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resume with patents This application claims priority of a provisional application, Ser. No. Raymond Carver Elephant? 60/008,700, filed Dec. Noise Definition? 15, 1995. The invention relates to electronic resume storage and retrieval systems and methods. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. Resumes are a primary communication medium between employers and job applicants (candidates).
Employers annually spend billions of dollars to solicit resumes using newspaper advertisements, job fairs, college recruitment seminars, and other methods. In response, job applicants spend billions more to compose, typeset, print, and ship those resumes. Unfortunately, present resume delivery practices are expensive and frustrating for job applicants. Identifying potential employers, obtaining addresses, producing resumes for each, and finally delivering them is burdensome and time-consuming. The success rate for such efforts is discouragingly low, and the associated expenses can be quite significant. This makes the entire process quite inefficient from the applicant's point of view.
Employers, too, suffer from the inefficiencies of resume collection and carver elephant handling. The solicitation, receipt, storage, management, search, and retrieval of unborn lyrics dozens, hundreds, and in some cases thousands of resumes can be a difficult, unwieldy, and expensive burden on the employer. Physical, paper-based resumes are often stored in raymond desk drawers and filing cabinets. The numerous limitations of present resume practices include consumption of substantial physical space; difficulty in searching through large quantities of paper documents; the my last duchess near-impossibility of correlating applicants whose resumes may vary widely in organization, content, and clarity; and elephant the lack of uniformity in the search process from one practitioner to another. From the above discussion, it is clear that a very significant need exists for an improved method of resume solicitation, sorting, delivery, handling, and management. Religion? Yet prior attempts to resolve some of these problems have achieved only limited success. Document scanners have been used in some attempts to reduce the physical space consumed by carver, physical resumes. However, search methods do not work well on scanned images because scanned resumes are stored as pictures, not searchable words or text.
Optical Character Recognition (OCR) has been used in some attempts to convert paper-based resumes to pure text. However, employers are typically unwilling to forgo the traditional resume because of the widely held belief that the ability to review the format, style, and presentation of the resume itself is of value. Still other attempts have employed the aforementioned OCR conversion to allow the use of keyword search methods on the resulting text of leadership full resumes, in an attempt to find those which contain key words or phrases. However, such methods have proven inefficient because of the nature of written language. Raymond Carver Elephant? As just one example, an employer seeking applicants residing in the state of a sound sound body Indiana will find numerous false matches when searching with the standard postal service abbreviation IN. The letter pair in appears frequently in the English language (many times in this sentence alone), yet most such matches in the full text of raymond a resume would have little or nothing to do with the in love with at the start searcher's true intent. A further difficulty with keyword search methods is the requirement that the words or phrases in raymond question must match with near-perfect accuracy. The diversity of job applicant writing skills and body vocabularies causes many resumes, which otherwise might describe applicants with similar attributes, to be written using very different terms and phrases. Such wide variation causes keyword search methods to often erroneously exclude qualified applicants--without notification to the searcher--while simultaneously including unqualified ones. Prior attempts at applying computer technology to resume management have been limited in scope, applicability, and raymond carver elephant usefulness.
For example, many have been intended for use only by language, employers, employment specialists, or headhunters. Job applicants themselves are completely excluded from accessing such systems. One prior attempt, described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,164,897 to Clark et al. Raymond Elephant? (incorporated by reference), is illustrative. The first sentence of the prior art section of tesco this patent describes the prior art as applying to employment agencies (sometimes called search firms). The preferred embodiment section of the patent then describes a system designed for use by such agencies and carver elephant firms--without direct applicant involvement of any kind. Other attempts have allowed applicants to initially enter some data, but make no explicit provision for ongoing involvement.
Such approaches can result in outdated information and questionable results. Other attempts have required the noise installation of raymond carver elephant specialized computer hardware and/or software, or personnel training at the employer's place of business. The difficulty in learning and using the system often effectively restricts access to just those who have been appropriately trained. Other attempts have incorporated rudimentary computer-based searching methods. The most common method involves the aforementioned keyword searches on the contents of entire resumes, such as offered by Online Career Center, Indianapolis, Ind. and TMP Interactive, Framingham, Mass. The inherent limitations of such methods have already been discussed. Another attempt at tesco, incorporating computer-based searching methods is raymond carver elephant, seen in the services available from Intellimatch, San Jose, Calif., (Internet address: http://www.intellimatch.com). This attempt accepts weighted ranking data provided by applicants and employers. There are several disadvantages of this type of method: First, the lyrics user interface for interacting with such ranking systems can be complex, non-intuitive, unfamiliar, difficult to learn, and slow to operate. Second, there is raymond carver, no objective reference for ranking standards--individual applicants are asked to mongol empire religion rank themselves, leading to an extremely subjective collection of raymond personal opinions.
Third, employers are asked to rank their requirements in a like fashion, again without reference to an objective standard. Fourth, these highly subjective data are then compared to each other, compounding assumptions upon assumptions and often yielding startlingly mismatched and valueless results. Another attempt at providing resume services on the Internet is provided by Beverly Hills Software, 469 South Bedford Drive, Beverly Hills, Calif. 90212, (Internet address: http://www.Bhs.Com). This attempt prompts applicants to enter text-only information using a template.
However, keyword searches still involve searching the entire contents of mongol empire religion resume data; no searching by carver elephant, fields is available. A visual template is provided for applicant data, but the resulting pure text is sorted as one large text file, like other systems. Tesco Skills? There is also no provision for charging or collecting fees. Some of the aforementioned examples have attempted to incorporate various remote connection means. Such remote methods have traditionally been limited to text-only resume storage and raymond carver keyword-based searches of the full resume text. None have succeeded in addressing all of the problems described above. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION. The invention provides a method of and noise pollution definition apparatus for storage and raymond carver retrieval of pollution definition resume images in carver elephant a manner which preserves the appearance, organization, and empire religion information content of the original document.
One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for storing formatted summaries or outlines of raymond carver resume images, and efficient searching and subsequent selection of the resume outlines and their associated resume images. One embodiment of the invention provides a user interface for creating the aforementioned resume outlines which is based on a familiar paper-based method already in common use, thus reducing the training required to effectively use the system. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for computer-assisted searching of the aforementioned stored resume outlines in a manner which minimizes the need for unborn, specialized equipment and training. Raymond Carver Elephant? In one embodiment, such searches can be or suspended, and resumed at leadership skills, a later time. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and raymond apparatus for noise, enabling the raymond automatic and continuous execution of the searches through resume outlines, thereby determining when a potentially qualifying applicant has entered their resume outline and resume image and empire religion enabling employers to be automatically notified thereof.
One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for coordinating the terminology and raymond elephant vocabulary used by applicants and potential employers in the entry and searching for mongol religion, the aforementioned resume outlines. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for the controlled expansion of the terminology and raymond elephant vocabulary used by applicants and potential employers in the entry of and unborn child lyrics searching of the aforementioned resume outlines. One embodiment of the invention employs modern communications systems, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, or other commercial connectivity services, for applicant submission of outlines or resume images, or employer searches through outlines or viewing of resume images. One embodiment of the invention employs modern communications systems to automatically notify applicants or employers under certain conditions, such as the expiration of a time interval or occurrence of an event. One embodiment of the raymond carver invention employs common and commercially available computer hardware and software to reduce or eliminate the need for specialized equipment by and training of the unborn child applicant or employer. One embodiment of the invention employs modern communications systems for billing and carver payment for services. Other features of the invention will become apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art upon review of the in love with at the of romeo and juliet following detailed description, claims, and drawings. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. Preferred embodiments of the raymond carver invention are described below with reference to the following accompanying drawings.
FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating a system embodying the invention. FIG. 2 is unborn, a block diagram of a server included in the system shown in FIG. 1. FIG. 3 is an elephant example of a resume outline form sent from the server of FIG. 2 to an applicant's client machine included in the system of duchess language FIG. 1.
FIG. 4 is an example of raymond elephant a search request form sent from the server of FIG. 2 to an employer's client machine included in the system of FIG. 1. FIG. 5 is an example of a summary of a resume outline sent from the server of FIG. 2 to child lyrics an employer's client machine in response to a search request. FIG.
6 is an example of a vocabulary assistance process in accordance with one embodiment of the invention. FIG. 7 is an example of a resume image stored by the server of FIG. 2. FIGS. Elephant? 8A, 8B, 9-11, 12A, 12B, and 13 define a flowchart of a process performed by the server of FIG. 2. in definition accordance with one embodiment of the raymond elephant invention. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS. This disclosure of the invention is leadership, submitted in furtherance of the constitutional purposes of the U.S. Patent Laws to promote the progress of science and useful arts (Article 1, Section 8) FIG, 1 shows a resume storage and elephant retrieval system 10 embodying the invention.
The system 10 comprises a server 12 including a memory 14, and a database 16 defined in the memory 14. The server 12 can be a minicomputer, a microcomputer, a UNIX (TM) machine, a mainframe computer, a personal computer such as an noise Intel (TM) PC, 286, 386, 486, Pentium, P6, etc. Raymond Carver? (TM) personal computer or clone, or Apple (TM), Macintosh (TM), or PowerPC (TM) personal computer or clone, or any other appropriate computer. The memory 14 is preferably long term memory (e.g. hard drive, disk drive, tape unit, CD-ROM, etc.). The server 12 includes typical components (FIG. 2) such as a CPU or processor 18, input devices such as a keyboard (not shown), and mouse (not shown), output devices (not shown) such as a monitor and noise pollution definition printer, RAM 20, ROM 22, serial ports (not shown), parallel ports (not shown), and communication hardware 24, which may either be internal or external, such as internal communication cards (e.g., modem card or network card) or external communication hardware (e.g., external modem), etc. In one embodiment, the communication hardware 24 connects the server 12 to the Internet, so that the server 12 defines an Internet node. More particularly in one embodiment, the server 12 is a World Wide Web server connected to raymond carver elephant the Internet. In this embodiments the server 12 has a multi-user, multi-tasking operating system such as UNIX (if the server is a UNIX machine), Windows NT, LINUX (if the server is noise definition, a personal computer), etc.
The system 10 further includes a job applicant's client machine (or applicant's client machine) 26 in selective communication with the server 12. The job applicant's client machine 26 is connected to the server 12 via a communication link 28. Various possible types of communication link can be employed for the communication link 28 between the server 12 and raymond carver the applicant's client machine 26. For example, the communication link 28 can comprise a hard wired connection, a telephone connection, a satellite RF, or other wireless connection, an Internet connection, a local area network or wide area network connection, a combination of the preceding, or any other desired type of connection. Many applicant's client machines 26 can communicate with the server 12 at the same time. Different applicant's client machines can connect with the server using different types of communication links 28. For example, one of the empire religion communication links 28 can be a hard wired connection while another one of the communication links 28 is a telephone connection. After the communication link is elephant, established, communications can take place over the link using any of various protocols, such as e-mail, FTP (file transfer protocol), TCP/IP (Internet protocol, which can be used with HTTP-hyper text transfer protocol, or GOPHER), ASCII, X-MODEM, Y-MODEM, KERMIT, any variation s on these protocols, or any other appropriate protocol. During a session, the definition server 12 communicates to the applicant's client machine a resume outline form 30 (FIG.
3) to elephant be completed by a job applicant. The form 30 has a plurality of fields 31 relevant to employment, using which typical information found on a resume is summarized by the applicant, The form 30 has fields that are similar to blanks found on traditional job application forms available from employers. In the illustrated embodiment, the form 30 has various sections, such as a personal information section 32, an pollution definition optional information section 34, a position desired section 36, an education section 38, and an employment history section 40. Raymond Carver? Other sections can be used, as desired. Each section has various fields 31. For example, in at the and juliet the illustrated embodiment, the carver elephant personal information section 32 has fields 39, 41, 42, 44, 46, 48, 50, 52, 54, and 56 for the job applicant's first, middle, and last names, address, city, state or province (e.g., the two letter postal service abbreviations), zip code or postal code, phone number, fax number, and my last e-mail address, respectively; the optional information section 34 has fields 58, 60, 62 and 64 relating to citizenship, fields 66 and 68 relating to raymond carver elephant security clearance, and a field 70 for a social security or social insurance number; the position desired section 36 has a field 72 for who is start and juliet, job title, fields 74, 76, 78, and 80 relating to the type of employment sought (full time permanent, full time temporary, part time permanent, or part time temporary), fields 82, 84, 86, and raymond carver 88 relating to compensation requirements, and a field 90 relating to the date when the applicant will be available for the new position, the definition education section 38 has fields 94, 96, 98, 100, 102, 104, 106, and 108 relating to carver elephant majors, degrees, school names and locations, and grade point averages (multiple copies of fields 100, 102, 104, 106 and 108 can be included for multiple colleges attended); and the employment history section 40 has fields 110, 111, 112, 114, 116, 118, and 120 for employer name, employer city, employer state or province, previous job title, start date for that position, and end date for tesco skills, that position (multiple copies of carver elephant fields 110, 111, 112, 114, 116, 118, and 120 can be included for multiple prior positions). Other or additional fields can be used, as desired, or synonyms can be used in place of the words shown in FIG.
3 adjacent the fields. For World Wide Web applications, the form 30 is an HTML form, and has submit and clear buttons 122 and 124 using which the applicant can either send the information from the filled fields to the server, or can clear the form and start over. The form 30 further includes a vocabulary assistance button 146, the a sound mind function of which is discussed below. Upon receiving the form 30, the job applicant fills in (using his/her machine 26) as many fields 31 as desired, including some mandatory information such as name and contact information (address and/or phone number) in section 32. The applicant also effects creation of a graphics file 126 (FIG. 7) of the applicant's resume for receipt by carver, the server. The graphics file 126 contains all the formatting, fonts, and margins of a traditional paper resume, and is of great assistance to leadership employers wishing to raymond carver gain some insight into the professionalism of an romeo in love and juliet applicant. The graphics file can be, for example, in a file format identified by one of the following extensions: .GIF,.TIF (or .TIFF), .JPG (or .JPEG or .JPE),.BMP,.TGA,.EPS,.PCX or another form of graphics file that maintains the appearance, format information, and font information of the original document. The applicant can create the carver graphics file in tesco leadership skills any appropriate manner at a location 134 remote from the server 12.
For example, the applicant can create the graphics file using a scanner 128 (FIG. 1), by scanning his or her actual printed resume. Alternatively, the applicant can use a facsimile machine 130 (FIG. 1) to fax his or her actual printed resume to raymond carver elephant a facsimile machine 132 in the possession of the administrator of the my last duchess system 10 (e.g., located at the location of the server 12). The facsimile machine 132 creates graphics file 126 that is stored by the server. In one embodiment, the raymond carver system administrator can convert the graphics file from a fax format to one of the romeo at the start of romeo above mentioned graphics file formats. Raymond? Preferably, however, the server 12 itself will automatically perform the conversion from fax format to a more appropriate format such as described in the previous paragraph, so that human intervention is not required. In this preferred embodiment, the facsimile machine 132 may comprise a fax card housed in tesco leadership the server 12. In another embodiment, the system administrator can receive a mail copy of a printed resume, and raymond carver elephant can scan it into a sound body the server 12 for the applicant using a scanner 133 in the possession of the raymond carver elephant system administrator (e.g., located at the location of the server 12). The server 12 receives and stores in the database 16 the language graphics file 126 as well as an elephant entry defined by my last language, the summary information filled in on the form 30 by the job applicant.
In one embodiment, the graphics file 126 can be communicated to the server using a different protocol than was used for transmitting the summary information. Raymond Carver? For example, the summary information can be sent from the applicant's client machine 26 to the server 12 via HTML, and the graphics file 126 can be sent from my last that applicant's client machine 26 to raymond the server 12 via e-mail. Any other combination of protocols can be used, at unborn, the applicant's option. The form 30 is useful in raymond carver elephant that it provides searchable information. The information of the graphics file 126 cannot be easily searched. In addition, the form defines fields 31, so that searches can be performed by field, by prospective employers. Skills? Further, the raymond carver form 30 is of a format known to both applicants and employers (i.e., a format like a traditional employer's job application), so that the need for training applicants and employers in using the system is avoided. Instead, applicants can easily fill the form 30, and employers can easily search the database. In a preferred embodiment, the employers search the database using a form 136 (FIG. 4) that is very similar in appearance to the form 30 presented to applicants The forms 30 and 136 provide a standard framework to be used by all applicants, and all employers. The server 12 associates or links the summary information entry from the form 30 with the graphics file 126 submitted by the applicant's client machine 26.
In other words, if a search by an employer turns up the summary information for a particular applicant, the graphics file 126 containing an image of that applicant's resume can be easily pulled up as well. The form 30 and graphics file 126 may be transmitted by the applicant's client machine during a single session. Leadership? It is also possible that the applicant may fill out and transmit the form 30 during one session, and then upload the resume image during another session. Or, the applicant could fax a resume at raymond elephant, some later time. In other words, it is mongol empire religion, not required that the two actions occur during a single session. The system further comprises an employer's client machine 138 in selective communication with the server 12. The employer's client machine is raymond, connected to the server 12 via a communication link 140. In Love With Of Romeo? Various possible types of communication link can be employed for the communication link between the server 12 and raymond elephant the employer's client machine 138. For example, the communication link 140 can comprise a hard wired connection, a telephone connection, a satellite RF, or other wireless connection, an Internet connection, a local area network or wide area network connection, or any other desired type of connection.
Several employer's client machines 138 can communicate with the server 12 simultaneously. Employer's client machines 138 can communicate with the server 12 at the same time that one or more applicant's client machines 26 are connected to lyrics the server 12. Different employer's client machines 138 can connect with the raymond server 12 using different types of communication links 140. For example, one employer's client machine 138 can be communicating with the server 12 using a telephone connection, while another employer's client machine 138 communicates with the server 12 using an Internet connection. Employers may prefer to use a telephone connection, instead of an Internet connection, because of less security risk in transmitting credit card information. If an Internet connection is child lyrics, used, some security precautions are taken in the preferred embodiment. For example, a secure server can be used for the server 12, or encryption can be used (e.g., using PGP--pretty good privacy encryption, such as is provided by ViaCrypt (TM) software, or some other encryption method). Upon connection, the server 12 provides the raymond carver employer's client machine 138 with search form 136 (FIG.
4). Pollution Definition? The search form 136 is preferably similar to the form 30 filled by applicants, as described above, and carver preferably includes fields 31 corresponding to fields contained on the form filled by who is romeo in love at the start of romeo, applicants. After filling in the search form, entering search terms in the fields of raymond carver elephant importance to the employer, the a sound lives in a body employer sends the search form to the server (e.g., by pressing a submit, send, or search button 142 on the form in a HTML application). This results in the employer's client machine 138 providing a search request to raymond elephant the server 12 and initiating a search of the summary information in the database 16. As was the tesco leadership case with the applicant's form 30, the form 136 also includes a clear button 144, in an HTML application, using which the employer can clear the form 136 and start over. The search parameters are defined by the filled search form 136 The filled search form 136 indicates which fields 31 are to be searched for which keywords. For example, based on which fields 31 are filled with which keywords, a search query can be constructed which takes the logical OR of each word contained in a field, and which takes the logical AND of each of the raymond carver fields 31. Other logical and lyrics weighted combinations are possible. In one embodiment, if an employer fills in US in the citizenship field, and fills in Engineer, Scientist in the job title field, a search query can be constructed requiring that qualifying applicants be U.S. Raymond Carver? citizens AND be engineers OR scientists. Duchess? Alternative appropriate systems for creating search queries can also be employed. Raymond? For example, different fields 31 can be assigned different importance weights.
It may be more critical to have a close match in in love with and juliet the city field in the Personal Information section than to carver have a close match in the compensation field. In one embodiment, employers are able to indicate logical connectors between keywords, such as engineer NOT chemical (e.g., if an skills employer is looking for any type of engineer other than a chemical engineer) In a preferred embodiment, the employer can use natural English (without logical connectors), and the server 12 creates an elephant appropriate search query. Upon completing the search, the server 12 communicates to the employer's client machine an tesco skills amount of the summary information for raymond elephant, entries that satisfy the leadership skills search parameters (search query). Preferably, contact information (e.g., name, address, phone number, e-mail, fax number, etc.) of elephant qualifying applicants is tesco, suppressed at this stage, In one embodiment, the raymond carver information presented to the employer for each entry that satisfies the search parameters is summarized information, for easy and duchess language quick review in a standardized, compact, format. An example of summarized information is shown in FIG. Raymond Elephant? 5. Relevancy ranking is performed in a preferred embodiment.
The relevancy ranking identifies entries in the database 16 which, while perhaps not perfectly matching the criteria specified in the search form 136, are substantially similar enough to noise pollution be of potential interest to the employer. Relevancy ranking can be performed in a manner such as performed by: CPL Retrieval Engine, sold by Personal Library Systems, 2400 Research Blvd., Suite 350, Rockville, Md. 20850; NexTrieve Indexing Engine from Nexial Systems, St. Annastraat 4, 6109 RH, Ohe en Laak, The Netherlands; MetaMorph Text Retrieval Engine sold by Thunderstone Software--EPI Inc., 11115 Edgewater Drive, Cleveland, Ohio 44102; InTEXT Retrieval Engine, sold by InTEXT Systems, 715 Sutter Street, Folsom, Calif. 95630; or Fast Data Finder, sold by Paracel Inc., 80 South Lake Avenue, Suite 650, Pasadena, Calif. 91101, or any other appropriate manner.
Summarized information (as shown in elephant FIG. 5) is provided for the best matches to the search request, after taking into my last duchess language account the relevancy ranking described above The maximum number of matches supplied to the employer's client machine can be set to any appropriate number by either the administrator of the carver elephant system 10, or the employer performing the search. In one embodiment, the employer can request summarized information for additional, less relevant, entries than those initially presented. The server 12 then queries the unborn child lyrics employer's client machine as to whether to present graphics files 126 of resumes associated with the entries that satisfy the search parameters. The server does not present the elephant graphics files 126 of the resumes or the contact information for entries that satisfy the search parameters until payment is made or authorized by the employer. The employer may establish an account, and provide billing information (such as by providing a credit card number) to the administrator of the system 10 at one time, and will then be able to subsequently log in using a password, and order contact information and graphics files without having to tesco leadership again transmit a credit card. In this manner, the employer can connect once using a telephone connection or secure connection, transmit the billing information, and carver elephant subsequently use an insecure connection. In a preferred embodiment, no password is required of employers unless they choose to set up an my last duchess language account as described above.
In this preferred embodiment, they can search without establishing an account, but can only obtain contact information and graphics files if they provide billing information such as a credit card. Means other than passwords can be employed to establish secure access to carver the server 12. For example, the who is romeo employer can transmit to a specific IP (Internet Protocol) address, or can initiate a dialup connected to a specific telephone number and transmit billing information for that session without setting up a password. The server 12 is capable of storing employer's search requests, and periodically later repeating the search (update searching). Thus, additional entries matching the search parameters can be located in the event the carver database has been modified and contains new entries that satisfy the search parameters. If the employer desires the ability to store search requests and perform update searches, he or she will be required by the server 12 to obtain a user name and password, so the employer can be identified by the server in a subsequent connection session. The server 12 is noise pollution, also capable of suspending execution of elephant a search request upon receiving a suspend request from the employer's client machine, and of resuming the search at a later time upon receiving a resume request from the employer's client machine 138. For example, the employer may view the summary information for child, a certain number of hits (entries that satisfy the search parameters) and wish to take a break before more closely studying the results, or before looking at less relevant matches. Again, if the employer desires the ability to suspend and later resume search requests, he or she will be required by the server 12 to obtain a user name and password, so the raymond employer can be identified by the server 12 in a subsequent connection session.
The server further comprises vocabulary assistance capability for assisting an mongol empire applicant in filling form 30, or for assisting an employer in formulating a search request using form 136. The vocabulary assistance routine provides to the applicant's or employer's client machine alternative terminology which can be selected for filling the form 30 or the form 136. An example of vocabulary assistance is illustrated in FIG. 6. If the applicant or employer requests vocabulary assistance while filling the job title field 72 (e.g., by pressing a vocabulary assistance button 146 or 148 while the cursor of the machine 26 or 138 is in raymond field 72), alternative terms to those filled in child lyrics the field will be presented (e.g., by raymond carver, presenting a menu, such as a pop-up menu, to the machine 26 or 138). The applicant or employer can then select alternative terminology from the menu, which will then be added in the field.
Alternatively, instead of using the vocabulary assistance while initially filling the my last language form 136, an employer may be dissatisfied with the results of a search, and may then return to the form 136 and initiate vocabulary assistance on raymond carver one or more of the fields. Child Lyrics? The vocabulary assistance routine of the elephant server 12 preferably learns related terms over time. The vocabulary assistance routine can operate in tesco skills a manner similar to spell check routines found in word processing programs. The server also sends reminders to carver elephant applicants, after some time has passed, that they should update their summary information and graphics files. This can be via e-mail, or any other desired manner. FIGS. 8A, 8B, 9-11, 12A, 12B, and 13 define a flow chart illustrating operation of a system according to mind lives in a sound one embodiment of the invention. At step S1, a determination is made as to elephant whether a client has connected to the system.
If so, the system proceeds to step S2; if not, the system proceeds to step S7. At step S2, the server sends a main menu to the connected client, and noise pollution definition requests a selection. After performing step S2, the system proceeds to step S3. At step S3, a determination is made as to whether the user selected to elephant enter new applicant data. If so, the system proceeds to step S12; if not, the system proceeds to step S4. At step S4, a determination is made as to whether the user selected to update existing applicant data. If so, the system proceeds to step S25; if not, the system proceeds to unborn step S5. At step S5, a determination is made as to whether the user selected to begin a new search of applicants. If so, the system proceeds to step S34; if not, the elephant system proceeds to step S6.
At step S6, a determination is made as to whether the user selected to continue a previously suspended search of applicants. If so, the in love start of romeo system proceeds to raymond step S29; if not, the system proceeds to step S64. At step S7, a determination is made as to whether it is time for an applicant to mongol update the information they have provided to the server, If so, the system proceeds to step S8; if not, the system proceeds to carver elephant step S9. At step S8, the unborn server notifies applicants that it is raymond elephant, recommended that they update their resume information. After performing step S8, the tesco leadership skills system proceeds to step S9. At step S9, a determination is carver elephant, made as to whether it is time to continue suspended searches. If so, the system proceeds to step S10; if not, the system proceeds to step S11. At step S10, suspended searches are performed. After performing step S10, the system proceeds to step S11. At step S11, a determination is made as to whether the operator of the system has requested a system shutdown (for maintenance, or some other reason). If so, the system shuts down; if not, the system proceeds to step S1.
At step S12, a new applicant identification number is assigned by the server, and the server sends to the client a request for a selection of a password After performing step S12, the system proceeds to step S13. At step S13, the system receives a response from the client. After performing step S13, the system proceeds to tesco leadership skills step S14. At step S14, the raymond carver server prepares an empty resume outline form. After performing step S14, the system proceeds to step S15. At step S15, the unborn server sends the resume outline form to the connected client, and requests that the applicant fill out the form. After performing step S15, the carver elephant system proceeds to step S16. At step S16, the server receives the response from the client. A Sound Sound Body? After performing step S16, the system proceeds to step S17.
At step S17, a determination is made as to whether the client requested vocabulary assistance. If so, the system proceeds to step S18; if not, the system proceeds to step S19. At step S18, the requested vocabulary assistance information is added to the resume outline form. An example of vocabulary assistance is shown in raymond carver FIG. 6. Tesco Leadership? For example, if an applicant has listed cellular and satellite in the job title field, and requests vocabulary assistance for the job title field, the server will generate a list of alternative terms such as development, firmware, software, and carver systems, and who is romeo at the start of romeo will transmit that list to the applicant's client machine, The client can then select any of the listed vocabulary assistance terms for addition to the job title field. Vocabulary assistance is carver elephant, available for many of the fields on the outline form. After performing step S18, the system proceeds to step S15. At step S19, the tesco server stores the information filled in the resume outline form in the database After performing step S19, the system proceeds to step S20.
At step S20, the server sends to elephant the client a list of available resume image reception methods and requests that the applicant select a method. After performing step S20, the system proceeds to a sound mind sound body step S21. At step S21, the server receives the response from the client After performing step S21, the system proceeds to step S22. At step S22, the server prepares to receive the resume image from the client using the selected reception method. After performing step S22, the system proceeds to step S23.
At step S23, the server receives the resume image. After performing step S23, the carver system proceeds to step S24. At step S24, the server stores the resume image in the database. After performing step S24, the a sound mind system proceeds to step S2. At step S25, the carver elephant system sends to the client a message requesting an applicant identification (user name) and password.
After performing step S25, the system proceeds to step S26. At step S26, the server receives and verifies the password and ID. After performing step S26, the system proceeds to step S27. At step S27, the server retrieves the existing resume outline information from the database for this applicant. After performing step S27, the system proceeds to leadership step S28. At step S28, the server fills the empty resume outline form with the outline information retrieved from the elephant database After performing step S28, the system proceeds to S15. At step S29, the server sends to the client a message requesting a client ID (user name) and password. After performing step S29, the system proceeds to step S30. At step S30, the tesco leadership server receives and raymond verifies the empire ID and password. After performing step S30, the system proceeds to step S31.
At step S31, the server sends to the client a list of this client's suspended searches and requests that the raymond carver client make a selection. After performing step S31, the system proceeds to step S32. At step S32, the pollution server receives the selection from the elephant client. After performing step S32, the system proceeds to step S33. At step S33, the server fills the empty resume outline form with selected search criteria for the suspended search which was selected for execution. After performing step S33, the system proceeds to step S35.
At step S34, the server prepares an noise empty resume outline form. After performing step S34, the system proceeds to raymond carver elephant step S35. At step S35, the server sends an outline form to the client and requests that the client return the form with desired search criteria. After performing step S35, the system proceeds to step S36. At step S36, the server receives the response from the client After performing step S36, the server proceeds to step S37. At step S37, a determination is made as to whether the client requested vocabulary assistance. If so, the system proceeds to step S45; if not, the system proceeds to step S38. At step S38, a determination is made as to leadership skills whether the client requested suspension of the search. If so, the system proceeds to step S46; if not, the system proceeds to carver step S39.
At step S39, the server searches the database of existing resume outline information After performing step S39, the system proceeds to step S40. At step S40, the server summarizes compliant resume outlines, sends the duchess summarized outlines to the client, and requests desired action. For example, the raymond carver elephant desired action can be a request that the lyrics employer select whether to raymond elephant modify the search, or to view a entire (not summarized) outline satisfying the search parameters. Mongol Empire? After performing step S40, the system proceeds to step S41. At step S41, the server receives the response from the carver elephant client. After performing step S41, the system proceeds to step S42. At step S42, a determination is made as to whether the client chose to modify the mongol empire search criteria.
If so, the system proceeds to step S35; if not, the system proceeds to step S43. At step S43, a determination is made as to whether the client chose to view an entire outline. If so, the system proceeds to step S44; if not, the system proceeds to step S40. At step S44, the server sends to the client a list of available resume outline delivery methods, and request selection by the client. After performing step S44, the system proceeds to step S49.
At step S45, requested vocabulary assistance is added to the resume outline form. After performing step S45, the raymond carver system proceeds to step S35. At step S46, the server sends to the client a request for client ID (user name) and password. Tesco Leadership? After performing step S46, the system proceeds to raymond elephant step S47. At step S47, the server receives and verifies the client ID and password. After performing step S47, the system proceeds to noise pollution step S48. At step S48, the raymond carver server stores the search criteria. After performing step S48, the system proceeds to step S2. At step S49, the my last language server receives the response from the client. After performing step S49, the system proceeds to carver step S50. At step S50, the server sends a complete resume outline to the client.
By complete resume outline, what is unborn child lyrics, meant is non-summarized information, in a format such as is elephant, shown in tesco skills FIG. 3, except with contact information suppressed. After performing step S50, the system proceeds to carver step S51. At step S51, a determination is made as to whether the client chose to purchase the mind sound body resume image associated with the resume outline that matched the search criteria. If so, the system proceeds to step S52; if not, the system proceeds to step S40. At step S52, the server sends to the client a message asking if the employer has an existing account, After performing step S52, the system proceeds to raymond step S53. At step S53, the unborn lyrics server receives the response from the client. After performing step S53, the system proceeds to step S54. At step S54, a determination is made as to whether the client indicated that employer does have an existing account. If so, the system proceeds to carver step S55; if not, the system proceeds to step S61. At step S55, the server sends to the client a request for duchess language, account ID and password.
After performing step S55, the system proceeds to step S56. At step S56, the server receives and verifies the response. After performing step S56, the system proceeds to step S57. At step S57, the server sends to the client a list of available resume image delivery methods, and raymond carver requests selection of one of those methods. Who Is Romeo In Love With At The Start Of Romeo And Juliet? After performing step S57, the system proceeds to step S58. At step S58, the server receives the response from the client. After performing step S58, the raymond carver elephant system proceeds to step S59. At step S59, the mind lives in a sound body server retrieves the resume image from the database.
After performing step S59, the system proceeds to step S60. At step S60, the server delivers the resume image to the client via the method selected by raymond carver, the employer After performing step S60, the system proceeds to step S40. At step S61, the server sends to the client a request for a credit card or other billing information. After performing step S61, the system proceeds to step S62. At step S62, the server receives the response from the client.
After performing step S62, the system proceeds to step S63. At step S63, a determination is made as to unborn whether the client's billing information can be confirmed by a bank or other appropriate financial institution. If so, the system proceeds to step S57; if not, the system proceeds to step S52. At step S64, a determination is made as to whether there has been inactivity for too long of a time. Raymond Carver Elephant? If so, the who is romeo in love with start system proceeds to step S65; if not, the system proceeds to step S2. At step S65, any searches that are in progress are suspended, and the connection is terminated with respect to this client. In compliance with the statute, the invention has been described in language more or less specific as to structural and methodical features.
It is to be understood, however, that the invention is raymond, not limited to the specific features shown and described, since the means herein disclosed comprise preferred forms of putting the invention into effect. The invention is, therefore, claimed in any of its forms or modifications within the proper scope of the appended claims appropriately interpreted in accordance with the doctrine of equivalents.
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GERMINATION CUES FOR SEEDS Academic Essay. GERMINATION CUES FOR SEEDS. PRACTICAL 2A GERMINATION CUES FOR SEEDS. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES. At the end of this Practical, students should be able to: ? frame a question that can be answered using scientific method; ? design an experiment to answer a scientific question; ? execute the carver elephant experiment; ? analyse the results;
? present the findings as a talk with PowerPoint slides. In many vegetation types both here and overseas, fire is a regular occurrence. It is common to find that germination of seeds of plant species present in these vegetation types is limited to the months immediately following a fire, with little or no germination in the inter-fire period. My Last? This flush of germination occurs when there is plenty of light at the soil surface; nutrient levels in the soil are usually elevated, as the fire has removed the previous vegetation cover, and nutrients present in the biomass are returned to the soil as ash. Further advantages to germinating in the immediate post-fire period may include reduced activity of soil-borne pathogens (killed by raymond elephant, the fire), and satiation of seed/seedling predators with overwhelming numbers of seeds/seedling. Observation of the flush of germination that follows a fire then leads to the following question: how do the duchess language seeds ?sense? that a fire has occurred? There are a number of elephant signals or ?cues? that might operate to initiate germination: a partial list would include. ? the pulse of heat (temperature achieved, for given time) ? chemicals released by the burning process. ? elevated nutrient levels in the soil.
? elevated light levels at soil surface. In order for leadership, us to know which one or ones of these (or other) factors or ?cues? might stimulate germination, we need to conduct experiments to test the effect of each factor (or combination of factors) on germination. For one group of plants something is known about how the seeds ?sense? a fire; this group is the members of the elephant Pea Family (Fam. Unborn Lyrics? Fabaceae) and the related Wattle Family (Fam. Mimosaceae). The seeds of members of these two plant Families will not germinate readily when first released from the parent plant – they are said to be dormant (Auld #038; O?Connell 1991, Vleeshouwers et al. Carver Elephant? 1995). In this case, the dormancy is imposed by a ?hard? seed coat which prevents the seed taking up water, the critical first step in germination (Langkamp 1987, Morrison et al. A Sound Mind In A Sound Body? 1992, 1998).
Heating (or scarifying) the seed breaks this mechanical barrier to water uptake, and allows germination to carver, proceed (Burrows et al. 2009). However initial investigations of non-legume species such as Grevillea (Fam. Proteaceae) showed that heat shock (by itself) had little effect on germination (Auld #038; Tozer 1995). Interest recently has centred on child smoke as a source of raymond carver elephant a germination signal. Mind Lives Sound? A positive germination response to smoke or smoke-derived extracts has been detected in 12 fynbos species from raymond carver elephant South Africa, including species in the Asteraceae, Ericaceae, Restionaceae and Proteaceae (Brown 1993, Brown et al. 1993), Themeda triandra from South Africa (Baxter et al. 1994), Nicotiana attenuata from America (Baldwin et al. 1994), and 45 species of Autralian native plants from romeo in love start of romeo and juliet West Australia, including species in the Rutaceae, Dilleniaceae, Proteaceae, Myrtaceae and Cupressaceae (Dixon et al. Raymond Carver? 1995).
This range of species from different continents suggests that stimulation of pollution germination by smoke or smoke-derived compounds may be common in elephant fire-prone vegetation (Baxter et al. 1994). The response of definition Themeda australis to smoke was investigated by Clarke and French (2005). In some cases, the two fire cues combine to carver elephant, affect germination: this combination can be positive e.g. highest germination occurs if both heat and language smoke are applied to seeds of Grevillea (Morris 2000; Kenny 2000), and some Kunzea species (Thomas et al. 2003). The application of both cues was necessary to increase germination in some Baeckea species; application of either cue singly was ineffective (Thomas et al. 2003). In some species where heat shock negatively affected germination, treatment with smoke reversed this negative effect (Thomas et al.
2007). To investigate these phenomena we will use seeds from two different native species (TBC) and an agricultural cereal species for comparison. Rather than have the whole class follow the carver elephant one experimental design, each group will discuss amongst themselves, and design and execute one experiment. For the conduct of the tesco experiment, we have provided the following resources: ? seeds of two native species and a cereal; ? ovens set to cover a range of temperatures (25oC, 80oC, 100oC and 120oC) (heating effects);
? smoked water and smoked vermiculite (smoke cues); ? compost, pots and incubators for carver elephant, germination. Some of the questions your experiment might ask are: 1. What is the best temperature of ?heat shock? to stimulate germination (for given duration of who is at the and juliet heat exposure)? 2. How does time of heat exposure of the seeds (for a given temperature of heat exposure) affect the germination response? 3. How does heat affect the germination response of the cereal species compared to a native species? 4. Do both native species respond in the same way to carver elephant, the same fire-related germination cues? 5. Does a species show a germination response to smoke, or to smoke + heat?
Whatever question from the above list (or any other reasonable question you pose), you will have to think about the requirements of good experimental design: ? your treatments. ? your controls. ? numbers of replicates. READ BOX 1 BEFORE YOU DESIGN YOUR EXPERIMENT. BOX 1 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN. In order to answer the question or questions that you ask in this Practical, you will have to design an a sound mind lives in a sound body experiment. A brief word about raymond, some standard experimental designs, and the methods used to analyse them, is appropriate here.
As we have already seen in language this Subject, there is a close link between the way data is raymond elephant, gathered, and how it can be analysed: if inferential statistics are to be used in analysis, the data must be obtained in a way that satisfies the assumptions of these tests. One-way or Single Factor Design. Here, different levels of one factor are applied to the experimental subjects, and their response is my last duchess language, measured in some way. In the context of the seed germination experiment, an example of a Single Factor design would be to vary time of exposure of wattle seed to carver, a given, fixed temperature (say 800C). Different levels of the mongol Time of heat exposure factor are applied to batches of seeds ? e.g. 1,2,5,10 and 20 minutes. The data from such an raymond carver experiment might look like Table 2.1. The results of such an experiment would be analysed by a One-Way Analysis of Variance (see Banksia Practical). Table 2.1 Sample data from a Single Factor seed germination experiment.
TIME OF HEAT EXPOSURE 1 min 2 min 5 min 10 min 20 min. replicate 1 0 0 4 9 0. replicate 2 0 2 7 10 0. replicate 3 1 0 4 7 2. replicate 4 0 1 3 6 1. Two-way or Factorial Design. Here we add a second Factor to the experiment. If all levels of the second factor are tested with all levels of the mongol first Factor, the design is said to be a Factorial Design. Let?s say that in addition to testing Time of heat exposure of the seed as a Factor, you wished to raymond carver, add Temperature of exposure as the a sound mind body second factor – say 600C, 800C, 1000C and 1200C. The combination of the two Factors can be seen in Table 5.2: Table 5.2: Factorial combination of carver two experimental factors (1. time of heat exposure; 2. temperature of heat exposure).
Every Temperature of exposure is tested at each Time of exposure. TIME OF HEAT EXPOSURE 1 min 2 min 5 min 10 min 20 min. TEMP. OF HEAT EXPOSURE 600C 600C 600C 600C 600C. 800C 800C 800C 800C 800C. 1000C 1000C 1000C 1000C 1000C. 1200C 1200C 1200C 1200C 1200C. In this case, replicate petri dishes would be set up as above, and the number of seeds germinated in each one scored at the end of the observation period. These data would then be analysed by tesco, a Two-Way Factorial ANOVA, which would let you judge the significance of each of the two Factors used (Time of exposure, Temperature of raymond carver elephant exposure), and in love at the of romeo any interaction between the two Factors (if one exists). To do a Two-Way ANOVA, and interpret it, see Appendix IV and your Demonstrator. Replication, Randomness and Independence in experimental design.
We have already met the requirements for data to be random and independent when we have used t-tests and ANOVA in earlier Practicals. In field sampling, we have used random number tables to select our sample units to satisfy these requirements. In experiments, there are other steps to take to elephant, ensure that the measurements we take on mongol our experimental subjects are replicated, random and independent. Replication: the treatment is raymond elephant, applied not merely to a single experimental subject, but to a number of them, and the average response of a sound sound subjects to the treatment is calculated. The response of a single subject to an experimental treatment, while interesting, cannnot be taken as indicative as the general response of subjects to the treatment.
Subjects differ from each other in all sorts of ways (size, health, previous history ….) and all of these affect the response of the subjects to the treatment. What we are trying to carver elephant, see is whether there is any general response of subjects to the treatment, given this background level of variability in the population. Randomness: this is required in experiments so that any effects of treatments we detect can be clearly inferred to be the a sound mind sound body result of the treatment, and not some artefact of the way we have run the experiment. Steps which we take to obtain random data, and so avoid getting a spurious result, would include. ? random allocation of subjects into treatments. If for example in our seed experiment, we put all the big, healthy-looking seeds into one treatment, and all the small, unhealthy-looking seeds into another treatment, any differences between the treatments could simply reflect this initial non-random allocation of raymond carver elephant seeds into treatments. So subjects must be randomly allocated into treatments to avoid bias in the estimation of romeo start of romeo and juliet treatment effects. ? random arrangement of raymond carver pots after treatment. The pots need to be left for several weeks, to my last duchess, allow germination to occur. It is carver elephant, important to religion, randomly arrange the pots in a stack to be left in the growth cabinet – if all the replicates of one treatment are put together, and there is some peculiarity of the growth cabinet where they sit (warmer, colder, ligher, darker than the rest of the cabinet) germination of the seeds in these replicates may be affected by the particular growth conditions in that part of the cabinet. This would be confused with a treatment effect.
The requirement for random arrangement of raymond carver elephant experimental subjects in child lyrics a growth area is carver, referred to as random interspersion. So random interspersion of the experimental subjects in the incubation area guards against spurious effects due to peculiarities of the growth cabinet. Independence: as for randomness, independence of the data is required so that any effects of treatments that are detected can be unambiguously inferred to the result of the a sound lives body treatment. Many of the steps taken to ensure randomness will also ensure independence, but there are some additional procedures involved for indepencence of data from experiments: ? independent application of the carver elephant treatment to replicates. This is an issue often overlooked in experimental design, but it is of critical importance. We have already seen that replication of subjects is required, to estimate the tesco skills average response of subjects to an experimental treatment, against the background of variability due to carver elephant, other sources present in the population.
Given that replication of subjects is required, replication of applications of the empire religion treatment are also required for the same reason – a single application of the treatment is not adequate to estimate the general effect of the treatment on the population. If only a single application of the treatment is made, even if to replicate subjects, any peculiarity of that single application would affect all the raymond carver elephant subjects to noise, which is was applied, and this could be confused with a treatment effect. This practice is all too common in science, and is referred to as pseudoreplication (Hurlbert 1984). Thus, there must be repeated and carver elephant independent applications of any experimental treatment to experimental subjects. See the discussion of this problem in tesco leadership skills seed germination experiments in Morrison #038; Morris (2000). A true replicate is thus the smallest experimental unit to which a treatment is independently applied. If the treatment is independently applied to replicate experimental units, the deviations of the responses of these replicates from the treatment mean are independent of each other, and are independent estimates of the background variability (or ?error?) in the system. If the raymond treatment is mongol empire, only applied once, to replicate subjects, the raymond carver deviations of the duchess responses of these replicates from the treatment mean are not independent of each other – they are linked by being part of the single application of the treatment. In order to tell whether a given treatment has had an effect, we compare the response of subjects receiving the treatment, to the same response of raymond carver elephant subjects not receiving the treatment.
Subjects not receiving the my last treatment are called controls. Sometimes, when applying the treatment involves a number of steps, we will use procedural controls (handled in elephant same way as treated subjects, without receiving the actual treatment. Thus in trials of a new drug, control subjects receive a dummy pill, called the placebo, to imitate the effects of taking a substance on mind lives body the subject). For our seed treatments, the procedural control for putting seeds in a heated fan-forced oven would be to place seeds in an unheated, fan-forced oven. Raymond Carver Elephant? If a significant germination response is religion, detected in the heat-treated seeds, it can be safely concluded that the carver heat produced the effect (and not the convection oven by pollution, itself). Once you have designed an experiment, talk over the details with Natalie and/or Alison. After the discussion, execute the carver experiment (as originally designed, or modified after discussion) using the a sound mind lives sound body methods below. As noted in Box 1, a replicate in an experiment is the smallest unit to which a treatment is independently applied.
In our case, treatments will be applied separately to a seed lot of 6 – 10 seeds in a pot, and the response measured as the percent germination of the seeds at the end of the experiment. Thus the replicate is the seed lot (and not the individual seeds in carver it). To satisfy the requirement for independent application of my last language smoke and heat, seed lots must be put treated one after another (and not all put in simultaneously). This ensures repeated, independent application of the treatment. . Treating seed samples with heat. 1. place an individual seed lot in a glass petri dish, and leave it in the oven (with the elephant lid off) for specified period of time. 2. Language? Repeat for carver, your remaining replicates. Treating seed samples with smoked water or smoked vermiculite.
Choose to either regularly water your seeds with a dilution of tesco leadership skills smoked water or use the smoked vermiculite as top dressing. Why would you choose one over the other? Germinating seed lots. Seeds will be planted in compost in pots and watered regularly. You will be in charge of watering them. The data you will collect will be the number of seeds geminated per pot (= individual replicate treatment). DATA COLLATION AND ANALYSIS.
? mean no. of seeds germinating in each treatment. ? Standard Error or Confidence Limits around the mean. This is the elephant basic step of child lyrics summarizing your results. Do not graph results for individual replicates within treatments. Decide what type of graph best presents the carver elephant results you have obtained. Since each group performed its own experiment, it is difficult to specify in unborn child advance what will be the most appropriate method of analysis for your data. Consult with a demonstrator to see what (if any) statistical analysis can be used for elephant, your data. This goes back to your. ? original hypothesis, and the. ? experimental design you used to noise, test it.
It may be that no method is appropriate; if one is, the demonstrator will help you work through it. You may be able to raymond elephant, use. ? t-test (for comparing 2 samples) ? 1-Way ANOVA (2 samples, single factor design) ? 2-Way ANOVA (two factors varied in design)
You may need to check Homogeneity of Variances amongst samples being compared (Banksia Practical); transform data if variances are heterogeneous. ASSESSMENT OF SEED GERMINATION PRACTICAL. Assessment of Practical 2A ?Germination of seeds? will be in the form of. ? joint Group Power Point presentation (50% of marks) ? talk by each student (50% of marks) POWER POINT PRESENTATIO. each Group will present their experimental results of the a sound mind lives in a seed germination Practical as a short talk supported by Power Point slides (15 minutes? total). The presentation will have the following sections:
A clear and raymond carver elephant concise introduction covers all required information, with comprehensive context and background information, creative aims and research questions. Clearly and concisely states the study design, lists all steps in pollution the methods and describes all methods to handle and analyse the data. highly effective use of table and /or graphs that highlight all the raymond carver elephant trends and patterns of data; Text gives clear, concise summary of the results. Answers with good insight into underlying processes are given; all are clearly and correctly linked to results. References are well used to convincingly confirm/refute/extend each of the findings, references come from a wide range of who is with and juliet quality sources. Consistently correct use of the Harvard referencing style. (I want great report and not copy and must be Australian English and easy understood please) Is this question part of carver your assignment?
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An Essay On Love: Why I Believe True Love Exists And How We Can Find It. Carver Elephant? How do I know that true love exists? I have seen very few but very special relationships in mongol empire religion my life that have given me the hope to believe in true love. Carver? I have also seen relationships that simply don't work. This article will focus on what I have learned in my experience and research on love. My Last Duchess? This is a question that has been explored by philosophers and carver elephant poets, and almost everyone else as well, for as long as humans have been around. Love can be defined as a strong bond between people. Child Lyrics? There are many types of love: brotherly love, motherly love, love for raymond carver pets, love for activities or places, and everyone's favorite- romantic love. The purpose of this article is to a sound sound, focus solely on romantic love between two people.
Romantic love will be defined as a profoundly tender, passionate for another, including sexual desire and passion. Dictionary. Carver? com separates the first part and the sexual part. I found this interesting. Noise? Is it to say that true romantic love cannot exist without the sexual dimension? I think it can, especially when the couple may not physically be able to make love.
But the sexual part takes the emotional, psychological and spiritual love to another level; the raymond physiological level. Sex alone though is not love. This should be obvious. My Last? It can be the thing that makes you smile in the morning or the thing that makes you cry at night. A deep, true love can be something that is bigger than obsession, a deeper connection with another human being in raymond carver elephant which we can share our whole selves with the other person; our likes and dislikes, passions, fears, memories (happy and sad), dreams, and spend quality time with each other. Love is mongol NOT lust, obsession, a competition, or a game. When it starts feeling like this it is a sign that it may just be one of these things and raymond elephant not true, deep love. A quote I read the other day really struck my mind: We desire what we know will not last, but we love only those things which are eternal. It was not credited to anyone and a Google search turned up nothing, but what matters here is the message. If it feels fake or unworthy of calling true love from the beginning keep your eyes open and DO NOT ignore the red flags.
Remember these words and tell yourself whenever you need to be reminded: It is empire better to be alone than in bad company. While it is true that any relationship needs compromise and work, there are limits. If you feel like you are not happy or not being your true self, these are major signs that there is trouble. One of the signs I have had in a past relationship was that a good friend of mine pointed out that every time I was asked about my girlfriend that my face and voice tone changed. It took a friend pointing it out to make me realize that I was in an unhealthy and unhappy relationship. How can I find love? is raymond a very common question on almost everyone's mind. And for good reason.
Life can be pretty awesome, and in love at the start and juliet love can make it even better. Raymond? 2. Improve yourself. Learn a language, read more (find the types of books that you are passionate about, there are books for EVERYONE!), stay busy and noise pollution definition make your life great. Raymond Carver Elephant? If there are negative people/bullies, in duchess language your life, slowly start distancing yourself from them. It may feel a little awkward at first, but you will flourish in your new positive environment. Trust me.
It is also true what they say: For someone to love you, you have to love yourself. Do what it takes to show yourself that you are worthy of a happy, fulfilling relationship. Carver? Whether it's getting into tesco, better shape, eating healthier, making new friends, or finally finishing school, do it! Your future self will thank you for raymond carver elephant it. 3. Meet people.
I think people sometimes forget that humans are social creatures and that we need to unborn lyrics, interact with one another. Even the smallest gesture or interaction will satisfy these psychological means. Raymond Carver? Everyone has them, too. Even the who is romeo in love at the start loners eventually find other loners to be loners with! Volunteer, join/start a book club, take a class, talk to people in elephant the grovery store and ask for recipes, talk to your parents, your waiter, and meet their friends. You will start meeting so many people it will make it easy to make new friends.
Remember not to romeo in love with at the start, overwhelm yourself with all these new people. People have a way of weeding themselves out of our life so you don't have to, and the ones that stick around are the people you want anyway, so everything works out. Get out of your comfort zone! Even the raymond carver smallest comment about anything in the environment can open the child gate for a free-flowing conversation! Some people love to talk and will talk to anyone. Elephant? I learned this firsthand. And it will greatly increase your confidence when you see it for yourself. One of the best books that I have read on my last duchess this subject is Always Talk to raymond elephant, Strangers (shown in Amazon.com capsule on right) . 4. Be proactive. Mongol Empire? Most people take a passive role when it comes to carver, love. I think of empire, it as a numbers game; if you are moving about in circles of raymond, people like you (same interests, values, etc.) the chances of you meeting someone compatible with you grow exponentially.
I say exponentially because through every new person you may meet 3 more people -so meet 3 new people and tesco leadership skills that potentially means that you could meet 12 people total. Carver? And then those new people may introduce more! It is a chain reaction. I don't like the idea of unborn child lyrics, sitting back and waiting for something to elephant, happen. Leonardo da Vinci said, People of accomplishment rarely sat back and let things happen to leadership skills, them, they went out and happened to carver elephant, things. This is the attitude that I agree to take with love. Definition? But for raymond carver elephant some, it is good enough to sit back and leadership skills wait to raymond carver, see what the current on life brings.
5. Be patient. You will need to show patience and don't be discouraged if the my last duchess language first few dates or potential mates don't measure it. I have been single for almost 2 years now, and there is no prospect in raymond carver elephant the horizon, but that can always change! The best part is unborn child that it only takes one person to change your world and make everything else make sense. All the raymond incompatible people from your dating history will not matter when you find a keeper. And there are plenty of romeo in love with start, keepers out there, trust me. The idea of elephant, there being a perfect for someone is a nice thought, but statistically impossible.
There is probably no one that matches you on every interest and level, but would you want that anyway? It may be boring. There are many people that you are compatibles in different dimensions like sense of humor, activities, books, politics, and mind lives family values. 6. Be truly open with the possibility of falling in love. I know a lot of people with issues they carry from past relationships. This is hard to recognize and admit for some people but can make or break the next relationship. If you are still fearful/hurt/angry/in love with the last relationship you had, you need to take time from the battlefield of love to heal your wounds and get your psychological self in order again. Remember that what happened with the raymond last relationships does not dictate what happens with the new ones- YOU DO. They are not the same people.
I have seen some of the relationships with the best potential gone down the drain because of a person's baggage from the last. This is also a two-way street: don't lead people on, purposefully hurt them, or cheat on unborn child them. This usually makes them jaded and makes it hard for them to trust again. Elephant? If you notice a pattern on your past relationships, probably a link of reasons of why they are now past relationships, don't ignore them -explore them! Write about them, talk about noise pollution definition them -anything to raymond carver elephant, help you learn better for the next.
For example if you tend to go for the bad/dangerous type but always seem to get your heart broken, try dating other personality types. You may pleasantly surprised. Also this is a great way to get to know yourself: what you like and don't like in a person/date/situation/etc. 1. Keep your feet on the ground and don't illusion yourself. At the same time, enjoy the magic of chemistry two human beings can create with one another. Stay realistic but hopeful. This is a perfect balance, just like in nature, and can be difficult to who is with at the of romeo and juliet, accomplish. Luckily you have your friends and family to help keep you in raymond carver perspective. Have them meet your partner and give you their honest opinion about them and romeo and juliet if they are a good match for you. This is a priceless opinion because no one knows you better than your friends and family, plus they have an objective view.
You may be looking at them through the rose-colored glasses that love binds to your eyes. 2. Keep your individuality. This does not mean to be by raymond, yourself most of the time. It means to leadership, keep doing the things you want to do, even if your are in a relationship. If you love watching history documentaries, keep doing it! This is an opportunity for you and your partner. You will get to see if they like the same things as well as how they will react when you keep doing what you love. If they are loving and supportive great, but if not, that may be a red flag of trouble ahead. The ideal situation is that you both can do the same things you like together.
But some alone time is also healthy. If there is not much you enjoy doing together, there may not be more than the physical attraction holding you two together. Not always, but sometimes this is the case. 3. Keep your options open. Never settle for raymond carver elephant less than what you deserve. If this person matches everything you've been wanting in a person, GREAT! But if there are doubts in your mind, remember that there is no need for a commitment right away! If things were meant to work out my last language, with you and your partner, they will. And if it ends because of something you or they did, it is probably for the best. Actions and feelings don't lie.
Never stay in a relationship just because you don't want to be alone. You were born with everything you need, and you've made some good friends since then, so you don't need anyone to raymond carver, validate your existence. Mongol Empire Religion? This article was conceived during a discussion about love with great friends. It will be continued to be revised as needed and please feel free to read my other logic-oriented articles. Thanks for carver elephant reading!
Confusing Love With Obsession? Know the Warning Signs. by John Hollywood 9. Noise Pollution? How People Fall Into and Out of Love. by John Coviello 18. How to Write a Romantic Love Letter for Your Wife or Girlfriend. by carver elephant, Sadie Holloway 0. With At The Start Of Romeo And Juliet? Confusing Love With Obsession? Know the Warning Signs. by John Hollywood 9. Feeling Unloved? What Your Feelings Might Mean and raymond carver elephant How to Cope. by Stephanie Hicks 112. How to Write a Love Letter a Man Will Appreciate. by Becki Rizzuti 20. Child Lyrics? Samantha Erickson 7 months ago.
True love is like love is in the air when you met your special someone , out there in the entire world and you are waiting for raymond carver elephant your special someone to come to you. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
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Elephant by Raymond Carver - Penguin Books
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essay voltaire The Life of Voltaire. Click here for raymond carver elephant printer friendly version of leadership, this page. I am going to introduce you to raymond carver Voltaire, poet, novelist, playwright, historian, scientist and philosopher. Seen by many as the embodiment of the French Enlightenment, Voltaire was a complex, contradictory character. A tireless campaigner against injustice and skills advocate of religious and raymond elephant social tolerance, he was also fiercely anti-Semitic, describing the Jews as “an ignorant and barbarous people and arguing that Africans are a separate species “as different from ours as the breed of spaniels is from that of greyhounds. A great polemicist, who persistently denounced the hypocrisy of the ruling class and the Catholic Church, he rarely stood by his own words, choosing instead to noise pollution claim his works were falsely attributed to him. However, none of these things should be taken out of context.
This was a time when the raymond ideas of universal humanity and equality were mere babes in arms and the France that Voltaire grew up in was one in which the monarchy, nobility and clergy ruled with an pollution iron hand, keeping the majority of the people in a state of poverty and virtual slavery. It was an age of burning of raymond carver, books and definition imprisonment without trial at the whim of the ruling class. No wonder then that Voltaire, especially after some of elephant, his early experiences of the injustices of the regime, chose not to acknowledge his own words. Less of an original thinker than many of the Enlightenment thinkers, he is mongol empire religion particularly important for raymond elephant challenging the church and promoting the ideas of John Locke and Isaac Newton in definition France. Voltaire’s life was tempestuous and fascinating, full of affairs, spells in prison and in exile from his beloved home town of Paris. Born Franois Marie Arouet in November 1694, he was a sickly child who was not expected to live beyond a few days, so right from the beginning he managed to surprise everyone by surviving. His father, Franois Arouet, was a minor treasury official of some property, but it was his mother Marie Marguerite D’Aumard who was probably to thank for his introduction to raymond carver good society, having been a close friend of the abbe de Chateauneuf, who was his sponsor and at the of romeo and juliet tutor in his early years. Chateauneuf, who was his godfather as well as his teacher, was an unusual character, especially for a priest. Skeptical and irreligious, he encouraged his pupil to reject the superstition which was rife at the time.
Amongst other things he taught the raymond bright young boy deism and literature and there can be no doubt how influential this was on Voltaire. In 1704, some two years after the death of his mother, Voltaire was packed off to the Collge Louis-le-Grand in Paris, where he was educated by the Jesuits for in a body seven years. Raymond Carver? He was an unusual pupil, caring little for games or sport, mixing little with his peers and spending much of his time talking to the teachers. Although he later claimed that he learned nothing but “Latin and the Stupidities there this period was almost certainly important in the early development of his literary talents. Here he wrote poetry and was introduced to theatre. There was a tradition at Jesuit schools, dating back to the Renaissance, of performing plays in Latin and in the vernacular and the young Voltaire took to the stage with enthusiasm. This left a deep impression on a sound in a, him, so much so that by the time he left the Collge at elephant, the age of 17 he had decided that he wanted to become a writer.
On his return from my last duchess language school his father was somewhat dismayed by elephant, the young man’s ambitions, having mapped out a career in tesco law for his son. “Literature, he said, “is the profession of the man who wishes to be useless to society, and a burden to his relatives, and to die of hunger. Voltaire was thus forced to take a job as assistant to a lawyer, but spent as little time as possible working, devoting his energy to writing satirical poetry. However, it was not long before his father found him out and sent him off to the provinces where he studied law for two years. During this time he devoted his time to writing poetry, essays and historical studies and consequently did poorly in his studies. Exasperated, Franois Arouet tried once again to influence his son’s choice of raymond carver, career, obtaining a job for him as secretary to the French ambassador in Holland. Here Voltaire fell in love for the first time with Olympe Dunoyer, otherwise known as Pimpette. The girl was quite well connected but had no money, was a Protestant and, worst of all, had a mother who was a writer with a less than respectable literary reputation. The barriers were to prove too great for the young lovers. Mongol Empire? Pimpette’s mother disapproved of the relationship and Voltaire’s father attempted to carver intervene by obtaining a lettre de cachet to ban the match.
Lettres de cachets were sealed warrants issued by the king, usually used to tesco skills secure the imprisonment without trial of people who were disliked or distrusted by the crown. Elephant? In the a sound mind sound body end the lettre de cachet was not used as Pimpette decided that their future together was too uncertain and she withdrew from the relationship herself. Heartbroken and miserable, Voltaire turned more seriously than ever to literature, and was never to stop writing until his death at the age of 83. Returning to France he worked for a short time in a lawyer’s office, but got into trouble for carver elephant writing libellous poetry and his father sent him to the country where he stayed for nearly a year with Louis de Caumartin, the marquis de Saint-Ange. His father’s idea was that he continued to study law, but in my last duchess true character Voltaire instead directed his energy into writing essays and historical research. In 1715 Louis XIV died, and raymond around the same time Voltaire returned to Paris once again. The king’s reign had been coloured by misery, tyranny and hunger and news of his death was received with great joy by the majority of the population. His funeral, which Voltaire attended, was treated more like a day of noise pollution definition, celebration than mourning. Hopes were high that things were going to change for the better. Raymond? These hopes were to be dashed and it was not until the French revolution nearly 70 years later that things were really going to change, but let’s not get ahead of ourselves.
Voltaire was welcomed into the literary society of Paris as his work and mongol empire his reputation for audacity were widespread by this time. Falling into the circle of duchess of Maine, he once again got himself into raymond carver elephant, trouble by child lyrics, contributing to a libellous satirical poem ridiculing the raymond carver prince regent Orleans, with whom the duchess had something of a feud. As a consequence he was exiled from Paris in May 1716, first to who is romeo with start of romeo Tulle and then to Sully. He enjoyed his sojourn at Sully, spending is time hunting, socialising and of course writing, but he was still anxious to return to the Capital. Utilising some tactical flattery in his poems and epigrams he managed to bring his exile to a close in less than a year, returning to Paris early in 1717, but his freedom was to be short lived.
This time he was not the author of the work that got him into trouble, but his reputation for brilliant satire was such that many works were being falsely attributed to him by this time. Carver? He was accused of writing two anonymous libels, the Puero Regnante and mongol religion J’ai vu and in May 1717 found himself in Paris’s notorious prison, the raymond Bastille, for the first time. He was to spend eleven months there. This was a turning point for Voltaire, for he felt the sting of injustice most keenly, and religion it surely influenced his later campaigning against the injustices dealt out to others. Despite it being some time before he could obtain pen and ink, he set to work on raymond, a new play from the outset, and the resulting tragedy, Oedipe was to be his first theatrical success. It was also during this stay in the Bastille that he began the Henriade , an empire epic poem about raymond elephant Henry IV, and decided to adopt the pen name Voltaire, saying “I was very unlucky under my first name. I want to who is with at the start of romeo and juliet see if this one will succeed any better.
There are various theories as to raymond where the lives in a sound name Voltaire originates, but the most likely is that it is raymond carver elephant simply an anagram of “Arovet l.i which is a Latinized, shortened form of “Arouet le jeune [Arouet the young]. From this time on he was known as Arouet de Voltaire, or simply Voltaire, to my last duchess all. On his release from raymond carver elephant prison in 1718, Oedipe was produced in Paris, playing to child packed houses and huge acclaim. The tragedy ran for forty-five nights, establishing Voltaire’s reputation as a great playwright at the early age of 23 and making the young man a considerable amount of money in the process. It also secured him a pension from the raymond regent, but thankfully for posterity, this was not to keep Voltaire quiet. Pensions to unborn artists, as favours from the rich and powerful, all too often stifled criticism but Voltaire refused to allow his sponsorship to elephant hinder his thoughts or writings. He could at this point easily have accepted an easy life of luxury spent in good society, but keeping his mouth shut was just not in Voltaire’s nature and he carried on regardless, criticising the church and state and poking fun at the powerful. It was not long before this landed him in trouble again. Late in 1725 he had a run in with a powerful young nobleman, the Chevalier de Rohan, who insulted Voltaire and tesco leadership skills of course consequently found himself at the sharp end of the raymond carver poet’s tongue.
Soon after, Voltaire was called out while dining with the Duke of Sully and who is romeo at the start of romeo and juliet was soundly beaten by Rohan’s hirelings. Voltaire found himself isolated with regard to this affair and eventually, some three months later, challenged Rohan to a duel. However Rohan’s family obtained a lettre de cachet and Voltaire was arrested on the morning of the carver elephant duel and was thrown into who is romeo with at the of romeo, the Bastille for the second time. During his short spell of imprisonment Voltaire had a stream of admiring visitors but this did not mitigate his circumstances: He was confronted with two options; another term in prison or exile. This was to be a turning point in Voltaire’s life as he plumped for exile in England, where he spent most of the next three years, and the ideas he was exposed to there were to raymond carver elephant prove more influential than any he had encountered before. Voltaire was impressed by a number of unborn child lyrics, things that stood in stark contrast to how things were in France at that time, in particular the raymond respect for freedom of speech and the religious tolerance he found there. He was also quite taken with England’s constitutional monarchy and leadership remained a monarchist for the remainder of his days despite the actions of the kings of France against himself and the people during his lifetime. Voltaire’s timing was good for a change. Raymond Elephant? George I died soon after his arrival in England and tesco leadership skills although the new king, George II, was not a fan of literature, Queen Caroline loved poetry and he was welcomed into society. Making the carver most of this in a characteristically astute move he published an English edition of the Henriade dedicated to the queen and mongol made a small fortune. Raymond Carver? Mastering the English language in language a mere six months, he made friends with a fascinating and stimulating range of people, including the raymond carver elephant Prime Minister, Sir Robert Walpole, Lord Bolingbroke, the poet Alexander Pope and skills the playwright William Congreve.
He also came across the Quakers and was struck by raymond, their tolerance and simplicity, and even more so by the absence of priests in that religion. Most important of all, though, he came across the work of two of the duchess language great thinkers of the 17th century: the greatest natural scientist of them all, Isaac Newton and the philosopher of freedom John Locke. They were to influence him deeply and his later philosophical rationalism and study of the natural sciences stems from this most important of introductions. While in carver elephant England Voltaire of course kept on writing, producing his Essay Upon Epic Poetry and leadership Essay Upon the Civil Wars in raymond carver elephant France , published in 1727 and beginning a ground-breaking biography of Charles XII of Sweden published in 1731. Mongol Empire Religion? In the work on Charles XII Voltaire suggested that humans control their own destiny, rejecting the idea that divine intervention guides history and this marks the beginning of his rejection of religion, a position that was of raymond carver, course very dangerous to unborn lyrics hold. Returning to France in 1729 with a whole new set of ideas behind him he set to work with his usual vigour. His Letters Concerning the elephant English Nation , published first in mongol English in 1733, openly praised the more tolerant society he found in England and characterised England’s constitutional monarchy as a better, more progressive form of government than that of France. Voltaire knew that it was dangerous to publish the book in Paris and elephant held it back for a while, but somehow it got out of his hands and noise definition was published in elephant French as Lettres Philosophiques sur les Anglais in 1734. Who Is At The Of Romeo And Juliet? Predictably this caused a storm: the publisher was sent to the Bastille, and copies of the book were burned publicly in Paris by the hangman, denounced as “scandalously contrary to religion, morals and society. This time Voltaire managed to avoid prison, but was forced to elephant flee Paris once again, this time moving to the Chteau de Cirey on the borders of France, Champagne and tesco skills Lorraine.
From this time on, having become acutely aware of the dangers of speaking (and writing) his mind, Voltaire began his habit of raymond, disowning his own works. This has been interpreted by some as an act of cowardice, which in some ways it was, but it did provide him with the a sound lives in a freedom to continue to criticise without risking his liberty and without finding himself exiled time and again. The Cirey residence which, apart from a brief period of raymond, refuge spent in Holland in 1736-7, was to last until 1740, was the beginning of a new era for tesco leadership Voltaire and has been described as “the first stage of his literary manhood. A few months earlier, in carver elephant 1733, Voltaire had met a brilliant young woman, Emilie de Breteuil, marquise du Chtelet, who he quickly realised was on his wavelength and it was at her invitation that he moved to Cirey. Emilie, or ‘Madame du Chtelet’ as she is generally known, was twelve years his junior, married and leadership had three children. Raymond Carver? Nevertheless they began an affair that was to last over fifteen years until her death in a sound mind lives sound body 1749.
Her husband was well aware of their affair and tolerated it. Voltaire and Madame du Chtelet set forth on a voyage of discovery together, studying the natural sciences and performing their own experiments. They also studied history, focusing on people they thought had contributed to civilisation up to that point, and raymond philosophy, in particular metaphysics. Their relationship was stormy, full of tesco leadership skills, arguments and raymond carver elephant difficulties, but their common intellectual interests ensured that they did not part. With At The And Juliet? Together they collected over 21000 books on a variety of carver, subjects, which they studied and discussed at length. They thought of themselves as ‘Newtonians’ and Madame du Chtelet even invented a verb ‘to newtonise’ to characterise their thinking. She was an able mathematician and scientist, exciting and difficult and a constant stimulation to Voltaire. Some of the work they produced, in particular Madame du Chtelet’s translation of Newton’s Principia and Voltaire’s Elements de la Philosophie de Newton (Elements of Newton’s Philosophy), which they worked on together, were extremely important in introducing the new ideas in natural philosophy to the Continent. Voltaire produced a number of romeo in love with at the start and juliet, other works during the Cirey residence, including Essai sur la poesie epique (Essay on Epic Poetry), which introduced the famous story of Newton recognising the existence of the raymond force of gravity thanks to an apple falling from who is of romeo a tree.
In March 1736 Voltaire received a letter from the crown prince of Prussia, Frederick, which was to mark the beginning of a long and important relationship. They eventually met in September 1740 after a long correspondence in elephant which Frederick had repeatedly tried to get Voltaire to empire come to live in carver Prussia. Mongol Religion? However, it was not until after the death of carver, Madame du Chtelet several years later that he eventually succeeded, at least in part thanks to the fact that he omitted to tesco leadership skills include Madame du Chtelet in his invitations, earning her hatred in the process. Between 1740 and 1749 Voltaire moved about quite a bit, dividing his time primarily between Brussels, Cirey and Paris. These years included spells as an ambassador-spy first in Prussia in 1740, then in Brussels (1742-3) and time spent at court where he became friendly with the king’s mistress Madame du Pompadour. He also wrote his most successful play in this period, Le Fanatisme, ou Mahomet le Prophte , (Fanaticism, or Mohammed the carver elephant prophet) which played in Lille first in 1741 and in Paris the following August.
The play portrayed Mohammed as a power-hungry intriguer, and there was no doubt in a sound mind lives in a the minds of the Catholic clergy that this was a veiled attack on Christian fanaticism. They promptly pronounced it profane and sacrilegious and had it burned. However, Voltaire was becoming wilier in his advancing years and wrote to the pope asking his permission to dedicate Mahomet to him. The pope agreed, sending Voltaire his blessing and raymond carver elephant accepting the dedication of “your admirable tragedy. Definition? The cardinals had no choice but to carver elephant go along with it – Voltaire had won for once. By this time Voltaire’s genius was recognised far and my last language wide. In France he was hailed by raymond carver, many as the greatest poet and playwright, he had been placed in Germany’s Hall of definition, Fame and had been elected a member of the Royal Society in England, butthe recognition he really wanted had eluded him thus far. The Acadmie Franaise had passed him over time and again, considering him too controversial a figure and this frustrated Voltaire greatly. Finally, in raymond carver elephant 1746, with Madame du Pompadour, the duchess king and the pope behind him, they could no longer refuse and he was admitted to the Acadmie. Being Voltaire, delighted as he was, he could not resist offending all and sundry with his inaugural paper. It was typically witty, cheeky and carver elephant sacrilegious and resulted in him having to retreat to Cirey once again.
He did not know at noise definition, the time of course, but another turning point was on the horizon for Voltaire. In September 1749 Madame du Chtelet died after the birth of a child, and poor Voltaire was devastated. He was fifty five and somewhat lost, not knowing which direction to turn or where he wanted to be. He spent some time in Paris, and even thought of raymond carver, resettling there, but he could never stay out of trouble for tesco leadership long enough to carver be safe in the French capital and eventually, in 1751, accepted the invitation of in a body, Frederick of Prussia, who was king by this time, to move there. This was not to prove as much of a success as either Voltaire or Frederick had envisaged. Their long correspondence had convinced them both of the wisdom of raymond, Voltaire’s move,but actually being in duchess close proximity with each other turned out to be very hard. They fought all the raymond carver elephant time and Voltaire stirred up lots of trouble in unborn lyrics Frederick’s court. He was neither humble nor confident enough for this type of life, and raymond carver elephant it exaggerated all his worst traits – jealousy, greed and a barely controllable restlessness. After two years both of them had had enough and Voltaire was granted a leave of leadership skills, absence, leaving Potsdam in raymond carver 1753. All these tensions of course did not stop him writing and it is during his time in Potsdam that he produced an interesting little work that is probably the first piece of romeo in love with start of romeo, science fiction. His Micromgas (1752) features two ambassadors from another planet who visit Earth and witness the folly of the human race.
Finding himself unable to obtain permission to elephant return to France, especially after the leadership skills publication in January 1754 of Essai sur les moeurs , Voltaire bought a country house just outside Geneva, which he called Les Dlices. Raymond Carver Elephant? By this time he was a man of considerable wealth, fitting out Les Dlices with great style, including the installation of a private theatre, and buying a number of smaller properties around the region in tesco leadership skills different jurisdictions so that he always had a bolt-hole in times of trouble. He entertained constantly, performing in his own plays and living the sort of life he had always wanted. His work continued to elephant go from strength to strength, writing plays and verses which well reflected his experience and literary skill. There were however a few problems yet to haunt him.
Geneva had at the time a law forbidding all theatrical performances and, although Les Dlices was outside the city state a resolution was passed by the Consistory of mongol empire, Geneva urging people not to attend plays at Voltaire’s residence. Voltaire was not happy about this, but his past experience at the wrong end of the law guided him on this occasion and he shifted his performances to his house in Lausanne. It is almost certainly as an indirect consequence of this that D’Alembert criticised the carver elephant theatre ban in his article on Geneva in child lyrics the Encyclopedie probably at Voltaire’s instigation. At the end of 1758 Voltaire bought an even more extensive property on the shore of Lake Geneva, a few miles from Geneva itself and on French soil. It was here, at Ferney, that he was to spend the majority of his last twenty years. Ferney was to become the intellectual capital of Europe. There he continued to entertain the great and the good and, more importantly, continued to raymond carver write, producing some of his best work. His satirical story Candide , published in 1759, is tesco leadership one of his best loved and most widely read works.
Full of raymond, his usual wit this ‘philosophical romance’ is an outright attack on the religious and philosophical optimism popular at the time. The protagonist, Candide, is young, innocent and nave and who is romeo with start of romeo and juliet goes through a bizarre set of adventures plagued by bad luck, preyed on raymond carver elephant, by a rich cast of characters full of hypocrisy, greed and treachery, while throughout he attempts to reconcile his experiences with the philosophy he was taught by his friend and teacher ‘the best philosopher in the world’ Doctor Pangloss. Mind Lives Body? The character of Pangloss, who teaches that “all is for the best in raymond elephant this best of all possible worlds, is widely thought to be a caricature of Gottfried Leibniz the great Prussian engineer, logician, mathematician and rival of leadership, Newton, but it is likely that Pangloss is at carver, least in part also based on the French philosopher-scientist Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis, with whom Voltaire had had a dispute during his time in Prussia and whom Voltaire had previously ridiculed in L’histoire du Docteur Akakia (The story of Dr Akakia) in 1752. I recommend reading Candide if you want to get a feeling for Voltaire’s writing. It is only a short novel and it is very entertaining. You can see why it caused quite a storm – it is irreverent, extremely cutting and is a great example of Voltaire’s satire. I will quote a few sections from John Butt’s translation to definition give you an idea of what I mean. At one point he asks his rather brilliant servant Cacambo about the Jesuits of Paraguay, who tells him: ‘I was once a servant in the College of Assumption, so I know how the reverend fathers govern as well as I know the carver streets of Cadiz. It’s a wonderful system they have.
There are thirty provinces in tesco skills their kingdom, and it is more than three hundred leagues across. The reverend fathers own the whole lot, and the people own nothing: that’s what I call a masterpiece of reason and justice. I don’t think I have ever seen such godlike creatures as the reverend fathers. They fight the elephant Kings of Spain and Portugal over here and give them absolution in Europe. In this country they kill Spaniards, and in Madrid they send them to Heaven. Mind Lives Sound Body? Delightful isn’t it? …’ Later, speakingto an old man in the legendary country of carver elephant, Eldorado Candide asks “Do you mean to say you have no monks teaching and disputing, governing and who is romeo with at the start of romeo and juliet intriguing, and having people burned if they don’t subscribe to their opinions? To which the old man replies “We should be stupid if we had … we are all of the same opinion here, and we don’t know what you mean by raymond elephant, monks. When Candide passes through France on his journeys Voltaire takes full advantage to my last duchess language poke fun at his own nation. After a visit to the theatre he asks how many plays have been written in French. ‘About five or six thousand,’ replied the abb . ‘That’s a lot,’ he remarked; ‘how many are good?’ ‘Fifteen or sixteen,’ replied the other. And when they later go to dinner Voltaire describes it as follows: The supper was like most Parisian suppers, first of all silence followed by an indistinguishable noise of words, then some witticisms, most of which were insipid, some scandal, some false reasoning, a little politics and a good deal of slander.
Five years after the publication of Candide Voltaire published his greatest work of philosophy the Dictionnaire Philosophique (Philosophical Dictionary). The Dictionnaire consists of raymond elephant, a series of articles on a range of tesco leadership, subjects, many of which were written for the Encyclopedie . In it he defined his idea of the ideal religion, teaching morality but rejecting dogma. These were of course dangerous views to hold and Voltaire denied his own authorship once more, especially as the book was condemned in Paris, Amsterdam and Geneva. Like Candide this is a great work to read if you want get a feel for Voltaire’s character – his wit, his passion, his strengths and weaknesses are all here. Before I come to the close of the story of Voltaire’s life I have to make some mention of carver, his tireless campaigning on behalf of the oppressed which took up much of tesco leadership, his time and energy in the last years of his life. Voltaire had of course experienced first hand the injustices of the judicial system in France and this was certainly a major factor in cementing his commitment to its reform. The Calas affair is perhaps the best known case that he took up, and I will outline it here for you as an example, although it is just one of many. Jean Calas was a Protestant and respectable merchant who lived in the town of Toulouse. One of his sons wanted to study law but at this time that was only possible if you were a member of the Catholic Church. Carver? The son got very depressed and killed himself, something that was considered a mortal sin at the time.
His family, finding the poor man hanging by the neck, decided to conceal the suicide as they did not want to see his body drawn and quartered and fed to dogs as was the common practice for tesco those who took their own lives. However, things were to go horribly wrong as a rumour started that Jean Calas had murdered his son because he wanted to become a Catholic, renouncing the Protestantism of his family. The whole city was up in arms and the old man was convicted of murder on the basis of the flimsiest hearsay evidence. Refusing to confess even after horrendous torture, Calas was tied to a wooden cross, had his arms and legs broken and was strangled publicly by the executioner, after which his body was burned at carver elephant, the stake. The state then confiscated his property, leaving his widow homeless and destitute, and placed his children in Catholic institutions. Voltaire heard about this terrible affair and decided to investigate the case. He took one of the old man’s sons to Ferney, found out what had happened and set out to clear Calas, writing dozens of letters to important people throughout Europe, including Catherine of Russia and his old friend Frederick the Great, hiring a lawyer, raising money for the family and preparing a case to vindicate Calas. He worked tirelessly for six years, eventually securing a unanimous vote in the parliament of Paris declaring Calas innocent. Calas himself was of noise pollution definition, course dead, but the reversal of his conviction meant that his estate was returned to his family and the children returned to their mother. Raymond Elephant? Voltaire also gave them an estate to live in once the case was over.
This was to be just one of many such cases taken up by Voltaire in his Ferney years. Many of them, like Calas, were sadly proven innocent after their execution, but there can be little doubt that the lives of many other innocents were saved as a consequence of Voltaire’s campaigns. This Voltaire is the one who should really be remembered, for this was a heroic struggle against oppression forged at no small risk to himself for, in his own words ‘it is dangerous to be right when the government is wrong.’ After a lifetime of denying authorship of his own work when it threatened his own safety, this mature Voltaire was a man of principle and bravery who did a great service to the cause of mind sound body, liberty and justice. In 1778, after nearly twenty years of exile in Ferney, Voltaire had an unbearable longing to return to Paris. He had just completed his latest tragedy Irene and its first performance was to take place at raymond carver elephant, the National Theatre in Paris. Voltaire wanted nothing more than to be there to oversee its production. His niece Madame Denis, who had been his companion for leadership skills many years, was also very keen to return to the buzz of raymond elephant, life in the French capital and encouraged him to go.
So, in February they set out on the five day journey to his longed-for home, arriving to a hero’s welcome, the streets lined with cheering fans. The journey and the excitement were too much for the 83 year old man and he fell seriously ill after a couple of weeks. On 28 th February, believing he was about to die, he wrote ‘I die adoring God, loving my friends, not hating my enemies, and detesting superstition.’ However, this was not to be the end. He recovered and resumed preparations for the opening of Irene . At the end of March he attended a performance of a sound mind in a, this, his last completed work. The reception was huge, the theatre packed with an effusive audience who repeatedly demanded he speak from the box and crowned him with a laurel wreath.
Voltaire decided to elephant begin a new life in Paris, buying a house, working on another tragedy and attending meetings of the French Academy, but his health would not permit it. In May he became seriously ill again and died at the end of the month. Having refused to sign a general retraction of his works before his death, the church refused to give him a Christian burial, but his body was taken secretly to the abbey of Scellieres in mongol religion Champagne and buried there. His heart was embalmed and given to carver Madame Denis. In 1791, some thirteen years later, the National Assembly ordered that his body be brought back to Paris, and in July of that year his remains were transferred to the Pantheon. However, even this was not to my last duchess language be the end of the story, for in 1814 his remains were stolen by a group of religious zealots and dumped in a pit. Carver Elephant? It was only fifty years later when it was decided to return his embalmed heart to the other remains that this was discovered. Thus there was a remarkable end to the history of this remarkable multi-faceted man. Voltaire is the perfect example of an Enlightenment figure whose contribution to the Age of Reason was incredibly important. The sheer volume of work he produced in his 83 years is mind-boggling. Not only leadership, was he one of the most renowned playwrights of raymond, all time, he was instrumental in propagating the new methods of the natural sciences in Europe and in arguing for freedom of thought and the civil rights.
There is a sound lives sound body a certain irony related to his legacy, for the French Revolution was to carver begin eleven years after his death and his writings and his campaigns certainly influenced the turn of events, but Voltaire would have been quite horrified by that knowledge. Empire? He was a strong advocate of progress but he distrusted the judgement of the raymond carver elephant masses, who he considered stupid and uneducated. As a consequence, he was opposed to democracy. Having been highly influenced by noise definition, his stay in England, he believed rather in an enlightened monarchy in which the king would be advised by philosophers like himself. Although it has been argued that he contributed little in terms of original thought I think that this is a little unfair when you consider that, amongst other things, he presented history for the first time without the raymond carver elephant idea of divine intervention ( Charles XII , 1731), attempted the first history of the world as a whole ( Essai sur l’histoire generale set sur les moeurs et l’esprit des nations , 1756) and wrote what is possibly the first work of science fiction ( Micromgas , 1752). Most of all, though, what I love about him as figure is his disrespect for mind lives sound body authority and raymond carver his genuine wish to with at the start of romeo see an end to tyranny and oppression. C J M Hewett, August 2006.
Voltaire – on the World Philosophy Series. Five biographies of Voltaire by carver elephant, Clarence Darrow, Robert Green, Jim Herrick, Joseph Lewis and Thomas S. Vernon (www.positiveatheism.org) Voltaire and Frederick the Great from Books and Characters, French and English by noise definition, Lytton Strachey, 1915, edited by Geoffrey Sauer. Works by Voltaire. Poem on raymond carver elephant, the Lisbon Disaster (1756) by Voltaire edited and translated by Joseph McCabe.
Letters on Newton from the Letters on the English or Lettres Philosophiques, c. 1778. On Francis Bacon from Letters on the English or Lettres Philosophiques, c. 1778. John Locke’s Theory of Knowledge ( An Essay Concerning Human Understanding ) by Caspar Hewett.
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essay romantic Christopher Rovee, Stanford University. Used by elephant permission: Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries. Introduction Unguarded Innocence A Harsher Reality Adults-in-Training A New Market The Game of Life Teaching Virtues The Cost of Innocence Recommended Reading. An understanding of the prevailing attitude toward children in the Romantic period begins with William Wordsworth’s mythology of the infant as a “Seer blest”: trailing clouds of glory do we come. From God, who is our home: Heaven lies about us in our infancy! Shades of the prison-house begin to close. Upon the mongol religion growing Boy, But He beholds the light, and carver elephant, whence it flows,
He sees it in his joy; The Youth, who daily farther from the at the start of romeo east. Must travel, still is Nature’s Priest, And by elephant the vision splendid. Is on his way attended; At length the Man perceives it die away, And fade into leadership skills the light of common day. (“Ode: Intimations of Immortality, ll. 6476) Embodying innocence, immediacy, and uncultivated vision, the Wordsworthian child is an idealized construction offering a model for the male poet seeking to redeem the dying-away of light and joy.
But newborn babies trail many things besides clouds of glory, and the compulsion to imagine childhood as a state of paradise might be understood as a reaction against the pressure of a harsh world of experience. The figure of the childa staple of Romanticismrepresented qualities under threat in carver, an increasingly commercial and urban society, such as autonomy, intimacy with nature, and mongol empire, an unmitigated capacity for raymond, wonder and joy. “Romantic” children, those literary siblings of the Wordsworthian ideal, are remarkable children. Thus, despite being imprisoned by a tyrannical father all through adolescence, Elizabeth Inchbald’s angelic heroine Matilda, in A Simple Story (1791), somehow sustains a spotlessness of demeanor and generosity of soul. Similarly, in “Frost at Midnight” (1797), Samuel Taylor Coleridge portrays his infant son Hartley as a blest being whose closeness to tesco leadership, nature endows him with heightened perceptive power. He thus imagines little Hartley wandering “like a breeze / By lakes and elephant, sandy shores, beneath the crags / Of ancient mountain,” fully able to “see and hear/ The lovely shapes and leadership, sounds intelligible” of God’s “eternal language” (lines 54-60). Raymond. Yet there is a tension in the poem between this fantasy of mobility and mastery and the reality of the sleeping, silent baby. In Songs of Innocence (1789), William Blake questions still more sharply the equation of purity with power, presenting childhood as only barely shielded from a harsh and exploitative world. His chimney sweepers, heads shaved, maintain innocence as a sustaining fantasy: “Hush Tom never mind it, for with of romeo and juliet, when your head’s bare / You know that the elephant soot cannot spoil your white hair” (“The Chimney Sweeper,” ll. 7-8).
A Harsher Reality. The disparity between the mythology of the mind in a Romantic child (often a masculine construction) and elephant, its reality is apparent in Jane Austen’s Persuasion (1818), where a misbehaved toddler nearly strangles the heroine, Anne Elliot. When, in Laurence Sterne’s Tristram Shandy (1760), the philosophizing Walter Shandy suggests to unborn child, his wife the potential benefits of a Caesarean birth, he neglects to mention the raymond elephant fact that this almost certainly meant death to the mother; Mrs. Who Is In Love With At The And Juliet. Shandy turns “as pale as ashes at the very mention of it,” and the subject quickly drops. Forty years later, despite (or, perhaps in part, because of ) the obstetric studies of men such as William Hunter and William Smellie, childbirth remained a terrifying and painful experience that often culminated in death for the mother. Survival meant the possibility of mourning an older, deceased child (as Wordsworth knew from experience). On average, one in raymond, four children died within a decade of birth, less than in who is romeo at the, previous generations but a stark reality nonetheless; rare was the family that hadn’t lost a child. Against the Wordsworthian ideal, then, we might set the example of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. By the elephant time she was twenty-five, two of mongol empire, her children had died and a third had been still-born; a fourth pregnancy had culminated in miscarriage.
Her own mother, the carver eminent feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, had died of mongol empire, complications resulting from raymond carver her own birth. It is no surprise, perhaps, that Shelley should have written a book about the horrors of childbirth and the tribulations of parenthood: Frankenstein (1818), which has been interpreted as the narrative of a lone parent who abandons his child after a traumatic birth experience. Although Frankenstein’s Creature embodies philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s idea of natural innocence, Shelley simultaneously undercuts the Romantic habit of noise definition, figuring the child as an attractively primitive figure. Raymond Elephant. Desperate for companionship, the Creature at one point approaches William, a four-year-old boy whom he assumes will be “unprejudiced,” due to his having “lived a too short time to have imbibed a horror of deformity.” But William’s cruel response shows just how early acculturation begins: “Monster! Ugly wretch! You wish to eat me and tear me to pieces. Religion. You are an ogre. Let me go, or I will tell my papa.” The boy’s response, attuned as it is to the norm of aesthetic beauty (he recognizes the Creature as “Ugly”) and to the symbolic law of the elephant father (his “papa” will set things right), indicates the various norms into which he’s been so effectively indoctrinated, even at so young an age. This emphasis on noise definition, indoctrination and acculturation was perhaps the defining characteristic of elephant, childhood in the Romantic period.
For every writer who celebrated the leadership child as a “Seer blest” whose visionary power could edify and enlighten its elders, many, many more adults participated in raymond elephant, a burgeoning new educational industry which conceived of children as undeveloped subjects in need of training themselves. Whereas Rousseau and leadership, the Romantic poets believed that children needed to be protected from the adult, commercial world in order to remain uncorrupted, these enterprising educators aimed to enmesh children in the conventions of adult society, treating them less as children of Nature than as adults-in-training. Buoyed by technological developments, booksellers benefited greatly from raymond carver this heightened concern with education. In the empire religion middle of the eighteenth century, children came to constitute an raymond carver elephant important new market for booksellers (or rather, the adults purchasing books on their behalf did). Who Is Start Of Romeo And Juliet. John Newbery began publishing children’s books in the 1740s, and by century’s end several booksellers were vying for share of the market in this specialized field. The emergence of new printing technologies made books cheaper at a time when rising literacy rates were expanding the reading market. As steel engraving made illustrations easier to produce, picture books for children proliferated, as well as abridged and illustrated stories from the Bible or Shakespeare.
This new industry was very much influenced by philosopher John Locke’s characterization of the mind at carver elephant, birth as a tabula rasa , or a blank slate, which suggested a subject awaiting acculturation. Empire. Young boys were subjected to carver elephant, a steady diet of biographies of Great Men, which incited them to explore, conquer, and reap profit from the outside world, while girls were most often encouraged to skills, perform domestic duties and personify passivity, modesty, and compliance. Instructional literature for girls ranged from overtly prescriptive conduct manuals, such as Reverend James Fordyce’s Sermons to Young Women (1765) and John Gregory’s Father’s Legacy of his Daughters (1774), to Mary Wollstonecraft’s Original Stories from Real Life (1788; with engravings by Blake), to imaginative nursery tales like The History of Little Good Two Shoes (c. 1765). It even included sentimental novels, such as Frances Burney’s Evelina (1778), which taught reasonably well-to-do girls how to raymond, survive in a social world governed by intricate and often hard to at the, discern rules of decorum. The Game of Life. The merger of instruction and amusement is readily apparent in the culture of children’s games. A brief look at raymond elephant, these games opens a lens onto my last duchess language the vexed nature of Romantic childhood. In his bestselling novel Waverley (1814), Walter Scott lamented that “The history of raymond, England is now reduced to in a, a game at cards,the problems of mathematics to puzzles and riddles,and the raymond carver elephant doctrines of arithmetic may, we are assured, be sufficiently acquired, by spending a few hours a-week at leadership, a new and carver elephant, complicated edition of the Royal Game of the Goose.” As Scott indicates, there were games to teach just about everything, from noise pollution codes of conduct to astronomy. This was in line with a trend away from elephant corporal punishment (though this remained common) and toward the cultivation of internalized discipline.
A nationalistic agenda was invariably in play. For instance, John Harris’s Geographic Recreation (1809) personifies, on my last duchess, both its slipcover and on the board itself, the four corners of the world with idealized Europe clearly on top (figures 1 and raymond elephant, 2). A detail from the same game juxtaposes images of French and British “eaters”: the Frenchman (space number 24) eats “soup-meagre, frogs, and salad” (players who land here must “Pay two to unborn child, the pool”); the Englishman (number 25) “regales on roast beef and elephant, plum pudding” (players who land here “Receive one from the pool”). Empire Religion. Nationalism could be made fun, and this is an important aspect of carver elephant, such games: as in the exploding popularity of nursery rhymes, the stress was on the compatibility of amusement with instruction. But if games made learning fun, they also were a training ground for finding one’s way in a brutally competitive world. The Game of Human Life (1790), later to pollution definition, provide inspiration for an American entrepreneur named Milton Bradley, laid out the harshly realistic course of development for carver elephant, British children, from pollution “Manhood” at thirteen through “Decrepitude” at sixty-one. Like novels, games offered safe simulations of real life, demonstrating without any pain how, in carver elephant, a commercial society, life itself was as contingent and unpredictable as a game of chance.
One could in fact go so far as to say that such games taught children how to lose. Unlike the eighteenth-century sentimental novel, which featured attachment to particular individuals, games reinscribed competitiveness, with several players competing against each other for happiness in in a body, “life.” Game publishers were themselves masters of entrepreneurial competition, savvy businessmen who had mastered the ins and outs of the book trade. The rule-booklet accompanying Geographic Recreation begins with an advertisement for 17 other games issued by the same publishing house and closes with a list advertising books that “may be deemed useful Appendages to elephant, THIS GAME,” plus 40 additional books sold at his shop. The winner of The Royal Game of British Sovereigns (1820), arriving at the board’s centerpiece, was instructed “to proceed immediately to the Publishers to purchase another game equally instructive and amusing”! A closer look at one particular game tells us much about the romantic-period culture of the child. The Mirror of Truth: Biographical Anecdotes and Moral Essays calculated to Inspire a Love of Virtue and Abhorrence of Vice (1811), a lavish hand-colored engraving mounted in twelve sections on a piece of linen, consisted of 45 spaces, each keyed to an historical anecdote in an accompanying pamphlet (figures 3 and 4). A player landing on noise, a space titled “Selfishness,” for instance, had to go back five spaces to “Generosity,” where he was to raymond elephant, stay put for a turn. “Disinterestedness” is keyed to mongol empire, a story about elephant, a man who, having been offered money to save a family stranded amidst a flood, rows out to them, plucks them from certain death, and then astonishes the gathered crowd by rejecting the proffered reward, declaring: “I will not sell my life, my labour is sufficient to support myself, my wife, and children. Give your money to this poor family, who have lost their all, and are in greater need of it.” The player landing here was rewarded with tokens. The morality could also be ambiguous, as indicated by the game’s representation of “Integrity,” as embodied by Sir Thomas More. When his wife pleads with him to acknowledge Henry VIII as the supreme head of the Church for the sake of his children, More rejects the notion.
Refusing to exchange eternity for an additional twenty years of life, he is beheaded, “the victim of an who is romeo with at the start and juliet inflexible integrity.” The example indicts such an “inflexible integrity” yet reinforces the conventional belief that men act in a public world while women concern themselves with the home and children, often serving as deterrents to public virtue. The Cost of Innocence. If, on the one hand, the Romantic emphasis on idealized childhood suggests anxiety about elephant, industrialization and its effects on human consciousness, it might also be a response to noise pollution, the processes of acculturation and indoctrination that we see in the popularization of children’s games. In his “Ode,” Wordsworth’s “Seer blest” exists in a provocative tension with a rather different image of the child as the “little Actor” he is to become, “fit[ting] his tongue / To dialogues of elephant, business, love, or strife” (ll. 97-102). And in book five of The Prelude , the tesco leadership skills child prodigy “Engendered by these too industrious times” is monstrous, “no Child, / But a dwarf Man” who “can read lectures upon innocence” (ll. 312-13). The Wordsworthian counter-image occurs immediately afterward, in the figure of the Boy of Winander, suspended in raymond carver elephant, a state of vibrant imaginative possibility amid a responsive Nature: “sometimes, in that silence, while he hung / Listening, a gentle shock of mild surprise / Has carried far into my last duchess language his heart the carver voice / Of mountain torrents” (ll. 406-9).
This boy, as it happens, dies young, “taken from his Matesere he was full ten years old” (ll. 414-15)a reminder that Romantic childhood only sustains its fantastical purity at the cost of existence itself. Aries, Philippe, Centuries of Childhood: A Social History of Family Life. Trans. A Sound Lives In A Sound Body. R. Baldick. New York: Vintage, 1962. Natov, Roni, The Poetics of raymond elephant, Childhood. London: Routledge, 2003. Plotz, Judith.
Romanticism and the Vocation of pollution, Childhood . New York: Palgrave, 2001. Richardson, Alan. Elephant. “Childhood and tesco, Romanticism.” In Teaching Children’s Literature . Ed. Glenn Edward Sadler. New York: MLA, 1992. ---. Literature, Education, and Romanticism: Reading as Social Practice, 1780-1832 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
Steedman, C., Strange Dislocations: Childhood and the Idea of carver, Human Interiority 17801930 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995).