and ambiguous as to the nature of social capital, how it might be measured, and what kinds of Organizational Analysis Essay, institutions might erode or encourage it. For example, a theory of social capital that locates it in plain numbers of social network connections is insufficient because it undervalues social skills and overvalues particularistic forms of community that are not adaptive in a dynamic modern economy. This is how liberals end up quoting Tocqueville and sounding indistinguishable from conservative theorists of intermediary institutions. Social capital is just one example of a general crisis of liberal ideology. Crime Essay? The first step in resolving this crisis to get clear about Organizational what conservatism is and what is wrong with it. Post-sixties, many liberals consider themselves to be watered-down Marxists. They subscribe to a left-to-right spectrum model of politics in which they, as democrats, are located in some hard-to-identify place sort-of-somewhat-to-the-left-of-center, whereas the Marxists have the high ground of a clear and definite location at the end of the spectrum. Essay Analysis Of Customer? These liberals would be further out on the left if they could find a politically viable way to do it. Conservative rhetors concur with this model, and indiscriminately calling liberals communists is back in style.

This is all nonsense. Marxism is Analysis, not located anywhere on a spectrum. It is just mistaken. It fails to criterion def describe the real world. Attempts to implement it simply created an ugly and shallow imitation of conservatism at Organizational Analysis, its worst. Democracy is the right way to live, and conservatism is the wrong way. Marx was a brilliant analyst for Essay his time. His analysis of technology's role in the economy was wholly original.

He was the first to analyze the structural dynamism of a capitalist economy. But his theory of modern society was superficial. It overgeneralized from the situation of Analysis, its time: the recent discovery of economies of scale, crude market institutions, no modern separation of when was elevator invented, ownership and control, and a small middle class. Marx followed the political economy of his day in analyzing markets as essentially independent of the state. But this is not remotely the case. One difficulty with Marx, which is the topic of a vast literature, is that his theory requires a periodization of history that does not correspond to historical reality. Capitalism, for example, is Analysis Essay, supposed to be a discrete totality, but claimed starting dates for deserve privacy this totality range across a good four hundred years. His economistic analysis of society, though indisputably productive in the way that many powerfully wrong ideas are, makes history seem more discontinuous than it is.

In fact, the relationship between conservatism and democracy is more or less constant throughout thousands of years of history. One evidence of this, for example, is Orlando Patterson's stunning discovery that Western notions of freedom were invented by former slaves in Analysis the ancient world and have remained more or less constant ever since. In economic terms, Marx's theory is Essay Deborah Ar’n’t Woman?, mistaken because he did not analyze the role the capitalist plays as entrepreneur. The entrepreneur does an important and distinctive type of work in inventing new ways to bring together diverse factors of production. Now in fact the nature of this work has remained largely hidden throughout history for a wide variety of reasons. Because Marx had no notion of it, the capitalist's profit seemed to him simple theft. It does not follow, though, that entrepreneurs earn all of their money. The theories of mainstream economics notwithstanding, serious how-to manuals for entrepreneurs are quite clear that the entrepreneur is trying to identify a market failure, because market failures are how you make money. The relationship between entrepreneurship and the state is much more complicated than economics has even tried to theorize. Capitalists, moreover, are not a class. Particular networks of capitalists and other well-off or otherwise connected personages may well try to constitute themselves as an aristocracy, but this is a phenomenon with several more dimensions than just economics.

Nor is Marxism of any use as politics. All that Marx offered to people who worked in deadening factory jobs was that they could take over Essay the factory. While unions and collective bargaining exist in many contexts for do celebrities privacy good economic reasons, they are an essentially medieval system of negotiations among orders and Organizational Analysis Essay classes. They presuppose a generally static economy and society. They are irrelevant to knowledge-intensive forms of work. Nor do they provide any kind of criterion def, foundation for democratic politics. People want their kids to be professionals, not factory workers, and democracy helps people to knit themselves into Organizational the complicated set of institutions that enable people to build unique and productive lives.

Despite all of the conservative attacks, American English remains a useful language. So use it, and learn to say democratic things in it. Was Elevator Invented? There is a style of academic theory-talk that claims to be advanced and sophisticated but actually lacks any precision. Privilege, for example, is Organizational, not a verb. If new words are needed and are actually good for analyzing the criterion def, deception of conservatism or the invention of Organizational, democracy, go ahead and was elevator invented teach them. Integrate them into the vernacular language. While you are at it, forget the whole strategy of the Analysis, counterculture. Be the culture instead. * Stop surrendering powerful words. Many liberals abandon any word that conservatives start using.

That means, since conservatives systematically lay claim to every word of the English language, that liberals have been systematically surrendering powerful words such as family, nation, truth, science, tradition, and religion. This has made it increasingly difficult for liberals to explain what they believe. There is Deborah Gray White’s Ar’n’t, no alternative: if conseratives have been twisting a powerful word, then you have to explain in concise American English what the word really means and how the conservatives have distorted it. Contest the signifiers. Use the words. * Tipper Gore is right. Snoop Dogg's music really is garbage. Some liberals, however, argue that racists hate rap and so therefore any disapproval of rap abets racism. This is bad logic and stupid politics.

If racists hate rap then the logical, rational, politically efficacious thing to do is to say that some rap is good and some rap is bad, and that good rap is an art form like any other, and that the Organizational, bad rap exists because the people who rap it are bad people. Do not be afraid of losing contact with young people. Do Celebrities? If all you know about youth culture is Snoop Dogg, then I suppose it is time for some focus groups. Use the focus groups to Analysis identify language that Martin Luther King would approve of. Besides, there is plenty of good politics in do celebrities deserve privacy mass culture, as cultural studies professors have explained at length. Nor should you be afraid of losing campaign contributions from the entertainment industry.

The Hollywood moneybags will keep funding liberal candidates for the simple reason that many conservatives really do support censorship, where liberals do not. That said, there is certainly a disconnect between some liberal entertainers and Analysis Essay the liberals who win elections. Some entertainers are willing to get up on stage and election embarrass John Kerry. Organizational Analysis Essay? Scorn them. * Assess the sixties. Make a list of the positive and Crime Essay lasting contributions of the sixties. Organizational Essay? Americans would benefit from such a list. The spiritual leader of criterion def, modern liberalism, Martin Luther King, taught nonviolence. This has been narrowly construed in terms of not killing people. Organizational Analysis Essay? But, as King made clear, it has other meanings as well.

You have to love your enemies. This is difficult: the reality of gore election, conservatism is so extreme that it is difficult even to discuss without sounding hateful. There is Organizational Essay, also an intellectual dimension to nonviolence. Nonviolence means, among other things, not cooperating in the destruction of conscience and language. Nonviolence implies reason. Essay Woman?? Analyze the various would-be aristocracies, therefore, and explain them in plain language, but do not stereotype them. Nonviolence also has an Essay, epistemological dimension. Gore V Bush? Few of us have the skill to hate with a clear mind.

Conservatism is very complicated, and you cannot defeat it by Essay shouting slogans. V Bush? This is the difficulty with Michael Moore. He talks American, which is good. But he is not intellectually nonviolent. He is not remotely as bad as Ann Coulter, and liberals have criticized him much more thoroughly than conservatives have criticized Ann Coulter. But he is not a model for liberal politics. There is no doubt that Martin Luther King would be in George Bush's face. But how? That is why liberals need a language. * Tell the Organizational Analysis Essay, taxpayers what they are getting for their money. Civilization requires a substantial number and variety of public services, which in was elevator turn require moderate and Organizational Essay reasonable amounts of taxes.

Despite decades of deserve, conservative rhetoric, a majority of Americans are perfectly happy to pay their taxes. And yet liberals keep letting conservatives clobber them with rhetoric that makes taxes sound like a bad thing. It is Organizational, time for when invented liberals to stop losing this argument. To start with, do not talk about amounts of money (we should spend $15 billion on health care). Instead, talk about what the Analysis Essay, money buys (we should provide medical care to 15 million children). And stop letting Bush call his tax policies tax cuts: he is not cutting those taxes; he is just postponing them. * Make government work better for small business. The market continually undermines both conservatism and democracy. Both systems must continually improvise to accommodate it. The difference is that conservatism pretends to be a timeless order whereas democracy is all about when invented experiment, innovation, and Organizational entrepreneurial culture.

Conservatives have historically tried to include entrepreneurs in their coalition, even though conservatism is almost the opposite Crime Essay, of the Organizational Essay, cultural conditions of a modern economy. A certain amount of tension between democracy and the market is indeed irreducible. But a great deal has been learned about markets and their relationship to Essay Management government, and the democratic culture of Analysis, innovation can reduce the unnecessary tensions between small business and government while providing for social values such as urban design, consumer information, and the environment. An excellent example of this is duplicative paperwork. Small business people must often fill out dozens of forms for various government bureaucracies. This is a significant expense. These forms should be combined and given a clean and unified interface. The bureaucracies, however, each analyze things in their own incompatible ways, and so the forms cannot simply be merged. Like much of criterion def, democracy, this is an interesting design matter. * Clone George Soros. George Soros is an excellent citizen.

Conservatism has gotten so out of sync with the conditions of a modern economy that significant numbers of wealthy people, especially young entrepreneurs who live and breathe the liberal culture that makes successes like theirs possible, would be happy to Organizational Analysis help build the gore v bush election, institutions that a democratic society needs. What is needed right now are institutions that train people to win arguments for democracy in the mass media. Analysis Essay? Antireason has become thoroughly established in the media, and it will take real work to do celebrities invent languages of Organizational Analysis, reason that are fresh and cool. And this work just costs money. * Build the Democratic Party. Your model should be Pat Robertson. V Bush? He is as extreme on the right as anybody in the United States is on the left. Yet his people took over large parts of the Republican Party.

They did this in three ways: laboriously designing a mainstream-sounding language, identifying large numbers of talented activists and training them in Analysis Essay the day-to-day work of issue and party politics, and criterion def building their own communications systems. Liberals should do the Organizational Analysis Essay, same. Now, many liberals argue that the Democratic Party would magically start winning again if it would only move to the left. This is lazy nonsense. The Democratic Party has moved to the right for the simple reason that liberals do not have a language that wins elections.

To take over Analysis Service the Democratic Party, liberals need to replace the left-wing policies that do not work and, for the policies that do work, get a language that moves 51% of likely voters to vote Democratic. Other liberals argue that the Organizational Analysis Essay, Democratic Party, and the system in general, are irretrievably broken, and that they must build a third party, such as the was elevator invented, Green Party with its endorsement of Ralph Nader. The difficulties with this notion are hard to count. For one, splitting the left is a certain recipe for centuries of aristocratic domination. For another, building a party with only people who share your opinions to the nth degree is a certain recipe for factionalism and isolation. For another, the Green Party is a chaotic mess that has no serious chance of becoming a mass-based political party. Life under aristocratic domination is horrible. The United States is blessed to have little notion of what this horror is like. Europe, for example, staggered under the weight of its aristocracies for thousands of Essay, years. European aristocracies are in decline, and Europe certainly has its democratic heroes and its own dawning varieties of civilized life, and yet the psychology and institutions that the aristocracies left behind continue to criterion def make European societies rigid and blunt Europeans' minds with layers of internalized oppression.

People come to America to Analysis Essay get away from all of that. Gore V Bush? Conservatism is as alien here as it could possibly be. Essay? Only through the do celebrities privacy, most comprehensive campaign of deception in human history has it managed to Organizational Analysis establish its very tentative control of the country's major political institutions. Conservatism until very recently was quite open about the Computer, fact that it is incompatible with the modern world. That is right.

The modern world is a good place, and it will win.

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federal resume style Your resume is the first impression you give to a potential employer. If you miss any aspect of the Federal Resume, or forget information, it can be automatically overlooked, and Essay, you can lose your chance at the Federal Job you are applying for. Computer. A well-written resume can help you land an interview or may lead to new job opportunities. No matter which position you are looking for, the tips below will help you put together a proper Federal-Style Resume. Employer names, addresses and Analysis, telephone numbers Dates of employment Former supervisors names and telephone numbers (you should provide at least 3 professional references, using past current supervisors if possible).

Your job title/series List of your responsibilities Salary/GS level and step Training Career accomplishments Awards received Education. If you are a current or former Federal employee, you should also have: At MINIMUM, your resume should include: Personal Information: Your full name, mailing address with zip code, area code and phone number, your email address, the last 4-digits of your social security number, country of v bush election, citizenship and, if applicable, your eligibility for veterans preference. Veterans preference refers to employment regulations that prevent veterans seeking Federal employment from being penalized for their time in military service. Analysis. Objective Statement: Should include what you are seeking (e.g., To find employment in the archival field), what you can bring to the position (for example use phrases such as where my background in Essay Deborah, library and information science will) and end with how you can help the agency accomplish its mission (e.g., assist the agency in maintaining regulatory compliance). Education: Schools attended, date degree(s) were conferred and Organizational Analysis, GPAs. If a degree was not awarded, provide the criterion def number of credits received. Work Experience: Job title, dates of employment, salary, hours worked per week, employers name and Organizational Analysis, address, supervisors name, contact phone number and whether or not s/he may be contacted. Other Qualifications: Job-related training courses, skills, certificates, honors, awards, professional certifications, special accomplishments, and memberships in criterion def, professional or honor societies and organizations. When it comes to resume styles, one size does not fit all.

Resumes are as diversified as each applicants work history and experience and there are several options to consider: Chronological: this type of resume lists your work experience, education, volunteer and community service activity, and Analysis Essay, awards and gore election, recognitions in reverse chronological order, with your most recent job being placed first and your oldest job placed last. Functional: this format takes the focus off your job titles and puts it on your skills, abilities, accomplishments, job traits and personal characteristics (competencies) that employers expect future employees to match. Essay. Combination: the combination resume includes elements of both the chronological and functional styles of do celebrities, resumes by identifying your relevant skills and Analysis, accomplishments and then describes your employment and education in chronological order. Criterion Def. Targeted: the targeted resume may be any of the three styles listed above with one exception; the resume is tailored for a specific company or position. This type of Organizational, resume is typically used when you know positions exist at a particular company but are not applying to an advertised vacancy. USAJobs: the USAJobs resume is automatically formatted for you using the information you provide in the USAJobs Resume Builder. Although the basic layout of do celebrities privacy, your resume is important, your primary objective is to convey your strengths and accomplishments. A well-formatted, well-organized resume drives an employer to Essay, key information about you, such as technical proficiencies, your work history or the awards and promotions youve earned. When formatting your resume, consider margins, font type and size, color and the use of when, symbols in order to best highlight your strengths and Essay, accomplishments.

Following are tips to guide you in formatting your resume: Margins Margins should be set at 1? all around. Even if youre concerned about space, the margins of your resume should not go below 1/2?. Doing so creates a visually crowded resume. V Bush Election. For readability, it is recommended that you use left-aligned margins over Organizational Analysis Essay block justified text. Essay On Deborah Gray White’s Woman?. Font Type The font you choose for your resume should be aesthetically pleasing and easy to read to attract a potential employers interest. Font types such as Arial, Verdana, and Analysis Essay, Times New Roman work well.

Keep in mind that once you select a font, maintain its consistency throughout your resume. Font Size Font size has a lot to do with the font type you choose. The most commonly used font sizes are 10-12 points. However, some fonts at 12 points appear too large, while other fonts at Essay on Deborah Gray White’s, 12 points appear too small.To better identify yourself and the section headings within your resume, font sizes should be larger than the font size of the body of your resume. Analysis. Color The use of color in Crime Essay, your resume can be a powerful marketing tool, as long as it is Organizational Essay used to enhance your resume not weaken it. When used properly and sparingly (e.g., no more than one additional color besides black), color can create visual appeal and gore, better emphasis important information. Formatting As you are looking for ways to Organizational Analysis, stand out from on Gray Ar’n’t I a, all of the rest, dont neglect to Organizational, balance your resume with the use of both paragraphs and bullets to describe your work history and Essay White’s Woman?, accomplishments the Organizational Essay combination is aesthetically pleasing and criterion def, easier to read.When using paragraphs to describe job duties, be sure to use short, concise phrases starting with action verbs. When using bullets, do so sparingly in order to Organizational Analysis, draw the readers eyes to especially important points on Essay Analysis of Customer Management, your resume and be consistent. Organizational Essay. This helps the deserve reader to understand what you are highlighting from Organizational Essay, one section of gore election, your resume to the next. Below is an example of how the use of bullets makes a difference in the appearance of a potentially important aspect of Organizational Analysis, a resume. Example Poor Response Wrote 15 papers per of Customer, semester with an average grade of Analysis Essay, 95%.

TIP: Always print your resume for review. Do this even if youre submitting your resume online because the employer may want to print it and just because the fonts and on Gray Woman?, formatting look good on your computer screen doesnt mean they will look good when printed. This tip depends on whether your education or your experience is your best selling point and/or meets the qualifications of the position you are applying to. Analysis. Generally, new graduates list education first, while job-seekers with a few years or more of work history list experience first. However, when using the USAJobs Resume Builder, experience is always listed first. The most important thing is to include your most relevant experience. When considering how far back to go with your work history, go as far back as you need to in order to make your experience applicable. In other words, make sure you highlight your accomplishments of previous jobs that are most recent and relevant to criterion def, the position you are seeking. If you find that this method results in the appearance of gaps in your employment history, you can either list those postions under an Additional Inofrmation section or list the position in order with a brief sentence describing the work you performed. The best way to Essay, showcase your abilities for a particular job is to ensure that your resume reflects your knowledge, experience and/or education required of the position for which you are applying.

Review the Qualifications Evaluations tab carefully to ensure that you fully understand how your application will be evaluated. Example 1: Youre interested in applying for a Management/Program Analyst position at NARA that requires applicants to have a demonstrated ability to research, analyze and present findings to high level management official in various formats such as comprehensive reports, recommendations and program policies and procedures. Does your resume identify that you have this experience? Human Resources specialists use your resume to when was elevator invented, verify that you possess the required experience/competencies of the vacant position as well as to verify your responses to the self-assessment questionnaire. If your resume does not specifically and Organizational Analysis, clearly show that you possess the required experience/competencies, credit cannot be given which may result in Essay Deborah I a Woman?, your application no longer being considered. For the Organizational Analysis Essay above position you may include on Computer Crime, your resume, for example: Utilized a high degree of Organizational Analysis, qualitative and quantitative analytical skills to analyze, evaluate and improve the efficiency of invented, internal administrative operations, organizations and management including participation on task forces and surveys, studies and other areas of management operations to determine the Analysis adequacy of existing program polices and Essay Analysis of Customer Management, procedures. Example 2: You are interested in applying for Archives Specialist position at NARA that requires knowledge in processing large volumes of records.In order to Analysis, draw the readers eye to your experience with this type of Essay White’s Woman?, work, dont hesitate to Essay, use numbers to showcase your qualifications. For example, you may write: Appraised, arranged, described, preserved, and provided access to invented, 700 collections of various types. Collections encompassed 10,000 linear shelf feet, including 4,000 artifacts cataloged online. While the Organizational Essay length of deserve, your Federal resume is a personal choice, the general rule of thumb is one three pages depending upon your level of experience.

However, if you are building your resume in USAJobs, the average length is four to five pages. Resumes that extend beyond one page should be numbered accordingly (e.g., X of Y), so that if lost or shuffled an employer can easily identify if there are missing pages or if there are additional pages and in what order they belong. Regardless of the length, your resume should best reflect your qualifications for Analysis Essay, the position to which you are applying as concisely as possible. Read the vacancy announcement carefully and follow all instructions. At minimum, many agencies, NARA included, require applicants to submit a resume and an online self-assessment questionnaire. In many instances, additional documentation (e.g., Certificate of Release or.

Discharge from Active Duty (Form DD-214), most recent performance appraisal, transcripts, etc.) will be required. Failure to submit all required documents will result in deserve privacy, your application being rejected for consideration. Minimum qualifications are standards set by the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) to help ensure that Federal employees are, indeed, qualified for employment. You must meet these minimum qualifications to be considered for employment. Minimum qualifications are stated in terms of general or specialized experience. General experience is progressively responsible clerical, office, or other type of experience that shows you have the ability to perform the duties of the job being filled.

Specialized experience is usually obtained from having worked in a position similar to the job being filled. For some jobs, you can qualify based solely on education instead of experience. For other jobs, both education and experience are required to Analysis Essay, qualify; and for Crime, yet other jobs, you can qualify based on a combination of your experience and education. These requirements will be described in Organizational Analysis Essay, the vacancy announcement. The questionnaire is a list of when was elevator, questions designed to Analysis Essay, solicit information about how well your knowledge and v bush, skills match the Analysis experience required for the job.

The questionnaire is a self-assessment tool. Generally, you can preview questions by clicking on when was elevator, the How to Apply section/tab within the job announcement and scrolling down to Organizational Analysis, the How You Will Be Evaluated section. Many agencies offer a View Occupational Questionnaire, or something similar, link to view the Crime questions in Analysis, advance of applying. There are no right or wrong answers to the occupational questionnaire. Essay. You should respond honestly to all questions.

You should also give yourself credit when deserved. While you should be careful not to inflate your self-ratings, you want to take credit for your accomplishments. Once you complete the Organizational Essay questionnaire, a score will be assigned to your application. That score will determine whether or not you will move on for further consideration in the selection process. Analysis. Note that some agencies, including NARA, may also require you to identify where in your resume (what position) you utilized the skills/knowledge to support your rating. In addition, most agencies do state in Organizational Essay, their policy that your score may be adjusted and/or you may not be further considered for the position, if your resume and supporting document do not support your self-rating. Generally, questionnaires are custom developed because of the different requirements of criterion def, each position; however, most occupational questionnaires require you to provide responses to questions that will evaluate if you meet the minimum qualifications of the position, as well as other job specific assessment questions, that are either task based or competency based. Examples of the Organizational Analysis types of questions asked on the self-assessment questionnaire are provided below.

Example 1 (Minimum Qualifications): Which of the following statements best describes your experience? A. I have at Crime, least one year of Analysis Essay, specialized experience equivalent to at least the GS-12 level in the Federal government that included evaluating current and emerging formats of Essay Analysis of Customer Service, electronic records; defining system requirements; and electronic information system development documents. B. I do not possess the Analysis experience described above; therefore, I am not eligible for this position. Example 2 (Task Based): INSTRUCTIONS: For each of the task statements, choose the one response from the when was elevator list below that best describes your experience. Developing policies, methods and/or strategies for Organizational Analysis, the long term management and access of electronic records or other digital content based on an understanding of archival and records management principles as well as available IT solutions. Using format migration as a preservation or access strategy. Presenting reports, proposals or recommendations based on justified findings for internal management. A I have no experience in performing this work behavior. B I have limited experience in performing this work behavior. On Ar’n’t I A Woman?. I have had exposure to this work behavior but would require additional guidance, instruction, or experience to perform it at a proficient level.

C I have experience performing this work behavior across routine or predictable situations with minimal supervision or guidance. D I have performed this work behavior independently across a wide range of situations. Organizational Analysis. I have assisted others in carrying out this work behavior. I seek guidance in carrying out Computer Crime Essay this work behavior only in unusually complex situations. E I am considered an Organizational, expert in carrying out this work behavior. I advise and instruct others in carrying out this work behavior on a regular basis.

I am consulted by my colleagues and/or superiors to carry out this work behavior in unusually complex situations. Crime. Example 3 (Competency Based): FACTOR: CUSTOMER SERVICE Which of the following best describes your experience determining the Essay needs of either internal or external customers (i.e., someone who receives your services or products)? A. I have never or rarely worked with customers. B. I have asked basic questions to understand customers basic needs. C. Do Celebrities Deserve Privacy. I have had in-depth conversations with customers to help understand more complex needs.

D. Essay. I have had formal, in-depth meetings or consultations with customers to criterion def, actively stimulate discussions and gain complete understanding of Organizational, their complex needs, wants, and Essay Service Management, expectations. E. I have initiated and cultivated relationships with customers and partnered with them to jointly define their service goals and priorities. Time-in-grade is a requirement that applies to the promotion of current and Organizational Analysis, former Federal employees. Generally, employees must serve one year at the next lower grade level. Time-in-grade restrictions do not apply to former federal employees on temporary appointments, or current Federal employees not holding a General Schedule (GS) position. Time-in-grade also does not apply yo applicants who have no Federal work experience. As previously mentioned, once you submit your application, a Human Resources (HR) Specialist will review your package for completion, ensure that you meet the basic qualification requirements, verify your self-assessment ratings again the information you provided in your resume and gore v bush, forward the list of Best Qualified applicants to the hiring manager for consideration. The hiring manager will select applicants from the Best Qualified list and conduct interviews.

Once interviews have been completed, an HR Specialist will extend a tentative job offer. Essay. Pending the outcome of a background investigation, a final job offer may or may not be made. To determine the status of your application, activate the Essay Service notification option from your USAJOBS profile and you will receive automatic alerts when there are status changes. The purpose of Essay, a Federal resume is to demonstrate those qualities that will set one candidate apart from Essay, another. Below is a list of winning words to consider when creating your Federal resume.

A glossary of Terms Definitions used when applying for federal employment can be found HERE.